Astronomy unit 2011 SUN EARTH MOON SYSTEM acloutier copyright


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Chapter 28 Sun Earth Moon System

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Astronomy unit 2011 SUN EARTH MOON SYSTEM acloutier copyright

  1. 1. Astronomy Unit Earth & Space Science Sandwich High School by Annie Cloutier copyright 2011
  2. 2. Sun - Earth - Moon System <ul><li>Earth’s rotation is the basis for human timekeeping </li></ul><ul><li>US Naval Observatory Clocks are set </li></ul><ul><li>to precise astronomical observations coordinated throughout the world </li></ul><ul><li>The Moon’s gravitational effect helps stabilize Earth’s position on its axis </li></ul>
  3. 3. Seasons on Earth <ul><li>The Earth’s axis is tilted at approximately 23.5 degree angle. </li></ul><ul><li>The northern hemisphere will be tilted towards the Sun for ~ 6 month </li></ul><ul><li>The other southern hemisphere is tiled away from the Sun for ~ 6 months. </li></ul><ul><li>a factor in creating the 4 seasons - winter spring summer fall </li></ul><ul><li>Earth is a spinning sphere every 24 hours it completes its rotation </li></ul>
  4. 4. Light from the Sun & the Spinning on its axis are the two most important factors for stabilizing the temperature on Earth
  5. 5. Solstices & Equinoxes <ul><li>Earth orbits around the Sun this is an Earth Year </li></ul><ul><li>It takes one year to complete the revolution or orbit ~365.37 days </li></ul><ul><li>Summer solstice the Sun is directly overhead in the Tropic of Cancer at 23.5 * north latitude ~ June 21 </li></ul><ul><li>Winter solstice the Sun is directly overhead in the tropic of Capricorn 23.5 * south latitude ~December 21 </li></ul><ul><li>Equinox is when the Sun is directly over the Equator and the Earth day is equal for both northern and southern hemispheres. Spring has the vernal equinox, Fall the autumnal equinox </li></ul>
  6. 6. The Sun’s Radiation Heats Earth
  7. 7. Light is electromagnetic radiation = electromagnetic spectrum > visible light infrared, ultraviolet radiation, microwaves, radio waves, X rays, gamma rays
  8. 8. Interferometry process of connecting separate telescopes together so they act as one telescope Greater detailed images increases as the distance between them increases Very Large Array Socorro, New Mexico these reflect radio waves to focus above dish then a receiver converts radio into electrical signals to store in a computer
  9. 9. Technology expanded the capabilities of humans to observe nature. Telescopes help us observe subject in astronomy with greater detail. More light can be collected by huge telescopes. Interferometry is the process of linking separate telescopes together= produce greater details combining images into one Photography and computers have help immensely too.
  10. 10. Spinoffs space exploration programs have benefited our society besides increasing our knowledge of space <ul><li>cordless tools </li></ul><ul><li>fuel pumps for space shuttle = a human artificial heart </li></ul><ul><li>commercial ( $) industry's have benefited immensely </li></ul><ul><li>freeze dried food </li></ul><ul><li>cell phones </li></ul><ul><li>computers </li></ul>
  11. 11. APOLLO Program 1969 NASA was responsible for landing humans on the Moon Neil Armstrong astronaut “small step for man, a giant leap for mankind” Buzz Aldrin Michael Collins
  12. 12. The Moon is about 3.8 – 4.6 BYBP Impact craters formed when objects (meteorites) crashed into the lunar surface. e jecta is the material blasted out of the impact crater The Moon was heavily bombarded the first 800 million years forming r egolith > a powdery loose ground up rock on the surface of the Moon Highlands are Moon mountains Maria is a “sea” of dark volcanic plains on the Moon
  13. 13. Lunar Eclipse & Solar Eclipse <ul><li>Lunar eclipse occur when the Moon passes through the Earth’s shadow </li></ul><ul><li>The maximum number of eclipses in a year solar and lunar is seven. Next time 2038. </li></ul><ul><li>Solar eclipse occur when the Moon partially or completely blocks the Sun’s disk as seen from Earth </li></ul>
  14. 14. Lunar Eclipse Sequence
  15. 15. Umbra the shadow Perigee closest point Moon comes to Earth Apogee farthest point Moon comes to Earth
  16. 16. Synchronous rotation of Moon and Earth is where the Moon’s rotation (turning on axis) is equal to orbit around Earth are equal Earth’s mass may be responsible for this causing the Moon to conform and complete only one rotation as it spins around the Earth <ul><li>We are always looking at the same side of the Moon from planet Earth ! </li></ul><ul><li>A lunar month is the time it takes the Moon to go from one full moon to another full moon </li></ul><ul><li>~29.5 days </li></ul><ul><li>This is longer than the 27.3 days it takes to make one full revolution or orbit around the Earth </li></ul>
  17. 17. Moon <ul><li>Ground-up rock surface made regolith known as soil on the Moon </li></ul><ul><li>near black smooth volcanic rock on lunar surface is called maria (sea’s) </li></ul><ul><li>craters are circular depressions made by objects crashing into Moon surface </li></ul><ul><li>rilles are valley like structures on the Moon’s surface </li></ul><ul><li>Mountains on the Moon are called highlands </li></ul><ul><li>Moon’s shadow is called the umbra </li></ul>Ouch ! I love cheese ! my vacation on the Moon was the best !
  18. 18. Planets in our Solar System no longer 9 <ul><li>Mercury </li></ul><ul><li>Venus </li></ul><ul><li>Earth </li></ul><ul><li>Mars </li></ul><ul><li>are the terrestrial planet </li></ul><ul><li>rock solid and closet to Sun </li></ul>
  19. 19. Gas and Fluid Giant Planets low density, large, ring system, many moons <ul><li>Jupiter </li></ul><ul><li>Saturn </li></ul><ul><li>Uranus </li></ul><ul><li>Neptune </li></ul>
  20. 20. Pluto considered a Dwarf Planetoid no longer considered a planet Half ice / half rock . Smaller than the Moon.
  21. 21. Scale of the Planets to the Sun
  22. 22. Asteroids, Comets and Meteorites <ul><li>Asteroids are rocky remnants of the early solar system </li></ul><ul><li>Most asteroids orbit between Mars and Jupiter </li></ul><ul><li>Comets are made of rock and ice </li></ul><ul><li>Comets have huge orbits around the Sun, to deep space, and generate a tail ( made of gas & dust ) when coming close to the Sun that moves at a 90 degree angle away from the Sun </li></ul>
  23. 23. Big Bang Theory proposed that the universe began as a single point and has expanded ever since.
  24. 24. The End