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Satellite Application

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A Brief Overview of the various applications

Satellite Application

  1. 1. By :- Paul Sourya Chatterjee (1034) 1
  2. 2. Pioneer of the Indian Space Programme Dr. Vikram Sarabhai Founder and Chairman Indian National Committee for Space Research, 1962. 2
  3. 3. SATELLITE COMMUNICATION 3  In 1975-76, the Satellite Instructional Television Experiment (SITE) telecast a series of educational TV programmes on health, family planning, agriculture, education to cover 2,500 Indian villages via the US satellite, ATS-6.  The Satellite Telecommunication Experiment Project (STEP), conducted using Franco-German SYMPHONIE satellite during 1977-79.  India also launched its own APPLE (Ariane Passenger Payload Experiment), an experimental communication satellite, in June, 1981 using the opportunity offered by the European Space Agency (ESA) to launch this satellite on board the third developmental flight of ARIANE.
  4. 4.  Largest domestic communication system in the world.  Joint venture undertaken by the Department of Space, Department of Telecommunications, India Meteorological Department and All India Radio and Doordarshan.  Serves the television and communication needs of India.  Carries with it 199 transponders and has Very High Resolution Radiometer (VHRR) and CCD cameras for metrological imaging. 4
  5. 5. PERFORMANCE OF INSAT 5  Television reaches to about 85 percent of the population through over 1000 TV transmitters linked via INSAT.  Educational programmes for over 100 hours are telecast every week.  INSAT system has become a powerful tool for training and developmental education and is used by various agencies to provide continuing education, conduct in-situ training.  A pilot project that started in November, 1996 in a tribal district of Madhya Pradesh in Central India is now in progress to educate the tribal community on various aspects of health, hygiene, family planning, women's rights, etc.
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  7. 7. Sl. No. Satellite Launch Date Mission Status 1 INSAT – 1A 10 April 1982 Deactivated on 6 September 1982 2 INSAT – 1B 30 August 1983 Completed mission life 3 INSAT – 1C 22 July 1988 Abandoned in November 1989 4 INSAT – 1D 12 June 1990 Completed mission life 5 INSAT – 2A 10 July 1992 India's First Indigenous communication Satellite. Completed mission life 6 INSAT – 2B 23 July 1993 Completed mission life 7 INSAT – 2C 7 December 1997 Completed mission life 8 INSAT – 2D 4 June 1997 Became inoperable on 4 October 1997 9 INSAT – 2DT In-orbit procurement Completed mission life 13
  8. 8. Sl. No. Satellite Launch Date Mission Status 10 INSAT – 2E 3 April 1999 In service 11 INSAT – 3A 10 April 2003 In service 12 INSAT – 3B 22 May 2000 In service 13 INAST – 3C 24 January 2002 In service 14 KALPANA – 1 12 September 2002 In service 15 GSAT – 1 8 May 2003 In service 16 INSAT – 3E 28 September 2003 In service 17 EDUSAT 20 September 2004 In service 18 INSAT – 4A 22 December 2005 In service 19 INSAT – 4CR 2 September 2007 In geosynchronous orbit Contd. 14
  9. 9. 15 BHASKARA - 1 • BHASKARA-1 Launched in June 1979 • BHASKARA-2 Launched in November 1981 • Indian Remote Sensing Satellites (1988)  IRS - 1A  IRS – 1B  IRS – 1C (Civilian RS satellite)  IRS – 1D (Civilian RS satellite)  IRS – P3  IRS – P4 (OCEANSAT)  IRS – P5 (Cartographic applications)  IRS – P6 (Resource Survey)
  10. 10. Images derived from INSAT 3A and Kalpana 16 a) Atmospheric Motion Vector(m/s), b) Upper Tropospheric Humidity(%), c) Outgoing Longwave Radiation, d) Quantitative Precipitation Index (mm)
  11. 11. Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV) GSLV at the Launch Site - Sriharikota
  12. 12. 18 GSLV-F04 at Vehicle Assembly Building GSLV-F04 lifts off from the Second Launch Pad carrying INSAT-4CR
  13. 13. Expendable launch vehicle ISRO India 49 m (160 ft) 2.8 m (9.1 ft) 402,000 kg (886,000 lb) 3 5,000 kg (11,000 lb) 2,500 kg (5,500 lb) Active 19 Sriharikota 5 4 1 18 April 2001  4 L40H Vikas, S139, GS2 Vikas, RD-56M 262s, 166s, 295s, 406s 160 s, 100 s, 150 s, 720 s N2O4/UDMH, HTPB (solid), LOX/LH2
  14. 14. 20 Vehicle Variant Date of Launch Launch Location Payload Mission Status D1 GSLV Mk.I(a) 18 April 2001 Sriharikota GSAT-1 Success, Developmental Flight. D2 GSLV Mk.I(a) 8 May 2003 Sriharikota GSAT-2 Success, Developmental Flight F01 GSLV Mk.I(b) 20 September 2004 Sriharikota EDUSAT Success, First operational flight. F02 GSLV Mk.I(b) 10 July 2006 Sriharikota INSAT-4C Unsuccessful; both rocket and satellite had to be destroyed over the Bay of Bengal after the rocket's trajectory veered outside of permitted limits.
  15. 15. 21 Vehicle Variant Date of Launch Launch Location Payload F?? GSLV MK.?? 2009 Sriharikota Healthsat TAUVEX-2 F?? GSLV MK.?? 2009 Sriharikota Insat-3D F?? GSLV MK.?? 2012 Sriharikota Aditya (space craft)
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  17. 17. 23 There are two types of remote sensing :- I. Passive Remote Sensing:- Sensors detect natural radiation that is emitted or reflected by the object or surrounding area being observed. Example:- infra-red, charge-coupled devices. II. Active Remote Sensing:- Active collection emits energy in order to scan objects and areas whereupon a passive sensor then detects and measures the radiation that is reflected or backscattered from the target. RADAR is an example of active remote sensing.
  18. 18. 24  Conventional radar is mostly associated with aerial traffic control and large scale meteorological data. Types of active collection includes plasmas in the ionosphere. Interferometric synthetic aperture radar is used to produce precise digital elevation models of large scale terrain.  Laser and radar altimeters on satellites have provided a wide range of data. By measuring the bulges of water caused by gravity, they map features on the seafloor to a resolution of a mile or so. By measuring the height and wave-length of ocean waves, the altimeters measure wind speeds and direction, and surface ocean currents and directions.  LIDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) - is well known in the examples of weapon ranging, laser illuminated homing of projectiles. LIDAR is used to detect and measure the concentration of various chemicals in the atmosphere, while airborne LIDAR can be used to measure heights of objects and features on the ground more accurately than with radar technology.
  19. 19. 25 This image reveals the spatial extent of river sediments on the Louisiana shelf after a cold front passage event. Red, green and blue channels are continued in this "true colour" enhancement (Feb 23, 2003). Satellite Image from the Terra-1 Modis
  20. 20. Ocean Chlorophyll Parameter 26 Image shows chlorophyll-a distribution on the Louisiana shelf on 22 March 2003. The image was captured by the Oceansat-1 ocean colour monitor.
  21. 21. 27 Image from the SeaWiFs onboard SeaStar satellite. Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper image of the Cape Adare region.
  22. 22. 28  Imagery from Google Earth is provided by a company called DigitalGlobe.  A new spacecraft known as WorldView is now launched. The new ‘craft’ provides high definition satellite, which means more accuracy for us users.  Together with the company’s existing Quickbird satellite, it offers half-meter resolution and collects over 6 million km2 of imagery each day, up from the current collection of that amount each week.
  23. 23. 29 Satellite Image of San Francisco from LANDSAT

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