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Sher-e Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology
Division of Agronomy
Faculty of Agriculture – Wadura
Course No.: AGRON-550
Credit Hours : 0+1
Course Title : Masters Seminar
Topic
Application of Remote Sensing and GIS Technology in Agriculture
Speaker
SOUMIQUE AHAMED
Division : Agronomy
Seminar in-charge
Dr. Syed Sheraz Mahdi
Dr. Amjad Masood
3
 The term “Remote sensing (RS)” first emerged in the 1950s and
refers to “the science and art of obtaining information about an
object, area, or phenomenon through the analysis of data
acquired by a device that is not in contact with the object, area,
or phenomenon under investigation” (Lillesand and Kiefer, 1987).
 Dr. P. R. Pisharoty, considered as the father of Indian RS.
Fig: Remote Sensing
SOUMIQUE AHAMED, (Agronomist - ICAR).
4
 The term ‘Remote sensing’ was introduced by Fischer in
1960s.
 The science of remote sensing provides the instruments and
theory to understand how objects or phenomenon can be
detected.
 The art of remote sensing is the development and the use of
analysis techniques to generate useful information.
Fig: Remote Sensing Imaging Process
SOUMIQUE AHAMED, (Agronomist - ICAR).
5
Remote sensing lies the capability to capture an image of the
Earth’s surface. Consequently, the evolution of remote sensing
is intertwined with the development of photography and the
exploration of corresponding techniques.
The history of remote sensing dates back to early 1800
with the beginning of the practice of photography.
The use of photography to record aerial view from a
balloon dates back to 1858.
The land mark year in the history of remote sensing is
1873 when Sir James Cleck Maxwell developed the
theory of electromagnetic waves.
SOUMIQUE AHAMED, (Agronomist - ICAR).
6
The first Meteorological satellite (TIROS-I) was launched
on April, 1960. At this time the term ‘Remote’ was first
coined.
The Use of aeroplanes for aerial photograph during First
World War (1914-1918) On a regular basis for military
survey.
During Second World War (1939-1945) the use of EMS
was extended from visible spectrum to other regions like
IR and microwave regions.
The Decade of 1960s saw a series of rapid development
of Satellite.
SOUMIQUE AHAMED, (Agronomist - ICAR).
7
Digital image processing was rapidly increases during
1970-1980.
India was started remote sensing programme with the
launch of Bhaskar-I in the year of 1979 and Bhaskar-II in
the year of 1981.
In 1972, LANDSAT-I (Land Satellite), earlier called as, the
Earth Resources Technology Satellite (ERTS-I) was
launched.
LANDSAT-I to LANDSAT-V was launched during 1972-
1984 by NASA during Land-Sat mission.
SOUMIQUE AHAMED, (Agronomist - ICAR).
8
During The period of 1988-98, India was rapidly
launched the series of Remote sensing satellites i.e., IRS-
IA on 17th March 1988 followed by IRS-IB in August, 1991.
IRS-P2 was launched on October, 1994 by an indigenously
developed Polar satellite launch vehicle (PSLV).
SOUMIQUE AHAMED, (Agronomist - ICAR).
9
Date of
Launching
Application
Orbit Type
Satellites
SN
07-Nov, 2020
Disaster Management
System, Earth
Observation.
LEO (Low Earth Orbit).
EOS-01
1
27-Nov, 2019
Earth Observation.
SSPO (Sun Synchronous
Polar Orbit).
Cartosat-3
2
26-July, 2013
Climate &
Environment, Disaster
Management System.
GSO (Geosynchronous
Orbit).
INSAT-3D
3
25-Feb, 2013
Climate &
Environment, Earth
Observation.
SSPO
SARAL
4
Source: ISRO-Headquarters, Bengaluru, 18-October, 2023.
Recently launched remote sensing satellites
SOUMIQUE AHAMED, (Agronomist - ICAR).
10
Date of
Launching
Application
Orbit Type
Satellites
SN
07-June, 1979
Earth Observation,
Experimental.
GSO (Geosynchronous
Orbit).
Bhaskara-I
1
20-Nov, 1981
Earth Observation,
Experimental.
LEO (Low Earth Orbit).
Bhaskara-II
2
17-Mar, 1988
Earth Observation.
SSPO (Sun Synchronous
Polar Orbit).
IRS-IA
3
29-Aug, 1991
Earth Observation.
SSPO
IRS-IB
4
15-Oct, 1994
Earth Observation.
SSPO
IRS-P2
5
28-Dec, 1995
Earth Observation.
SSPO
IRS-IC
6
21-Mar, 1996
Earth Observation.
SSPO
IRS-P3
7
Source: ISRO-Headquarters, Bengaluru, 18-October, 2023.
SOUMIQUE AHAMED, (Agronomist - ICAR).
11
(IRS Series / Cartosat-3)
(Bhaskara-II / EOS-01)
35,786 km
SOUMIQUE AHAMED, (Agronomist - ICAR).
12
Active remote sensing involves
utilizing sensors to capture reflected
signals from objects that have been
illuminated by artificially generated
energy sources, like Radar.
Passive remote observation relies on
instruments that capture the
reflected or emitted electromagnetic
radiation from natural sources based
on seasons.
Active Remote
Sensing
Passive Remote
Sensing
SOUMIQUE AHAMED, (Agronomist - ICAR).
13
Active Remote Sensing Passive Remote Sensing
Reflected
Signals
Captured
Reflected
EMR
Captured
SOUMIQUE AHAMED, (Agronomist - ICAR).
14
SOUMIQUE AHAMED, (Agronomist - ICAR).
15
Radio Detection and Ranging (RADAR)
SOUMIQUE AHAMED, (Agronomist - ICAR).
16
Animation
SOUMIQUE AHAMED, (Agronomist - ICAR).
17
• Offers contextual tools for mapping,
spatial reasoning, and remote sensing.
It also provides 3D and real-time GIS,
imagery.
• A free, open-source software that can
be used for remote sensing and GIS
data analysis and visualization. It has
modules for processing satellite
images.
SOUMIQUE AHAMED, (Agronomist - ICAR).
18
• A free, open-source GIS software that
can be used for 3D visualization.
• An open-source system for automated
geoscientific analyses. It has a website
with resources for learning remote
sensing and terrain analysis.
• IGIS, or India's first indigenous geospatial
platform developed by Scanpoint Geomatics
Ltd. (SGL) and ISRO's Space Applications
Centre (SAC) in Ahmedabad, India.
SOUMIQUE AHAMED, (Agronomist - ICAR).
19
Components of remote sensing
Source of energy
Radiation and
atmosphere
Interaction with
the Target
Recording of
Energy by the
Sensor
Transmission
and Processing
Interpretation
and Analysis.
Application
SOUMIQUE AHAMED, (Agronomist - ICAR).
20
 According to Jensen (2000), Remote sensors are
mechanical devices, which collect information,
usually in storable form, about objects or scenes,
while being at some distance from them.
 A sensor is an apparatus designed to collect
energy, such as electromagnetic radiation or other
forms, and transform it into a signal that can be
effectively utilized to acquire information regarding
the subject being examined.
SOUMIQUE AHAMED, (Agronomist - ICAR).
21
Remote sensing
Sensors
Imaging sensors
Non-imaging
sensors
Optical image sensors
Thermal image sensors
Radar image sensors
Spectro-radiometers
Radiometers
Laser Range finders
Used Digital Camera
Used Infrared energy
Electromagnetic
sensors used
Measures wavelength &
Amplitude of light.
For intensity of radiant energy
Called Laser telemeter,
Detect Distance of an
object
SOUMIQUE AHAMED, (Agronomist - ICAR).
SOUMIQUE AHAMED, (Agronomist - ICAR). 22
Animation
SOUMIQUE AHAMED, (Agronomist - ICAR). 23
Animation
24
Agriculture
Agriculture
land
monitoring
Crop
condition
mapping
Crop pest /
disease
detection
Water Resources
management
Soil moisture
status
monitoring
Land use and
Land cover
mapping
Cropping
system
analysis
Soil
mapping,
monitoring
SOUMIQUE AHAMED, (Agronomist - ICAR).
25
Water
Resources
management
Soil moisture
estimation
Wetlands
mapping and
monitoring
River / lake /
ice
monitoring
Detection of flood,
drought or erosion
Glacier
dynamics
Irrigation
scheduling
Irrigation channel
leakage detection
SOUMIQUE AHAMED, (Agronomist - ICAR).
26
 GIS techniques was invented in 1854.
 The earliest recorded instance of the phrase
‘Geographical Information System’ can be attributed to
Roger Tomlinson in 1968 when he published his paper
titled “A Geographical Information System for Regional
Planning.” Roger Tomlinson is acknowledged as the
‘Father of GIS.’
 A geographic information system consists of integrated
computer hardware and software that store, manage,
analyze, edit, output, and visualize geographic data.
SOUMIQUE AHAMED, (Agronomist - ICAR).
27
1. Paper mapping analysis (1850).
2. Dark Ages of GIS (Before 1960).
3. Pioneering time of GIS (1960-1975) [Developed by
Roger Tomlinson].
4. Commercialization of GIS software (1975-1990).
5. User proliferation (1990-2010).
6. The Open source explosion (2010 Onwards).
SOUMIQUE AHAMED, (Agronomist - ICAR).
28
Components
of GIS
1. Data input
system
4. Data
analysis
system
3. Data Editing
2. Data
storage
system
5. Data Output
/ Result.
6. Personnel
SOUMIQUE AHAMED, (Agronomist - ICAR).
29
Data
Non-Spatial Data
(It is the complimentary of special data
including soil properties (soil depth, texture,
drainage and erosion), vegetation types,
climate data, population, socio-economic
data (Occupation data for a village etc).
Spatial data
(Geographically
reference data collected
by space imagery and
presented in the form of
photographs).
SOUMIQUE AHAMED, (Agronomist - ICAR).
30
Precision
Agriculture
Precision agriculture GIS software
provides detailed vegetation and
productivity maps, including crop
information, for making reasonable
decisions.
Agriculture
Mapping
Soil and crop analysis can be facilitated by
satellite sensors, allowing the creation of
soil index maps and maps of vegetation
indices.
SOUMIQUE AHAMED, (Agronomist - ICAR).
31
Crop Health
Monitoring
Manually checking crops across a large
area is the slowest and most labor-
intensive method of monitoring crop
health. Imagery sensors on satellites
provide an advanced method for
monitoring crop temperature, disease, pest
infestation etc.
SOUMIQUE AHAMED, (Agronomist - ICAR).
32
Insect and
Pest Control
Scouting large fields for pest infestations
is wasteful. Deep learning algorithms and
satellite data can assist in finding
unhealthy spots.
Irrigation
Control
GIS technology helps in identification of
water stress experienced by each crop
and recognize visual patterns that suggest
an oversupply or deficiency of water,
which can be used to regulate irrigation.
SOUMIQUE AHAMED, (Agronomist - ICAR).
33
Nutrient
Distribution
Crop Yield
Prediction
GIS Helps to predict the Fertilizer doses
whether or not to apply fertilize the soil.
After knowing what nutrients are already
present in a specific field by analyzing the
field’s nutrient status.
Reliable yield estimates to secure food
supplies and predict profits.
SOUMIQUE AHAMED, (Agronomist - ICAR).
34
Source: Roy et al., 2022.
The resulting
composite
resembles what
would be
observed
naturally by the
human eye.
SOUMIQUE AHAMED, (Agronomist - ICAR).
35
Source: Roy et al., 2022.
False colour
composites allow
us to visualize
wavelengths that
the human eye
cannot see (i.e.
near-infrared).
SOUMIQUE AHAMED, (Agronomist - ICAR).
36
Source: Navalgund et al., 2007.
Fig 7: Chance in Wheat growing area in Western M.P as seen using AWiFS data
AWiFS Jan 16, 2006 AWiFS Jan 19, 2007
The Advanced Wide Field Sensor (AWiFS)
operates in three spectral bands in VNIR
and one band in SWIR with 56 metre
spatial resolution and a combined swath of
730 km achieved through two AWiFS
cameras.
SOUMIQUE AHAMED, (Agronomist - ICAR).
37
Source: Navalgund et al., 2007.
Table 4. Wheat production forecast using remote sensing data
Production (m tonne)
Area (mha)
Date of forecast
Year
64.98
26.09
02-Apr-97
1996-97
67.20
26.28
30-Mar-98
1997-98
72.88
26.60
31-Mar-99
1998-99
70.20
26.88
31-Mar-00
1999-00
68.37
24.29
28-Mar-01
2000-01
73.57
26.42
01-Apr-02
2001-02
70.71
25.25
31-Mar-03
2002-03
73.08
26.39
30-Mar-04
2003-04
72.93
26.43
28-Mar-05
2004-05
70.67
26.30
29-Mar-06
2005-06
SOUMIQUE AHAMED, (Agronomist - ICAR).
38
Source: Ahmad Mir et al., 2016.
Agriculture
Horticulture
Dense Forest
Moderately Dense
Sparse Forest
Water Body
Snow Covered
SOUMIQUE AHAMED, (Agronomist - ICAR).
39
SOUMIQUE AHAMED, (Agronomist - ICAR).
Source: Ahmad Mir et al., 2016.
40
Source: Ahmad Bhat et al., 2019.
SOUMIQUE AHAMED, (Agronomist - ICAR).
41
Fig: 6 Land use/land cover categories of North Kashmir Himalayas
Built up
Water bodies
Dense forest
Sparse forest
Snow/Glacier
Waste lands
Plantations
Agriculture land
Grass lands
SOUMIQUE AHAMED, (Agronomist - ICAR).
Source: Ahmad Bhat et al., 2019.
42
SOUMIQUE AHAMED, (Agronomist - ICAR).
Source: Ahmad Bhat et al., 2019.
43
Fig. 7(a) Soil map of North Kashmir Himalayas
Legend
Clayey Loam
Silty Loam
Sandy Loam
Unconsolidated
Rocks
Mountain Soil
SOUMIQUE AHAMED, (Agronomist - ICAR).
Source: Ahmad Bhat et al., 2019.
44
Fig. 7(b) Percentage area under different soil types in North Kashmir Himalayas
SOUMIQUE AHAMED, (Agronomist - ICAR).
Source: Ahmad Bhat et al., 2019.
45
Fig. 8 Altitude map of North Kashmir Himalayas
SOUMIQUE AHAMED, (Agronomist - ICAR).
Source: Ahmad Bhat et al., 2019.
46
SOUMIQUE AHAMED, (Agronomist - ICAR).
Source: Ahmad Bhat et al., 2019.
47
Fig. 9 Landslide hazard zonation map of North Kashmir Himalayas
SOUMIQUE AHAMED, (Agronomist - ICAR).
Source: Ahmad Bhat et al., 2019.
48
(MAP Types)
SOUMIQUE AHAMED, (Agronomist - ICAR).
Source: Ahmad Bhat et al., 2019.
49
In conclusion, the integration of remote sensing
and geographical information systems (GIS) in
agriculture has proven to be a transformative
force, offering a paradigm shift in the way we
manage and optimize agricultural practices. This
dynamic duo provides farmers, researchers, and
policymakers with powerful tools to make
informed decisions, enhance productivity, and
ensure sustainable agricultural development.
SOUMIQUE AHAMED, (Agronomist - ICAR).
Application of Remote Sensing and GIS Technology in Agriculture by SOUMIQUE AHAMED 2024.pdf

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Application of Remote Sensing and GIS Technology in Agriculture by SOUMIQUE AHAMED 2024.pdf

  • 1. You are Welcome Sher-e Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology Division of Agronomy Faculty of Agriculture – Wadura Course No.: AGRON-550 Credit Hours : 0+1 Course Title : Masters Seminar Topic Application of Remote Sensing and GIS Technology in Agriculture Speaker SOUMIQUE AHAMED Division : Agronomy Seminar in-charge Dr. Syed Sheraz Mahdi Dr. Amjad Masood
  • 2.
  • 3. 3  The term “Remote sensing (RS)” first emerged in the 1950s and refers to “the science and art of obtaining information about an object, area, or phenomenon through the analysis of data acquired by a device that is not in contact with the object, area, or phenomenon under investigation” (Lillesand and Kiefer, 1987).  Dr. P. R. Pisharoty, considered as the father of Indian RS. Fig: Remote Sensing SOUMIQUE AHAMED, (Agronomist - ICAR).
  • 4. 4  The term ‘Remote sensing’ was introduced by Fischer in 1960s.  The science of remote sensing provides the instruments and theory to understand how objects or phenomenon can be detected.  The art of remote sensing is the development and the use of analysis techniques to generate useful information. Fig: Remote Sensing Imaging Process SOUMIQUE AHAMED, (Agronomist - ICAR).
  • 5. 5 Remote sensing lies the capability to capture an image of the Earth’s surface. Consequently, the evolution of remote sensing is intertwined with the development of photography and the exploration of corresponding techniques. The history of remote sensing dates back to early 1800 with the beginning of the practice of photography. The use of photography to record aerial view from a balloon dates back to 1858. The land mark year in the history of remote sensing is 1873 when Sir James Cleck Maxwell developed the theory of electromagnetic waves. SOUMIQUE AHAMED, (Agronomist - ICAR).
  • 6. 6 The first Meteorological satellite (TIROS-I) was launched on April, 1960. At this time the term ‘Remote’ was first coined. The Use of aeroplanes for aerial photograph during First World War (1914-1918) On a regular basis for military survey. During Second World War (1939-1945) the use of EMS was extended from visible spectrum to other regions like IR and microwave regions. The Decade of 1960s saw a series of rapid development of Satellite. SOUMIQUE AHAMED, (Agronomist - ICAR).
  • 7. 7 Digital image processing was rapidly increases during 1970-1980. India was started remote sensing programme with the launch of Bhaskar-I in the year of 1979 and Bhaskar-II in the year of 1981. In 1972, LANDSAT-I (Land Satellite), earlier called as, the Earth Resources Technology Satellite (ERTS-I) was launched. LANDSAT-I to LANDSAT-V was launched during 1972- 1984 by NASA during Land-Sat mission. SOUMIQUE AHAMED, (Agronomist - ICAR).
  • 8. 8 During The period of 1988-98, India was rapidly launched the series of Remote sensing satellites i.e., IRS- IA on 17th March 1988 followed by IRS-IB in August, 1991. IRS-P2 was launched on October, 1994 by an indigenously developed Polar satellite launch vehicle (PSLV). SOUMIQUE AHAMED, (Agronomist - ICAR).
  • 9. 9 Date of Launching Application Orbit Type Satellites SN 07-Nov, 2020 Disaster Management System, Earth Observation. LEO (Low Earth Orbit). EOS-01 1 27-Nov, 2019 Earth Observation. SSPO (Sun Synchronous Polar Orbit). Cartosat-3 2 26-July, 2013 Climate & Environment, Disaster Management System. GSO (Geosynchronous Orbit). INSAT-3D 3 25-Feb, 2013 Climate & Environment, Earth Observation. SSPO SARAL 4 Source: ISRO-Headquarters, Bengaluru, 18-October, 2023. Recently launched remote sensing satellites SOUMIQUE AHAMED, (Agronomist - ICAR).
  • 10. 10 Date of Launching Application Orbit Type Satellites SN 07-June, 1979 Earth Observation, Experimental. GSO (Geosynchronous Orbit). Bhaskara-I 1 20-Nov, 1981 Earth Observation, Experimental. LEO (Low Earth Orbit). Bhaskara-II 2 17-Mar, 1988 Earth Observation. SSPO (Sun Synchronous Polar Orbit). IRS-IA 3 29-Aug, 1991 Earth Observation. SSPO IRS-IB 4 15-Oct, 1994 Earth Observation. SSPO IRS-P2 5 28-Dec, 1995 Earth Observation. SSPO IRS-IC 6 21-Mar, 1996 Earth Observation. SSPO IRS-P3 7 Source: ISRO-Headquarters, Bengaluru, 18-October, 2023. SOUMIQUE AHAMED, (Agronomist - ICAR).
  • 11. 11 (IRS Series / Cartosat-3) (Bhaskara-II / EOS-01) 35,786 km SOUMIQUE AHAMED, (Agronomist - ICAR).
  • 12. 12 Active remote sensing involves utilizing sensors to capture reflected signals from objects that have been illuminated by artificially generated energy sources, like Radar. Passive remote observation relies on instruments that capture the reflected or emitted electromagnetic radiation from natural sources based on seasons. Active Remote Sensing Passive Remote Sensing SOUMIQUE AHAMED, (Agronomist - ICAR).
  • 13. 13 Active Remote Sensing Passive Remote Sensing Reflected Signals Captured Reflected EMR Captured SOUMIQUE AHAMED, (Agronomist - ICAR).
  • 15. 15 Radio Detection and Ranging (RADAR) SOUMIQUE AHAMED, (Agronomist - ICAR).
  • 17. 17 • Offers contextual tools for mapping, spatial reasoning, and remote sensing. It also provides 3D and real-time GIS, imagery. • A free, open-source software that can be used for remote sensing and GIS data analysis and visualization. It has modules for processing satellite images. SOUMIQUE AHAMED, (Agronomist - ICAR).
  • 18. 18 • A free, open-source GIS software that can be used for 3D visualization. • An open-source system for automated geoscientific analyses. It has a website with resources for learning remote sensing and terrain analysis. • IGIS, or India's first indigenous geospatial platform developed by Scanpoint Geomatics Ltd. (SGL) and ISRO's Space Applications Centre (SAC) in Ahmedabad, India. SOUMIQUE AHAMED, (Agronomist - ICAR).
  • 19. 19 Components of remote sensing Source of energy Radiation and atmosphere Interaction with the Target Recording of Energy by the Sensor Transmission and Processing Interpretation and Analysis. Application SOUMIQUE AHAMED, (Agronomist - ICAR).
  • 20. 20  According to Jensen (2000), Remote sensors are mechanical devices, which collect information, usually in storable form, about objects or scenes, while being at some distance from them.  A sensor is an apparatus designed to collect energy, such as electromagnetic radiation or other forms, and transform it into a signal that can be effectively utilized to acquire information regarding the subject being examined. SOUMIQUE AHAMED, (Agronomist - ICAR).
  • 21. 21 Remote sensing Sensors Imaging sensors Non-imaging sensors Optical image sensors Thermal image sensors Radar image sensors Spectro-radiometers Radiometers Laser Range finders Used Digital Camera Used Infrared energy Electromagnetic sensors used Measures wavelength & Amplitude of light. For intensity of radiant energy Called Laser telemeter, Detect Distance of an object SOUMIQUE AHAMED, (Agronomist - ICAR).
  • 22. SOUMIQUE AHAMED, (Agronomist - ICAR). 22 Animation
  • 23. SOUMIQUE AHAMED, (Agronomist - ICAR). 23 Animation
  • 24. 24 Agriculture Agriculture land monitoring Crop condition mapping Crop pest / disease detection Water Resources management Soil moisture status monitoring Land use and Land cover mapping Cropping system analysis Soil mapping, monitoring SOUMIQUE AHAMED, (Agronomist - ICAR).
  • 25. 25 Water Resources management Soil moisture estimation Wetlands mapping and monitoring River / lake / ice monitoring Detection of flood, drought or erosion Glacier dynamics Irrigation scheduling Irrigation channel leakage detection SOUMIQUE AHAMED, (Agronomist - ICAR).
  • 26. 26  GIS techniques was invented in 1854.  The earliest recorded instance of the phrase ‘Geographical Information System’ can be attributed to Roger Tomlinson in 1968 when he published his paper titled “A Geographical Information System for Regional Planning.” Roger Tomlinson is acknowledged as the ‘Father of GIS.’  A geographic information system consists of integrated computer hardware and software that store, manage, analyze, edit, output, and visualize geographic data. SOUMIQUE AHAMED, (Agronomist - ICAR).
  • 27. 27 1. Paper mapping analysis (1850). 2. Dark Ages of GIS (Before 1960). 3. Pioneering time of GIS (1960-1975) [Developed by Roger Tomlinson]. 4. Commercialization of GIS software (1975-1990). 5. User proliferation (1990-2010). 6. The Open source explosion (2010 Onwards). SOUMIQUE AHAMED, (Agronomist - ICAR).
  • 28. 28 Components of GIS 1. Data input system 4. Data analysis system 3. Data Editing 2. Data storage system 5. Data Output / Result. 6. Personnel SOUMIQUE AHAMED, (Agronomist - ICAR).
  • 29. 29 Data Non-Spatial Data (It is the complimentary of special data including soil properties (soil depth, texture, drainage and erosion), vegetation types, climate data, population, socio-economic data (Occupation data for a village etc). Spatial data (Geographically reference data collected by space imagery and presented in the form of photographs). SOUMIQUE AHAMED, (Agronomist - ICAR).
  • 30. 30 Precision Agriculture Precision agriculture GIS software provides detailed vegetation and productivity maps, including crop information, for making reasonable decisions. Agriculture Mapping Soil and crop analysis can be facilitated by satellite sensors, allowing the creation of soil index maps and maps of vegetation indices. SOUMIQUE AHAMED, (Agronomist - ICAR).
  • 31. 31 Crop Health Monitoring Manually checking crops across a large area is the slowest and most labor- intensive method of monitoring crop health. Imagery sensors on satellites provide an advanced method for monitoring crop temperature, disease, pest infestation etc. SOUMIQUE AHAMED, (Agronomist - ICAR).
  • 32. 32 Insect and Pest Control Scouting large fields for pest infestations is wasteful. Deep learning algorithms and satellite data can assist in finding unhealthy spots. Irrigation Control GIS technology helps in identification of water stress experienced by each crop and recognize visual patterns that suggest an oversupply or deficiency of water, which can be used to regulate irrigation. SOUMIQUE AHAMED, (Agronomist - ICAR).
  • 33. 33 Nutrient Distribution Crop Yield Prediction GIS Helps to predict the Fertilizer doses whether or not to apply fertilize the soil. After knowing what nutrients are already present in a specific field by analyzing the field’s nutrient status. Reliable yield estimates to secure food supplies and predict profits. SOUMIQUE AHAMED, (Agronomist - ICAR).
  • 34. 34 Source: Roy et al., 2022. The resulting composite resembles what would be observed naturally by the human eye. SOUMIQUE AHAMED, (Agronomist - ICAR).
  • 35. 35 Source: Roy et al., 2022. False colour composites allow us to visualize wavelengths that the human eye cannot see (i.e. near-infrared). SOUMIQUE AHAMED, (Agronomist - ICAR).
  • 36. 36 Source: Navalgund et al., 2007. Fig 7: Chance in Wheat growing area in Western M.P as seen using AWiFS data AWiFS Jan 16, 2006 AWiFS Jan 19, 2007 The Advanced Wide Field Sensor (AWiFS) operates in three spectral bands in VNIR and one band in SWIR with 56 metre spatial resolution and a combined swath of 730 km achieved through two AWiFS cameras. SOUMIQUE AHAMED, (Agronomist - ICAR).
  • 37. 37 Source: Navalgund et al., 2007. Table 4. Wheat production forecast using remote sensing data Production (m tonne) Area (mha) Date of forecast Year 64.98 26.09 02-Apr-97 1996-97 67.20 26.28 30-Mar-98 1997-98 72.88 26.60 31-Mar-99 1998-99 70.20 26.88 31-Mar-00 1999-00 68.37 24.29 28-Mar-01 2000-01 73.57 26.42 01-Apr-02 2001-02 70.71 25.25 31-Mar-03 2002-03 73.08 26.39 30-Mar-04 2003-04 72.93 26.43 28-Mar-05 2004-05 70.67 26.30 29-Mar-06 2005-06 SOUMIQUE AHAMED, (Agronomist - ICAR).
  • 38. 38 Source: Ahmad Mir et al., 2016. Agriculture Horticulture Dense Forest Moderately Dense Sparse Forest Water Body Snow Covered SOUMIQUE AHAMED, (Agronomist - ICAR).
  • 39. 39 SOUMIQUE AHAMED, (Agronomist - ICAR). Source: Ahmad Mir et al., 2016.
  • 40. 40 Source: Ahmad Bhat et al., 2019. SOUMIQUE AHAMED, (Agronomist - ICAR).
  • 41. 41 Fig: 6 Land use/land cover categories of North Kashmir Himalayas Built up Water bodies Dense forest Sparse forest Snow/Glacier Waste lands Plantations Agriculture land Grass lands SOUMIQUE AHAMED, (Agronomist - ICAR). Source: Ahmad Bhat et al., 2019.
  • 42. 42 SOUMIQUE AHAMED, (Agronomist - ICAR). Source: Ahmad Bhat et al., 2019.
  • 43. 43 Fig. 7(a) Soil map of North Kashmir Himalayas Legend Clayey Loam Silty Loam Sandy Loam Unconsolidated Rocks Mountain Soil SOUMIQUE AHAMED, (Agronomist - ICAR). Source: Ahmad Bhat et al., 2019.
  • 44. 44 Fig. 7(b) Percentage area under different soil types in North Kashmir Himalayas SOUMIQUE AHAMED, (Agronomist - ICAR). Source: Ahmad Bhat et al., 2019.
  • 45. 45 Fig. 8 Altitude map of North Kashmir Himalayas SOUMIQUE AHAMED, (Agronomist - ICAR). Source: Ahmad Bhat et al., 2019.
  • 46. 46 SOUMIQUE AHAMED, (Agronomist - ICAR). Source: Ahmad Bhat et al., 2019.
  • 47. 47 Fig. 9 Landslide hazard zonation map of North Kashmir Himalayas SOUMIQUE AHAMED, (Agronomist - ICAR). Source: Ahmad Bhat et al., 2019.
  • 48. 48 (MAP Types) SOUMIQUE AHAMED, (Agronomist - ICAR). Source: Ahmad Bhat et al., 2019.
  • 49. 49 In conclusion, the integration of remote sensing and geographical information systems (GIS) in agriculture has proven to be a transformative force, offering a paradigm shift in the way we manage and optimize agricultural practices. This dynamic duo provides farmers, researchers, and policymakers with powerful tools to make informed decisions, enhance productivity, and ensure sustainable agricultural development. SOUMIQUE AHAMED, (Agronomist - ICAR).