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Don Blanchet
3B Associates
03 April 2016
 There are literally thousands of studies that
have been performed to try to predict the
fatigue life of solder ball attachments on BGA
component packages.
 Many have been published.
 Presented here is a simplified first order
approach.
2
 Thermal cycle definition single cycle 20C –> 100C -> -45C –> 20C
 No pwb glass transition effects
 ¼ symmetry used to limit model size
 Linear solution
 Constant material properties over temperature
 Ball processing collapse included in the models
 Failure Criteria used : Cumulative Strain energy density – @ crack initiation
 From publish test data sources
 Solders SN63 and lead free SAC305
 All under fill materials bulk modulus of elasticity, Poisson’s ratio = 0.4 determined by
similarity to other organic materials.
Typical crack
initiation
BGA FEA underfll study
Expansion direction X
Expansion direction Y
Fixed center point
MLB , 1.5 x 1.5 x .100
Very large high CTE
Ceramic BGA
MLB
Allowed
bend
Solder ball field
Solder
Ball
detail
Under fill
With
fillet
High CTE ceramic
component
High mesh density
added
In highly stressed
Corner balls
part
Body
Material
Designated
Under fill
Under fill
Thickness, mm
BGA High CTE
ceramic
Ablefill
UF8807 0.40
BGA High CTE
ceramic
Loctite
3568 0.40
BGA High CTE
ceramic
Mereco
1650 0.40
BGA High CTE
ceramic
No
Under fill
Ball height
0.40
Material
Property
Pwb
FR-4
30%
cu
Eutectic
solder
SN63
SAC
305
Lead
free
solder
(flexible) (flexible) (rigid)
BGA
Body
ceramic
BGA
Body
Plastic
BT
epoxy
BGA
Body
Flip
chip
Silicon
CTE
ppm/ C
14 24.7 23.5 250 40 28 6.7 13 3
Elastic
Modulus
E, psi
3.5e0
6
2.03e06 2.50e06 250 200 1.5e06 32.0e06 3.5e06 16.3e06
Poisson’s
ratio
0.3 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.22 0.3 0.28
Under fill Materials
Board bending ~0.003 inches shown at 50X
BGA & under fill removed for clarity
Expansion shown
At 75X
CTE Stretch
Induces solder
tensile
stress
CTE mismatch
Induces solder
shear
stress
Ref
Undistorted
ball
Likely point
Of crack
formation
Joule/cu-meter
As strain energy exposure accumulates then cracks can form.
BGA FEA underfll study
part
Body
Material
Designated
Under fill
material
BGA High CTE
ceramic
Ablefill
UF8807
300 2000
BGA High CTE
ceramic
Loctite
3568
125 700
BGA High CTE
ceramic
Mereco
1650
180 1200
BGA High CTE
ceramic
No
underfill
200 1400
 For the specified temperature range per cycle the
predicted solder ball fatigue life ranges from:
 125 to 300 cycles for SN63 solder
 700 to 2000 cycles for SAC 305 solder
 The predictions are based on published test data for
measured cumulative strain energy density in
similar BGA’s.
 FYI : Published data for vibration testing indicate
that eutectic solder exhibits a longer life for BGAs.
The opposite of thermal cycling.
 Schematic diagram of SN63 solder stress/strain
behavior derived from Solidworks FEA
simulation.
 Stress strain behavior vs. temperature and strain
rate
 Hysteresis data from references
20C
100C
-45C
Yield
point
Yield
point
Area is proportional to strain
energy
Per thermal cycle
Take away
Faster rate stiffer
Higher temp softer
Much Like
taffy candy
Note: the simulation performed was a non-linear
visco-plastic model including creep .

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