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Principles of education and teaching learning process


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Principles of education and teaching learning process

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  3. 3.    The term education has its origin in the Latin words educo, educare & educatum. Etymologically, the word education is derived from the Latin words educo where e means ‘out of’ duco means ‘I lead.’ Accorsing to this view, education means ‘I lead out darkness into brightness’. 1/1/2014 3
  4. 4. Education means the training for the country & love for the nation. -Chanakya Education is realization of self -Shankaracharya Education is an all-round drawing out of the best in child & man-body, mind & spirit. -Mahatma Gandhi Education is the natural, harmonious & progressive development of man’s innate power. - Pestalozzi 1/1/2014 4
  5. 5. Nursing education is a professional education which is consciously & systematically planned & implemented through instruction & discipline & aims the harmonious development of the physical, intellectual, social, emotional, spiritual & aesthetic powers or abilities of the students in order to tender professional nursing care to people of all ages, in all phases of health & illness, in a variety of setting, in the best or highest possible manner. 1/1/2014 5
  6. 6. Aims given by different commissi ons Intellectu al aim Individual aim Social aim Aims of education Moral aim Spiritua l aim Vocatio nal aim Cultural aim 1/1/2014 6
  7. 7.  Individual aim: Development as an individual of a human being.  Moral & spiritual development.  Cultural development.  Harmonious development  Promote positive physical development  Development of a right personality  Development of good citizenship  Development of good leadership  Emotional & mental development  Character building, etc.  1/1/2014 7
  8. 8.   Social aim: Through education the individual child should be provided with the require assistance to become a useful member of the society, irrespective of the socioeconomic status.   Vocational aim: Education should prepare the child to earn his livelihood so that he can lead a productive life in the society.   Intellectual aim: Development of intelligence through education will enable the child to lead an independent life with confidence. 1/1/2014 8
  9. 9.    Cultural aim: By undergoing education child becomes cultured & civilized. Cultural development is through development of aesthetic sense & respect for others’ culture   Moral aim: Moral values like honesty, loyalty, tolerance, justice, self control & sincerity promote the social efficiency of an individual   Citizenship Education enable the children to grow as productive citizens by following the social & moral standards set by the society. 1/1/2014 9
  10. 10.   Physical health & well being: Education prepare the child to lead a healthy life through providing the knowledge required for a healthy living.   Character development: Education assist the child to develop certain human values, attitudes & habits which are essential for building a desirable character.   Education for leisure: Education prepares the child to use his leisure time for doing something useful. 1/1/2014 10
  11. 11.      Aims of education as stated by Secondary Education Commission Development of democratic citizenship Improvement of vocational efficiency Development of personality Development of qualities leadership 1/1/2014 11
  12. 12. • Harmonious development • Inculcating right attitude • Knowledge & skill aim • Emphasis on hightech-high-touch approach • Prepare students to take up a proactive role in nursing • Professional development • Assist to build a promising career • Social aim • citizenship • To prepare global nurses • Leadership aim 1/1/2014 12
  13. 13. Individual functions National functions Social functions 1/1/2014 13
  14. 14. Growth & development of individual Direction & guidance Preparation for adult life Conservation of traditional knowledge Transmission of culture Progressive development Achievement of self-sufficiency Holistic personality development Moral & character development Develop vocational efficiency Awareness of past & present & preparing for future 1/1/2014 14
  15. 15. Ensuring national development Promoting national integrity Continuous supply of skilled workforce Developing leaders for nation 1/1/2014 15
  16. 16. Improving social efficiency Civilization & cultural security Preparing good citizens Reform & progress of society 1/1/2014 16
  17. 17. 1/1/2014 17
  18. 18. The term philosophy has a Greek origin, i.e. philosophia, which is made up of two words, viz. phileo & .  Phileo means ‘love & sophia means ‘wisdom’.  The literal meaning of philosophy is ‘love of wisdom’ or ‘passion of learning’.  1/1/2014 18
  19. 19. Philosophy is the science of knowledge. - Fitch  Philosophy is the science of sciences. - Coleridge  Philosophy is a search for comprehensive view of nature, an attempt at a universal explanation of the nature of things. - Alfred Weber  1/1/2014 19
  20. 20. Educational philosophies Traditional philosophies Modern contemporary philosophies Perennialism Naturalism Essentialism Idealism Existentialism Pragmatism Reconstructionism Realism Progressivism 1/1/2014 20
  21. 21.    Naturalism Chief proponents: Rabindranath Tagore, Jean Jacques Rousseau, Johann Heinrich Concept: Educating the human generation about & in the nature rather than artificial environment by keeping in mind the individuality of each child. Organization & Aims of education: Nature is considered the classroom. Emphasis on open air schools to teach through direct experience with nature. 1/1/2014 21
  22. 22.   Curriculum: Basis of curriculum development was child’s nature, interest & needs. Stressed on subjects dealing with nature such as physics, chemistry, biology, language & mathematics. Tagore also stressed on teaching spiritual values of nature. Methods of Education: As natural as possible considering individual differences. Noble efforts for planned living with nature. Direct experience of nature through observation, excursion, experimentation, play-way. 1/1/2014 22
  23. 23.  Role of teacher: Teacher is an observe & facilitator of the child to develop in nature; teacher facilitates best possible natural environment for prompt learning.  Discipline: No emphasis on external rigid discipline; recommended free discipline to child in nature for optimum desired learning. 1/1/2014 23
  24. 24.    Idealism Chief proponents: Dr. Radhakrishan, Sir Auurobindo, Plato, Ross & Socrates Concept: It believes that the act of knowing takes place within the mind for three values, i.e. intellectual, aesthetic & moral values & the purpose of education is the development of the student’s mind & self Organization & Aims of Education: Well-planned formal classrooms or formal place of teachinglearning activity is recommended. 1/1/2014 24
  25. 25.   Curriculum: The basis of curriculum is inculcating intellectual, aesthetic & moral values or discipline. The intellectual value is represented by subjects such as language, literature, science, mathematics, history & geography; aesthetic through arts & poetry & moral through religion, ethics. Dr. Radhakrishan also advocated for physical education. Methods of Education: Idealism recommended formal classroom teaching methods such as lecture, discussion, presentation, & group interaction. Knowledge is transferred from the more mature person (teacher) to less mature person (pupil) through formal & well-planned teaching-learning methods. 1/1/2014 25
  26. 26.   Role of teacher: Teacher is considered as centre of education where pupil catches fire from teacher who is himself a flame teacher must be ideal & a role model for the child both intellectually & morally. The teacher should exercise great creative skills in providing opportunity for the pupil’s mind to discover, analyze, unify, synthesize & creative application of knowledge to life. Discipline: Idealism believes in interconnection of discipline & interest. Advocates discipline for selfrealization of individual. It does not favor rigid discipline but advocates spontaneous & self discipline. 1/1/2014 26
  27. 27.   Pragmatism Chief proponents: Williams James, John Dewey, Charles Sanders Pierce Concept: It considers self-activity as the basis of all teaching-learning processes in context of cooperative activity; to create optimistic men, who are the architects of their own fate by the process of their efforts. Education should be according to the child’s aptitudes & abilities; where he is respected & education is planned to cater to his inclinations & capacities. 1/1/2014 27
  28. 28.   Organization & Aims of Education: Aims of education is to teach one how to think so that one can adjust to an ever-changing society. In order to produce creative resourceful & adaptable children we should have conditions in the school which are conducive to the creation of these qualities of mind. Recommends formal schools to have activity oriented learning based on the needs, interest, aptitude & capabilities of the individual student. Curriculum: Pragmatists believe in a broad & diversified curriculum, which is composed of both content & process & subjects ranging from humanities to geography & science. 1/1/2014 28
  29. 29.    Methods of education: Teaching-learning process is a social process where the sharing of experiences between the teacher & the student takes place. Preferred methods are project method & activity oriented learning. Role of teacher: Role of a teacher is not that of a dictator or a task master but as a leader of group activities. Teacher acts as catalyst where he suggests a problem to students & stimulates them to find a solution. Teacher is a mentor with resources to guide the students Discipline: Pragmatism does not believe in traditional firm discipline. It advocates for freedom of self-discipline in a free & conducive teaching-learning environment. 1/1/2014 29
  30. 30.   Realism Chief proponents: Aristotle, Johann Friedrich Herbart, Herbert Spencer Concept: Realism makes the human being understand & enjoy society in the true sense by getting the multidimensional real joy of life in reality. It also aims for education to make the life of a man useful; where a man can enjoy his activities & comfort in reality. Education should equip individuals to a best possible meaningful life through vocational skills. 1/1/2014 30
  31. 31.   Organization & Aims of Education: Realism emphasizes on scientific attitude based on realistic principles, where the child can extend his knowledge, which he learns through books. It has given due emphasis on formal schools, which provides adequate opportunity for learners to learn the vocational skills through observation, experimentations & examinations. Curriculum: Selection of the curriculum for the students must based on their abilities, interest & capabilities so that education helps the student to adjust to changing circumstances of the society. It also emphasis on subject matter of real-life use such as science, mathematics, hygiene & vocational subjects. 1/1/2014 31
  32. 32.    Methods of Education: Realism believe in objectivity, knowledge of scientific evidences & reality. Methods of teaching should be according to needs, interest & capabilities of students. Vocational education should equip the individual with capacities to earn livelihood such as experimentation, examination & observation, etc. Role of Teacher: Teacher must focus on the development of vocational skills in the learners, so that they can be equipped with qualities of race preservation & vocational behavior activities. Teacher acts as a mentor, & must be a role model & skilled to demonstrate vocational skills to the learners Discipline: Realism believes in an optimum level of discipline without imposing undue stress on the learners 1/1/2014 32
  33. 33.   Perennialism Chief proponents: Thomas Aquinas, Robert Hutchins & Mortimer Adler Concept: Education ensures that students acquire an understanding about the great ideas of civilization. These ideas have the potential for solving problems in any era. The focus is to teach ideas that are everlasting to seek ensuring truths which are constant, as the natural & human worlds at their most essential level. 1/1/2014 33
  34. 34.   Organization & Aims of Education: The aim of education is to develop the rational person, who has intellectual abilities to uncover universal truth. Character training is also important for moral & spiritual development of an individual Curriculum: Accepts little flexibility in the curriculum that emphasizes on language, literature, mathematics, arts & sciences. Common curriculum for all the students with minimal opportunities for elective subjects. Teaching-learning process must create liberalism, tolerance & discretion among learners. 1/1/2014 34
  35. 35.    Methods of Education: Perennialism portages for the educational methods, which promotes constant teacher-taught interaction such as oral exposition, lecture & explication. Emphasis is placed on teacherguided seminars, where students & teachers engage in mutual inquiry sessions. Students may also learn directly from reading & analyzing the great books. Role of teacher: Teacher must be competent & master of his subject so that he can help their students to develop the power to think deeply, analytically, flexibly & imaginatively. Teacher is also authoritative & a guide of the students. Discipline: Education should be organized & conducted in a manner that problem of indiscipline does not arise at all. 1/1/2014 35
  36. 36.   Essentialism Chief proponents: William Bagley, Arthur Bestor, Admiral Hyman Rickover, James D. Koermer Concept: Essentialism believe that there is common core of knowledge that needs to e transmitted to students in a systematic, disciplined way. The emphasis placed on intellectual & moral standards that schools should teach & preparing students to become valuable members of society. 1/1/2014 36
  37. 37.   Organization & Aims of Education: Essentialism has recommended for the formal schools or teaching-learning places. The aims of education is to promote intellectual growth & academic competitiveness of the individual to become a model citizen. Curriculum: This philosophy recommended intellectual content with quality & capacity of the learner. The recommended subjects are English, mathematics, natural science, history & foreign languages. 1/1/2014 37
  38. 38.    Methods of Education: Essentialism recommended formal & well-planned classroom teaching methods such as lectures, discussions, presentations & group interaction Role of Teacher: Teacher must be a master of subject matter & role model for learners with high level of authority & control over teaching-learning process & learner. Discipline: Essentialism believes in rigid discipline & devoted hard work of learners in his studies. 1/1/2014 38
  39. 39.    Existentialism Chief proponents: Soren Kierkegaard, Friedrich Nietzsche, Maxine Greene Concept: This philosophy believes that education must develop the consciousness about the freedom of choices among learners because a man becomes what he chooses for his self. Education must equip the individual for better choices Organization & Aims of Education: The ultimate aim of education is to develop child’s knowledge about human conditions & the choices that person has to make for self. Therefore organization of education must be formal with sufficient opportunities of choices 1/1/2014 39
  40. 40.     Curriculum: Curriculum must be that which provides the free opportunities for children to select from many available learning situations & choosing the subjects that learner wish to learn. Humanities are commonly given tremendous emphasis, which helps the student to unleash their own creativity & selfexpression. Methods of Education: Existentialism promotes the methods of education which emphasizes on selfactivity of the learner such as self-expressive activities, experimentation, methods & media that illustrate emotions feelings & insight Role of Teacher: Teacher must promote freedom for a learner to make personal choices & individual selfdefinition Discipline: Existentialism believe in self-discipline but not in the strict discipline. Teacher creates an environment in which students may freely choose their own preferred way 1/1/2014 40
  41. 41. Reconstructionism    Chief proponents: Theodore Brameld, George Counts & Paulo Freire Concept: This philosophy of education believes on reorganizing & restructuring the process of education to being about social & cultural contrastive changes in community, society & country, where emphasis is placed on cultural pluralism, equality, futurism, national interest oriented education Organization & Aims of Education: This philosophy recommended for formal as well as informal ways of organizing the education so that desired aim of education can be achieved to bring the reconstruction of the society. 1/1/2014 41
  42. 42.     Curriculum: Curriculum should be conceived with a new socioeconomic & political interest. The subject content must be oriented towards aspects of new changes expected social, economic & political discipline such as sociology, economics, science & technology, etc. Methods of Education: This philosophy of education believes that teaching methods must be organized in manner that student become self-reliant, education must be activity oriented to develop necessary activities & abilities Role of Teacher: The role of a teacher is to take the social responsibilities & along with students must become the agent to improve society. Discipline: This philosophy of education propagates about optimum level of discipline but not a rigid discipline 1/1/2014 42
  43. 43. Progressivism    Chief proponents: Horace Mann, Henry Barnard & Johan Dewey Concept: Progressivism believe that learning must be through problem solving & scientific inquiry in a cooperative & self-discipline way, which promote democratic living & transmits the culture of society while preparing students to adapt in changing world Organization & Aims of Education: Progressivism recommended democratic school procedures, which promote the community & social reforms. The aim of education is to promote the democratic social living 1/1/2014 43
  44. 44.     Curriculum: Progressivism recommended curriculum, which is interdisciplinary in nature, which promotes written textbooks subject content that are the part & process of learning rather than ultimate source of knowledge. Further curriculum is based on child’s interest, problems & life affairs Methods of Education: Child is considered as learner rather than subject, who primarily learned through cooperative group activities & experiences Role of Teacher: Teacher must act as guide for problem solving, leader for group activities & partner in planning the learning activities Discipline: Has not recommended any sort of specific formal discipline 1/1/2014 44
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  46. 46.   Any activity can be called learning so far as it develops the individual & makes his/her behavior & experiences different from what that would otherwise have been. -Woodworth R. S. Learning is a process that result in the modification of behavior. -J. F. Travers 1/1/2014 46
  47. 47.  Behaviorist view: Learning is a change in behavior as a result of experience. Men & other living being react to the environment.  Gestalt view: According to this, learning depends on gestalt or configuration (wholeness of the situation). Learning is a total reaction to the total situation.  Hormic view: This view was developed by McDougall. It stresses on the purposeful nature of learning, i.e. learning is a goral-directed activity.  Trail & error view: This view was put forward by Thorndike. He conducted many experiments on dogs, cats & fish & concluded that most learning takes place by trial & error. 1/1/2014 47
  48. 48.  Learning steps: is a process which involves a series of 1. Motive of learner 5. Fixation or stabilization of behavior 4. Change in behavior of pupil 2. Establishing the goals 3. Teacherstudent adjustment 1/1/2014 48
  49. 49.  Learning is cooperative process: Elements of cooperative learning Group processing Individual & Promote facegroup to-face accountability interaction Positive interdependence 1/1/2014 Learning social skills 49
  50. 50. • It is unitary • It is individual • It is purposive • It is creative • It modifies the behavior of individual • It helps in the organization of experiences • It helps to make choices in life • It helps to bring changes in life • It helps in continuous professional development • It tunes with the trends & development in particular fields 1/1/2014 50
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  52. 52.   Teaching is a form of interpersonal influence aimed at changing the behavior potential of another person. -American Educational Research Association Commission Teaching is stimulation, guidance, direction & encouragement of learning. -Burton 1/1/2014 52
  53. 53. Teaching is a tripolar process Teaching is an interactive process Teaching takes place at multiple levels Teaching must be planned Teaching needs effective reciprocal communication Teaching is the motivation to learn Teaching is guidance Teaching is a professional activity Teaching is an art as well as science Teaching helps attain information, knowledge & skills 1/1/2014 53
  54. 54.   • • Teaching principles help teachers develop an insight regarding their strength & weakness & provide information pertaining to teaching. The principles of teaching are discussed under two subheadings: General principles of teaching Psychological principles of teaching 1/1/2014 54
  55. 55. Define aim Activity (learning by doing ) Principle of correlation Principles of planning Principles of flexibility & elasticity 1/1/2014 55
  56. 56. Principle of utilizing past experiences Principle of pupil centeredness Principle of individual differences Principles of effective strategies & instructional material Principles of conducive environment & proper control 1/1/2014 56
  57. 57. Principle of diagnostic & remedial teaching Principle of suggestiveness Principle of progressiveness Principles of democracy Principles of liberasting the mind 1/1/2014 57
  58. 58. • Motivation or interest • Cooperation • Creativity & recreation • Principle of sympathy & kindness • Principle of repetition & exercise • Principle of readiness 1/1/2014 58
  59. 59. •Principle of change & rest •Principle of providing training to senses •Principle of feedback & reinforcement •Principle of group dynamics •Principle of creativity & self-expression •Principle of encouraging self-learning 1/1/2014 59
  60. 60. Simple to complex Easy to difficult Known to unknown Part to whole 1/1/2014 Whole to part 60
  61. 61. Concrete to abstract Particular to general Analysis to synthesis Empirical to rational Psychological to logical 1/1/2014 61
  62. 62. Actual to representative Induction to deduction General to specific Specific to general 1/1/2014 62
  63. 63. Observation Indefinite to Overview to to definite details reasoning Follow nature 1/1/2014 63
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  65. 65.   Educational objectives are the results sought by the learner at the educational program that is what the student should be able to do at the end of a leaning period that they could not be beforehand. - J.J Guilbert Educational objectives are the behaviors to be learner, aims are for the teacher & the objectives are for the learners to achieve through the support & guidance of the teacher. 1/1/2014 65
  66. 66. The well-stated objective should be SMART & FOCUSED   Specific  Measurable   Attainable   Realistic  Time bound     Feasible Observable Centered on student Unequivocal Sequentially appropriate Ever relevant Developmentally appropriate 1/1/2014 66
  67. 67. According to level of educational objectives General/instr uctional objectives Intermediate objectives Instructional objectives or specific objectives 1/1/2014 67
  68. 68. According to taxonomy of educational objectives Cognitive domain objective Affective domain objectives Psychomotor domain objectives 1/1/2014 68
  69. 69.    The taxonomy for the educational objectives points out that they are concerned with intended behavior or the behavior to be learned by students rather than the actual behavior learned from an educational objective. In other words, taxonomy means ‘a set of classification principles or structure & domains simply means category. Bloom’s taxonomy divides educational objectives into three domains: cognitive, affective & psychomotor. 1/1/2014 69
  70. 70.     The aspects of the cognitive domain resolve around, comprehension & critical thinking on a particular topic. This domain focuses on thinking skills. Traditional education tends to emphasize on skills in this domain, particular the lower-order objectives. These are six levels in the cognitive domain, moving from the lowest order processes to the highest. 1/1/2014 70
  71. 71. knowledge Comprehension Application Cognitive domain Taxonomy of educational objectives Analysis Affective domain Synthesis Psychomotor domain Evaluation 1/1/2014 71
  72. 72. Knowledge Comprehen sion Application Analysis •Count •Define •Describe •Draw •Identify •Labels •List •Match •Outlines •Point out •Read •Recognize •Record •Repeat •Selects •State •Write •Associate •Compute •Convert •Defend •Discuss •Distinguish •Estimate •Explain •Extend •Extrapolate •Generalize •Give examples •Infer •Paraphrase •Predict •Rewrite •Summarize •Add •Apply •Calculate •Change •Classify •Complete •Compute •Demonstrate •Discover •Divide •Examine •Graph •Manipulate •Modify •Operate •Prepare •Produce •Show •Solve •Translate •Analyze •Arrange •Breakdown •Combine •Design •Detect •Develop •Diagram Synthesis •Categorize •Combine •Compile •Compose •Create •Drive •Design •Devise •Differentiate •Explain •Discriminate •Generate •Illustrate •Integrate •Infer •Modify •Outline •Order •Relate •Organize •Select •Plan •Separate •Prescribe •Subdivide •Revise •summarize Evaluation •Appraise •Assess •Compare •Conclude •Contrast •Citizen •Critique •Determine •Grade •Interpret •Judge •Justify •Measure •Rank •Rate •Support •Test
  73. 73.    The aspects in the affective domain describe the way people react emotionally & their ability to feel another living thing’s pain or joy. Affective objectives typically target the awareness & growth in attitudes, emotion, motivation & feelings. There are five levels in the affective domain, moving from the lowest order processes to the highest. 1/1/2014 73
  74. 74. Receiving Cognitive domain Taxonomy of educational objectives Responding Affective domain Valuing Psychomotor domain Organization characterization 1/1/2014 74
  75. 75. Receiving Responding Valuing •Accept •Acknowledge •Attend •Follow •Listen •Meet •Observe •Receive •Agree •Allow •Answer •Ask •Assist •Choose •Communicate •Comply •Confront •Cooperate •Demonstrate •Describe •Discuss •Display •Exhibit •Follow •Give •Help •Identify •Offer •Adopt •Aid • care •Complete •Contribute •Delay •Encourage •Evaluate •Guide •Interact •Join •Justify •Maintain •Monitor •Praise •Present •Propose •Share •Study •Suggest Organizing •Anticipate •Collaborate •Consider •Consult •Coordinator •Design •Direct •Establish •Facilitate •Follow •Though •Investigate •Judge •Manage •Modify •Organize •Plan •Submit •Test •Vary Characterization by value •Act •Administer •Advance •Advocate •Challenge •Change •Commit •Counsel •Criticize •Debate •Defend •Disagree •Enhance •Influence •Motivate •Negotiate •Object •Praise •Reject •Seek 75
  76. 76.   The psychomotor domain describes about obtaining the skills or abilities to carry out physical tasks such as the skills of a nurse in catheterizing a patient or operating a mechanical ventilator. Psychomotor educational objectives usually focus on the expected changes in skills of an individual. 1/1/2014 76
  77. 77. Perception Cognitive domain Taxonomy of educational objectives Set Affective domain Guided response Psychomotor domain Mechanism Complex overt response Adaptation Organization 1/1/2014 77
  78. 78. •Absorb •Add •Adsorb •Adjust •Apply •Aspirate •Assemble •Balance •Build •Calculate •Change •Choose •Classify •Clean •Collate •Collect •Combine •Connect •Construct •control •Combine •Confirm •Connect •Correct •Count •Create •Cut •Decant •Demonstrate •Describe •Design •Differentiate •Dispose •Drain •Draw •Dry •Estimate •Examine •Operate •Expel •Fill •Filter •Frame •Freeze •Grade •Grasp •Ground •Guide •Handle •Observe •Obtain •Open •Identify •Illustrate •Inject •Input •Insert •Investigate •Isolate •Label •Locate •Maintain •Make •Manipulate •Mark •Measure •Mix •Mount •Pack •Palpate •Participate •Perform •Place •Position •Prepare •Press •Process •Produce •Standardize •Start •Read •Release •Remove •Replace •Retest •Rinse •Roll •Rotate •Save •Score •Screen •Select •Sensitize •Separate •Set •Shake •Stop •Stopper •Store •Suspend •Take •Test •Thaw •Tilt •Time •Tip •Trim •Touch •Transfer •Turn •Type •Use •Utilize •View •Warm •Wash •Watch •Weigh •Withdraw •wrap 78
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  80. 80.    Lesson planning is an important activity of daily teaching. The lesson plan might include the main points to be covered in the lesson activities for the students to do, questions related to the topic being taught & some from of assessment for the realization of stipulated instructional objectives. Lesson planning is the heart of effective teaching. 1/1/2014 80
  81. 81.   Lesson plan is the title given to a statement of achievement to be realize & specific meanings by which these are to be attained as a result of the activities engaged during the period. -N.L. Bossing Daily lesson planning involves defining the objectives, selecting & arranging the subject matter & determining the method of procedure. -Bining & Bining 1/1/2014 81
  82. 82.         It ensure a definite objective for the day’s work & a clear visualization of that objective. It helps for adequate & appropriate use of resources in an efficient way. It keeps the teacher on track. It help clarify ideas about what, how, where & when & whom to teach. It directs the teaching-learning process & procedures in the right direction. Helps review the subject matter & gives up-to-date knowledge It helps the teacher delimit the teaching. It provide confidence, self-reliance. Ease & freedom to teacher in teaching. 1/1/2014 82
  83. 83. It provides guidelines to students & the teacher during their teaching-learning practices.  It helps in achieving the definite objectives.  It makes teaching systematic, orderly & economical.  It gives confidence to face the class.  It link new knowledge with previous knowledge.  It prepare pivotal questions & illustrations.  It enables the teacher evaluate his work as the lesson proceeds.  It helps the teacher use a wider variety of teaching material & learning activities.  1/1/2014 83
  84. 84. Knowledge & mastery of subject matter Knowledge of student psychology Knowledge of methods & techniques Knowledge of aims Knowledge about student’s interests, traits & abilities Teacher’s competence Selection & organization of subject matter 1/1/2014 84
  85. 85.             Clarity written Definite aim & objectives Extension of existing knowledge Simple & comprehensive Flexible Ensure active teaching-learning process Division with essence of wholesomeness Individualized & customized Feasibility & significance Processed from general to specific Completeness Inclusion of summary, recapitalization, bibliography & student assignment. 1/1/2014 85
  86. 86. Recapitulation Preparation or introduction Application Presentation generalizations Comparison or association 1/1/2014 86
  87. 87.     The lesson plan must be efficiently written, prepared & designed with a complete sense of confidence. The presenter or teacher must be clear about the aim & objectives of the lesson plan. Use of A-V aids must be well planned, judicious & efficient. Introduction of the lesson must create interest in the students & they must be well motivated to receive the subject content. 1/1/2014 87
  88. 88.      It is essential to use the right methods of teaching ensuring the active involvement of students. There must be careful use of blackboard & other audiovisual methods. Questions planned & presented in a lesson plan must be definite, clear, stimulating & thought provoking. Content must be delivered in a simple language with a clear & audible voice with complete sense of confidence. Provide enough time to the students for clarifying their doubts. 1/1/2014 88
  89. 89.    Individual student attention while taking & giving regular feedback on the understanding of subject content is vary essential for effective implementation of the lesson plan. Efficient time management, appropriate recapitalization of the subject matter & relevant thought provoking questioning & continuous feedback are key aspects of effective implementation of the lesson plan. End recapitalization, discussion of refeence, bibliography & further reading & expected students exercise assignments are also considered to be important in the success of a lesson plan. 1/1/2014 89
  90. 90. I. II. Cover Page: This page must include topic of lesson, date of submission, name of supervisor & name & details of the presenting teacher. First page: This must include the following basic information Basic lesson plan information: •Subject •Name of topic •Name of student teacher •Name of Supervisor •Date of teaching •Time of teaching • Venue of teaching : : : : : : Communication & Education Technology Assessment of learning needs Mr. Chirag sharma Dr. Jayesh Patidar _____________ _____________ : Lecturer Hall No. 2 1/1/2014 90
  91. 91.  • • • • • • • •      Basic lesson plan information: Group : BSc (N) 2nd year students Size of group : 46 Method of teaching : Lecture cum discussion Duration : _____ minutes AV Aids : Power Point Presentation Previous knowledge : The group has some knowledge about the topic: Assessment of learning needs General Objective : At the end of the class, students will be able to acquire knowledge about assessment of learning needs Specific objectives: At the end of teaching, students will be able to Define various terms related to assessment of learning needs. Explain about historical perspective. Enlist types of assessment. Enumerate principles of assessment for learning. Describe purposes of conducting assessment of learning needs. 1/1/2014 91
  92. 92. III. Main body of lesson plan: Sr. No. Time Contributory Objective Content TeachingLearning Activities AV Aids Evaluation IV. Appendix of lesson plan: This includes giving the assignment to students & recommending further reading, writing the bibliography & references. 1/1/2014 92
  93. 93. 1/1/2014 93
  94. 94. Classroom management is an organizational function in which tasks are performed in a variety of settings, resulting in the inculcation of certain values such as human respect, personal integrity, self-direction & group cohesion etc. -Johanson & Brooks Classroom management is a system of action & activities are managed in classroom to induce learning through teacher-taught relationship. Teacher & students are the basic components for managing classroom activities. -Operational meaning 1/1/2014 94
  95. 95. Physical/Environ mental dimension Ethical dimension Dimension of classroom management Psychological dimension Social & cultural dimension 1/1/2014 95
  96. 96. • Self-control & role model approach of teacher • Understanding & acceptance of student uniqueness General principles of classroom management • Realistic & practical goals of teaching-learning • Exercising the productive teachinglearning activities • Understanding student’s interest & ability 1/1/2014 96
  97. 97. • Appropriate planning of classroom management Specific principles of classroom management • Encouragement of students • Giving responsibility to learners • Minimum disruption of teaching-learning activities • Clear guideline of rules for students • Reward & punishment for student’s activities • Conducive learning environment 1/1/2014 97
  98. 98. General principles of classroom management Specific principles of classroom management Self-control & role model approach of teacher Appropriate planning of classroom management Understanding & acceptance of student uniqueness Encouragement of students Realistic & practical goals of teachinglearning Exercising the productive teachinglearning activities Giving responsibility to learners Minimum disruption of teaching-learning activities Understanding student’s interest & ability 1/1/2014 98
  99. 99. Inadequate light & ventilation Inadequate furniture & lack of conducive seating arrangement Overcrowded classroom Inadequate apparatus Lack of routine Lack of adequate distance between classroom Problem of indiscipline Poor teacher-taught IPR 1/1/2014 99
  100. 100. Promotion of rhythm in teachinglearning activities Enhancing healthy classroom customs & traditions Promote positivity in teacher’s behavior Infuse motivation in students Encouraging pupil’s participation 1/1/2014 10 0
  101. 101. Teacher Tachnocrat Researcher Manager Role of a teacher in classroom management Leader Mentor & guide 1/1/2014 10 1
  102. 102. Thank you 1/1/2014 10 2