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Chapter One
Apiculture and Bees Diseases
Course
By
Dr. Abebe Gemechu (PhD)
Introduction
• Ethiopia is home for most diverse flora and fauna in Africa
• Ethiopia has a wide range of altitudes favoring the
existence of different types of natural vegetation (dense
forests, bushes, herbs, weeds and undergrowth).
• About 7,000 plants species that have been identified to exist
in the country, out of which more 400 are identified as
nectar and pollen sources
• Ethiopia has the largest bees population in Africa with over
10 million bee colonies, of which up to 7.5 million are
estimated to be hived while 2.5 million lives in the forest
and crevices
Introduction …
• Beekeeping practices is an oldest agricultural activity in
Ethiopia.
• Ethiopia stands ninth in the world and first in the Africa in
honey production.
• Similarly, it stands third in the world and first in Africa in
beeswax production.
• Country has the potential of producing up to 500,000 tons of
honey and 50,000 tons of beeswax per annum
1.1. Terminologies
• Apiculture is the scientific method of rearing
honeybees.
• Beekeeping is an art of keeping bee colonies for man’s
economic benefit.
• Melipona culture: Keeping stingless bees
• Honeybees: are social insects that live together in
groups, cooperate in caring for young and foraging
tasks
• Races:- indicate honeybees under the same species
and the same behavior
Termino...
• Pollination: is a transfer of pollen grains from male
parts of the flower to the stigma of the same plants
or different plant of the same species
• A colony: is a group of honeybees living together
and working in-group according to their division of
labour.
• Caste: is a member of a colony
• Queen is a fully fertile female specialized for
producing eggs
Termino...
 Worker bees are reproductively underdeveloped females
that do all the work of the colony
 Drones are male honeybees, which are bigger than the
workers but not as big as the queen
 Nurse Bees / House bees/ are those worker bees who
spent most of their time by performing activities inside
the hive
 Forager bees/Field bees/ are those worker honeybees,
which perform their activities outside the hive
Termino...
• Foraging is the final task performed by workers before their death
• Pheromones are mixture of chemicals used for communication
among member of a species
• Queen rearing: is a process of producing virgin queen in a colony
of honey bee.
• Breeding bees is about the process of deliberate selection of
certain characteristics. For example, beekeepers commonly try to
breed bees which are very productive or very gentle.
Termino...
• Honey is a substance produced by bees and
some other social insects from nectar or honey
dew that they collect from living plants which
they transform by evaporating water and by the
action of enzymes they themselves secret.
• Nectar is the main energy source for flight and
preparing honey.
• Pollen grains are small, male reproduction units
(gametophytes) formed in the anthers of the
higher flowering plants
Termino...
• Beeswax: is a true wax secreted by four pairs of wax
glands on the ventral side of the abdomen of the
worker honey bees that are between ages of 12 to 18
days
• Propolis: is a sticky, gummy resinous material
gathered by bees from trees and other vegetation
either from bud or from bark
• Bee Venom (Apitoxin): is a clear Odorless liquid
produced in the worker bees’ gland called venom
gland and stored in the venom sac.
Termino...
• Royal jelly: is secreted by the hypopharyngeal glands
of young worker honeybee to feed larvae and the
adult queen bee
• Bee brood: is the collective name used by
beekeepers for the eggs, larvae, and pupae in honey
bee colony.
 Adult honeybee diseases are those affecting adult
honeybees
 Brood honeybee diseases are those affecting the
immature stages of honeybees are called
1.2. Beekeeping in Ethiopia
 The economy of the country depends on agriculture which
accounts 43% of the GDP. Of this,
 livestock sector contributions accounts for about15% of the GDP
 Beekeeping in Ethiopia is one of the agricultural activities
practiced side by side with many other farming practices and it
accounts 1.3% of agricultural GDP
 The main objective of beekeeping of our country is to produce
honey and beeswax for use
Beekeeping in Ethiopia……………
 History books: beekeeping has started in the country between
3,500 - 3,000 BC
 Ethiopian practices beekeeping as an integral part of other
agricultural activities
 Currently more than 2 million households practices beekeeping
as their major livelihood
 But beekeeping sector is mainly dominated by small-scale
farmers
 In rural area both men and women carry out beekeeping in
home gardens and even in houses
Beekeeping in Ethiopia...............
Ethiopia has a huge potential for beekeeping (has large apicultural resources)
because of the following reasons:-
1. Presence of varieties of honeybee flora supporting foraging bees
 More than 6500 melliferrous plant species of which more 1500 identified as bee
forage
2. Presence of high numbers of bee population
 over 10 million bee colonies, estimated to produce annual honey 500,000 tones
and bees wax 50,000 tones
3. Presence of ample fresh water
4. Suitable weather and geographical features
5. Presence of large number of native farmers with indigenous knowledge of
beekeeping for many centuries
Beekeeping in Ethiopia continued….
 There is no a single ethnic group or tribe in Ethiopia
who doesn't practice beekeeping
 Honey Hunting is common in few remote west and
southwest parts of the country
 There is Forest Beekeeping System that is still
being practiced in the forest covered areas
 Backyard beekeeping is the most common type of
beekeeping in the country including urban areas
 Beekeeping is mostly practiced in traditional way, in
small scale
1.3.1. Constraints of beekeeping in Ethiopia
Recently seen
diseases
• American foulbrood
• European foulbrood
• Wax-moth
• Varoa-mites
Agricultural related
problems
• Lack of affordable beekeeping
equipment
• Climate change causing drought
(Shortage of bee forage)
• Agro-chemical intoxication
• Lack of necessary beekeeping
skills
• Reduction of honeybee colony
due agro-ecology disturbance
• Market problem
• Absence of policy in apiculture
Already existing
problems
Pest and predators
Absconding/migration
Frequent swarming
Diminishing forests
1.3. Constraints and opportunities of beekeeping in
Ethiopia
• Availability Bee colony and race
• Availability of adequate apiculture flora and water resource
• Existence of strong bee colonies
• Demand for the bee products and honeybee/ Marketing access
• Presence of indigenous knowledge, skills and interest to improved
technologies
• Socio economic value of Honey
• Government and NGO efforts towards sector development
• Extension service access
• Credit access
• Establishment of Ethiopian beekeeping Association
1.3.2. Opportunities of beekeeping in Ethiopia
1.4. Importance of Beekeeping
Why people keep honeybee colonies?
Generally, people keep honeybee colonies for:-
A) Production of beehive products
B) Enhancement of yield (pollination Service)
Importance of Beekeeping…………..
Moreover, people are also keep honeybee colonies for the
following advantages (many reasons):-
1.4.1. General importance of beekeeping
1.4.1.1. Nutritional and health value
1.4.1.2. Income generating activity
1.4.1.3. Create Job Opportunities
1.4.1.4. Pollination service
Income generating activity………….
1.2.1.2. Income generating activity
Pollination service………..
Pollination by honeybees is advantageous at least for the following reasons:
1. Most effective and cheapest method of increasing agricultural yield and can
pollinate numerous types of plants
2. It improves the genetic makeup of the plant species
3. It enables to get uniform seed and resistant to pest
4. It helps for early maturity and harvest
This helps the plant from natural disaster Eg. Frost
5. It improves the quality of the crops such as oil content, fruit juices and seed
viability
Advantages of honeybee pollination
In Ethiopia, pollination increase the yield of Nug (Bracia spp) by 34% and
onions by 84%
Pollination service………..
Honeybees are the most efficient pollinators as compared to other
insects
The main reasons for the efficiency of bees are as follows:
1) Honeybees are general foragers
2) Honeybees Have Constancy (Fidelity)
On a single trip, honey bees forage from a single source of nectar or
pollen (flower) called constancy or fidelity
3) Honeybees are Large in population size
4) Move to any area (Transportation)
5) Pollinate in all areas and seasons
6) Less affected in modern mechanized agriculture
Advantages of honeybee pollination…………
Pollination service………..
In many cultures honeybee products are valued in:-
festivities and ceremonies
Beekeepers are generally respected for their craft (expertise skills)
Images of bees are used as symbols of hard work and industry
Honey is also a highly regarded product and widely used in:-
traditional medications and widely used for different cultural, religious and
ritual ceremonies
1.4.1.5. Social Values
 Beekeeping does not compute resources
 Beekeeping does not disturb ecology
(Conservation of natural resources)
 Beekeeping helps to utilize resource
 Most of bee products are not easily perishable
1.4.2. Relative Importance
Levels or Types of beekeeping
• Beehives are hollow containers that can be closed and made to
house bees
• There are essentially three choices of beehive for beekeepers in
developing countries
2.2. Beekeeping
Types of beekeeping
 There are three types of
beekeeping, namely
 Traditional
 Transitional (
intermediate) and
 Improved or box hive
26
Traditional (fixed comb hive) beekeeping
done using fixed comb hives which are containers made
from locally available materials like bamboo, mud pots,
logs, barks of trees, and from climbers
The types of traditional hives, their shapes and working
materials vary from place to place
 It is very similar to a wild bee's nest
bark hives, basket hive and log hive are examples of
traditional beehives
1 Fixed comb hives
A. Traditional forest beekeeping
 In the forest, hanging
beehives on very long trees
is common in Russia,
Germany and England
 In Ethiopia around the
forest-covered areas of the
country where the
population of honeybees
is abundant west, south
and southwest parts of the
country
Bee village
29
Types of Traditional Beekeeping
Traditional forest beekeeping
Traditional beekeeping practice is dividing in to two types or
levels
an intermediate stage between honey hunting and backyard
beekeeping
practiced by placing hives in the forest on very long trees
Forest beekeeping is very common in developing
countries and also in Ethiopia especially around the forest-
covered areas
Advantages of forest
beekeeping
• No harm on the domestic animals and
humans
 Bees can get abundant forage plants
in their vicinity
There is less probability for colonies
to be affected by agrochemicals
 Organic honey can be obtained from
forest beekeeping
33
Forest traditional bk ctd…
Dis Advantages of forest beekeeping
 no attendance/care is made for the bees
destruction of the bee colonies partially or totally.
 danger to the beekeeper in climbing high tree
 danger to the forest
 colonies play insignificant role in pollinating
agricultural crops
 Absconding rate is high in forest beekeeping
34
B. Traditional back yard beekeeping
 Keep bees in home yard:
 under separate shelter
 by hanging on sides of house wall
 or some times even inside their house
Very common and widely practiced in central, eastern and
northern parts of Ethiopia
B. Traditional back yard beekeeping
General Advantages of Traditional beekeeping
 The construction of hive is very simple
 It does not require modern beekeeping equipments to
run the keeping
 It does not require skilled manpower to run the bee
keeping and prepare the hives
 Cheaper to acquire or make
 Give us plenty of beeswax
 Supply a lot of propolis
37
 hives can be used to trap swarm colonies
 Only for men not accessible for women to climb
up trees
 The beekeepers cannot put brood and other
combs back into the hive during harvesting
 Honey and brood are sometimes mixed up
 Inconvenient to inspect for disease and pest
infestation and for internal feeding
Disadvantages of traditional hives
Disadvantages Traditional
beekeeping
 It is difficult to get pure honey
(Low quality & quantity yield
in honey )
 Very small in size hence leads
to incontrollable swarming
 No possibilities of supering
 No partition ship between
brood chamber and honey
chamber
Traditional beekeeping ctd…
 There is no standard
dimension
 Length & diameter ( either
too long or too short; too
wide or too narrow
 Sometimes, bees construct
irregular combs which
makes very difficult to
harvest honey
 Transitional (intermediate) beekeeping is one of the improved
methods of keeping bee using top bar hives
 Type of hives used in transitional beekeeping are:
Kenyan top bar hive (KTBH)
 Tanzania top bar hive (TTBH)
 Mud hive (MH)
 Bees build their comb from top bars
 Each hive carries specially designed 27- 30 pieces of timber"
Top Bars"
 The bars are 3.2cm wide and 48.3cm long
2. Transitional (intermediate) beekeeping
Advantage of intermediate beekeeping
 Cheaper and simpler system; made from locally
available materials
 Easy to inspect / manipulate the bees (Opened
easily and quickly)
 Quality honey produced
 The bees are guided into building parallel combs by
following the line of the top bars
 The top bars are easily removable and this enables
the beekeeper to work fast
 The top bars are easy to construct than frames
 Possible to harvest both honey and Beeswax
 Do not require accessories like the modern hive
Transitional (intermediate)
Disadvantages of Transitional beekeeping
 It is relatively more expensive than traditional
one
 Combs are easily breakable, this makes it
difficult to transport colonies
 The honey harvested from top bar hive is less in
quantity and quality
 Combs are not centrifugable
 Langstroth discovered bee space in 1851
 bee space is optimum distance between two surfaces in bee
hive essential for normal movement and functioning of
bees
 The modern hive has been designed on the bases of
principle of bee space in which frames can be easily moved
 This principle was a big discovery for modern beekeeping
3. Modern beekeeping (Improved or
Box hive or Frame hive)
Improved or Box hive or Frame hive….
• The bees construct comb in frames which contain
an embossed sheet of beeswax foundation.
• The foundation serves as a "pattern" to ensure
straight, centered combs in the frames.
• Such intricate construction demands relatively
good quality wood and expertise in carpentry.
Improved (Box hive) Bee keeping
 In this type of bee
keeping different types
of frame hives are being
used
 Some of these frame
hives being used in our
country are Zander and
Langstroth hives
Zander hive
Improved Zander hive (Box hive) Bee keeping
Zander hive
Langstroth hive / Dadant hives
A modern hive consists of:
A brood chamber
An inner cover
An outer cover
12 frames per super
A honey super
A queen excluder
12 frames per chamber
A bottom board
Advantages of box hive beekeeping
 High yield of honey
 Europe= 50-60kg/hive/year
 Africa= 15-40kg/hive/year
Ethiopia= 15-20kg/hive/year
 It produces the highest amount and quality of
honey (Brood and honey are never mixed as in log
hives )
 There is no bee-killing during harvesting
 It is environment friendly
Advantages of box hive …
 Box hives allow all range of managements to
maximize the productivity of colonies
 Like regular inspection,
 Volume adding and reducing
 Swarm controlling
It is possible to migrate bees for
For better forage for honeybees
For pollination of certain fruits and cultivated crops
It is possible to reuse comb foundation sheet, that reduce work
for the bees in making combs
modern beekeeping managed under
farmers practiced
Centerifuguable honeycomb
Disadvantages of box hive beekeeping
 The bk equipments are relatively expensive (It is expensive
to acquire wax foundation and frames very expensive )
 It requires skilled manpower to run the activity
 It requires expertise in order to make (It requires
specifications)
 It produces little propolis
 Doesn’t usually give us wax as combs are usually reused
 It needs different accessories
 Honey extraction from combs requires machines like the
centrifugal in extractor
The End of Chapter one!
Quiz(5%)
Answer the following questions
1) List types of beekeeping in Ethiopia and write advantage and
disadvantage for each types of beekeeping?
Gr. Activity Group representative
1 Seasonal management of honeybee colony
2 Honey harvesting and extracting process
3 Importance of artificial queen rearing and splitting
methods of queen rearing
4 Sources of beeswax and its processing method
5 Honeybees communication /how they communicate?
Group Assignment
Submission date:

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Apiculture Chapter 1. Introduction 2.ppt

  • 1. Chapter One Apiculture and Bees Diseases Course By Dr. Abebe Gemechu (PhD)
  • 2. Introduction • Ethiopia is home for most diverse flora and fauna in Africa • Ethiopia has a wide range of altitudes favoring the existence of different types of natural vegetation (dense forests, bushes, herbs, weeds and undergrowth). • About 7,000 plants species that have been identified to exist in the country, out of which more 400 are identified as nectar and pollen sources • Ethiopia has the largest bees population in Africa with over 10 million bee colonies, of which up to 7.5 million are estimated to be hived while 2.5 million lives in the forest and crevices
  • 3. Introduction … • Beekeeping practices is an oldest agricultural activity in Ethiopia. • Ethiopia stands ninth in the world and first in the Africa in honey production. • Similarly, it stands third in the world and first in Africa in beeswax production. • Country has the potential of producing up to 500,000 tons of honey and 50,000 tons of beeswax per annum
  • 4. 1.1. Terminologies • Apiculture is the scientific method of rearing honeybees. • Beekeeping is an art of keeping bee colonies for man’s economic benefit. • Melipona culture: Keeping stingless bees • Honeybees: are social insects that live together in groups, cooperate in caring for young and foraging tasks • Races:- indicate honeybees under the same species and the same behavior
  • 5. Termino... • Pollination: is a transfer of pollen grains from male parts of the flower to the stigma of the same plants or different plant of the same species • A colony: is a group of honeybees living together and working in-group according to their division of labour. • Caste: is a member of a colony • Queen is a fully fertile female specialized for producing eggs
  • 6. Termino...  Worker bees are reproductively underdeveloped females that do all the work of the colony  Drones are male honeybees, which are bigger than the workers but not as big as the queen  Nurse Bees / House bees/ are those worker bees who spent most of their time by performing activities inside the hive  Forager bees/Field bees/ are those worker honeybees, which perform their activities outside the hive
  • 7. Termino... • Foraging is the final task performed by workers before their death • Pheromones are mixture of chemicals used for communication among member of a species • Queen rearing: is a process of producing virgin queen in a colony of honey bee. • Breeding bees is about the process of deliberate selection of certain characteristics. For example, beekeepers commonly try to breed bees which are very productive or very gentle.
  • 8. Termino... • Honey is a substance produced by bees and some other social insects from nectar or honey dew that they collect from living plants which they transform by evaporating water and by the action of enzymes they themselves secret. • Nectar is the main energy source for flight and preparing honey. • Pollen grains are small, male reproduction units (gametophytes) formed in the anthers of the higher flowering plants
  • 9. Termino... • Beeswax: is a true wax secreted by four pairs of wax glands on the ventral side of the abdomen of the worker honey bees that are between ages of 12 to 18 days • Propolis: is a sticky, gummy resinous material gathered by bees from trees and other vegetation either from bud or from bark • Bee Venom (Apitoxin): is a clear Odorless liquid produced in the worker bees’ gland called venom gland and stored in the venom sac.
  • 10. Termino... • Royal jelly: is secreted by the hypopharyngeal glands of young worker honeybee to feed larvae and the adult queen bee • Bee brood: is the collective name used by beekeepers for the eggs, larvae, and pupae in honey bee colony.  Adult honeybee diseases are those affecting adult honeybees  Brood honeybee diseases are those affecting the immature stages of honeybees are called
  • 11. 1.2. Beekeeping in Ethiopia  The economy of the country depends on agriculture which accounts 43% of the GDP. Of this,  livestock sector contributions accounts for about15% of the GDP  Beekeeping in Ethiopia is one of the agricultural activities practiced side by side with many other farming practices and it accounts 1.3% of agricultural GDP  The main objective of beekeeping of our country is to produce honey and beeswax for use
  • 12. Beekeeping in Ethiopia……………  History books: beekeeping has started in the country between 3,500 - 3,000 BC  Ethiopian practices beekeeping as an integral part of other agricultural activities  Currently more than 2 million households practices beekeeping as their major livelihood  But beekeeping sector is mainly dominated by small-scale farmers  In rural area both men and women carry out beekeeping in home gardens and even in houses
  • 13. Beekeeping in Ethiopia............... Ethiopia has a huge potential for beekeeping (has large apicultural resources) because of the following reasons:- 1. Presence of varieties of honeybee flora supporting foraging bees  More than 6500 melliferrous plant species of which more 1500 identified as bee forage 2. Presence of high numbers of bee population  over 10 million bee colonies, estimated to produce annual honey 500,000 tones and bees wax 50,000 tones 3. Presence of ample fresh water 4. Suitable weather and geographical features 5. Presence of large number of native farmers with indigenous knowledge of beekeeping for many centuries
  • 14. Beekeeping in Ethiopia continued….  There is no a single ethnic group or tribe in Ethiopia who doesn't practice beekeeping  Honey Hunting is common in few remote west and southwest parts of the country  There is Forest Beekeeping System that is still being practiced in the forest covered areas  Backyard beekeeping is the most common type of beekeeping in the country including urban areas  Beekeeping is mostly practiced in traditional way, in small scale
  • 15. 1.3.1. Constraints of beekeeping in Ethiopia Recently seen diseases • American foulbrood • European foulbrood • Wax-moth • Varoa-mites Agricultural related problems • Lack of affordable beekeeping equipment • Climate change causing drought (Shortage of bee forage) • Agro-chemical intoxication • Lack of necessary beekeeping skills • Reduction of honeybee colony due agro-ecology disturbance • Market problem • Absence of policy in apiculture Already existing problems Pest and predators Absconding/migration Frequent swarming Diminishing forests 1.3. Constraints and opportunities of beekeeping in Ethiopia
  • 16. • Availability Bee colony and race • Availability of adequate apiculture flora and water resource • Existence of strong bee colonies • Demand for the bee products and honeybee/ Marketing access • Presence of indigenous knowledge, skills and interest to improved technologies • Socio economic value of Honey • Government and NGO efforts towards sector development • Extension service access • Credit access • Establishment of Ethiopian beekeeping Association 1.3.2. Opportunities of beekeeping in Ethiopia
  • 17. 1.4. Importance of Beekeeping Why people keep honeybee colonies? Generally, people keep honeybee colonies for:- A) Production of beehive products B) Enhancement of yield (pollination Service)
  • 18. Importance of Beekeeping………….. Moreover, people are also keep honeybee colonies for the following advantages (many reasons):- 1.4.1. General importance of beekeeping 1.4.1.1. Nutritional and health value 1.4.1.2. Income generating activity 1.4.1.3. Create Job Opportunities 1.4.1.4. Pollination service
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  • 21. Pollination service……….. Pollination by honeybees is advantageous at least for the following reasons: 1. Most effective and cheapest method of increasing agricultural yield and can pollinate numerous types of plants 2. It improves the genetic makeup of the plant species 3. It enables to get uniform seed and resistant to pest 4. It helps for early maturity and harvest This helps the plant from natural disaster Eg. Frost 5. It improves the quality of the crops such as oil content, fruit juices and seed viability Advantages of honeybee pollination In Ethiopia, pollination increase the yield of Nug (Bracia spp) by 34% and onions by 84%
  • 22. Pollination service……….. Honeybees are the most efficient pollinators as compared to other insects The main reasons for the efficiency of bees are as follows: 1) Honeybees are general foragers 2) Honeybees Have Constancy (Fidelity) On a single trip, honey bees forage from a single source of nectar or pollen (flower) called constancy or fidelity 3) Honeybees are Large in population size 4) Move to any area (Transportation) 5) Pollinate in all areas and seasons 6) Less affected in modern mechanized agriculture Advantages of honeybee pollination…………
  • 23. Pollination service……….. In many cultures honeybee products are valued in:- festivities and ceremonies Beekeepers are generally respected for their craft (expertise skills) Images of bees are used as symbols of hard work and industry Honey is also a highly regarded product and widely used in:- traditional medications and widely used for different cultural, religious and ritual ceremonies 1.4.1.5. Social Values
  • 24.  Beekeeping does not compute resources  Beekeeping does not disturb ecology (Conservation of natural resources)  Beekeeping helps to utilize resource  Most of bee products are not easily perishable 1.4.2. Relative Importance
  • 25. Levels or Types of beekeeping • Beehives are hollow containers that can be closed and made to house bees • There are essentially three choices of beehive for beekeepers in developing countries 2.2. Beekeeping
  • 26. Types of beekeeping  There are three types of beekeeping, namely  Traditional  Transitional ( intermediate) and  Improved or box hive 26
  • 27. Traditional (fixed comb hive) beekeeping done using fixed comb hives which are containers made from locally available materials like bamboo, mud pots, logs, barks of trees, and from climbers The types of traditional hives, their shapes and working materials vary from place to place  It is very similar to a wild bee's nest bark hives, basket hive and log hive are examples of traditional beehives
  • 28. 1 Fixed comb hives
  • 29. A. Traditional forest beekeeping  In the forest, hanging beehives on very long trees is common in Russia, Germany and England  In Ethiopia around the forest-covered areas of the country where the population of honeybees is abundant west, south and southwest parts of the country Bee village 29 Types of Traditional Beekeeping
  • 30. Traditional forest beekeeping Traditional beekeeping practice is dividing in to two types or levels an intermediate stage between honey hunting and backyard beekeeping practiced by placing hives in the forest on very long trees Forest beekeeping is very common in developing countries and also in Ethiopia especially around the forest- covered areas
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  • 33. Advantages of forest beekeeping • No harm on the domestic animals and humans  Bees can get abundant forage plants in their vicinity There is less probability for colonies to be affected by agrochemicals  Organic honey can be obtained from forest beekeeping 33
  • 34. Forest traditional bk ctd… Dis Advantages of forest beekeeping  no attendance/care is made for the bees destruction of the bee colonies partially or totally.  danger to the beekeeper in climbing high tree  danger to the forest  colonies play insignificant role in pollinating agricultural crops  Absconding rate is high in forest beekeeping 34
  • 35. B. Traditional back yard beekeeping  Keep bees in home yard:  under separate shelter  by hanging on sides of house wall  or some times even inside their house Very common and widely practiced in central, eastern and northern parts of Ethiopia
  • 36. B. Traditional back yard beekeeping
  • 37. General Advantages of Traditional beekeeping  The construction of hive is very simple  It does not require modern beekeeping equipments to run the keeping  It does not require skilled manpower to run the bee keeping and prepare the hives  Cheaper to acquire or make  Give us plenty of beeswax  Supply a lot of propolis 37  hives can be used to trap swarm colonies
  • 38.  Only for men not accessible for women to climb up trees  The beekeepers cannot put brood and other combs back into the hive during harvesting  Honey and brood are sometimes mixed up  Inconvenient to inspect for disease and pest infestation and for internal feeding Disadvantages of traditional hives
  • 39. Disadvantages Traditional beekeeping  It is difficult to get pure honey (Low quality & quantity yield in honey )  Very small in size hence leads to incontrollable swarming  No possibilities of supering  No partition ship between brood chamber and honey chamber
  • 40. Traditional beekeeping ctd…  There is no standard dimension  Length & diameter ( either too long or too short; too wide or too narrow  Sometimes, bees construct irregular combs which makes very difficult to harvest honey
  • 41.  Transitional (intermediate) beekeeping is one of the improved methods of keeping bee using top bar hives  Type of hives used in transitional beekeeping are: Kenyan top bar hive (KTBH)  Tanzania top bar hive (TTBH)  Mud hive (MH)  Bees build their comb from top bars  Each hive carries specially designed 27- 30 pieces of timber" Top Bars"  The bars are 3.2cm wide and 48.3cm long 2. Transitional (intermediate) beekeeping
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  • 44. Advantage of intermediate beekeeping  Cheaper and simpler system; made from locally available materials  Easy to inspect / manipulate the bees (Opened easily and quickly)  Quality honey produced  The bees are guided into building parallel combs by following the line of the top bars  The top bars are easily removable and this enables the beekeeper to work fast  The top bars are easy to construct than frames  Possible to harvest both honey and Beeswax  Do not require accessories like the modern hive
  • 46. Disadvantages of Transitional beekeeping  It is relatively more expensive than traditional one  Combs are easily breakable, this makes it difficult to transport colonies  The honey harvested from top bar hive is less in quantity and quality  Combs are not centrifugable
  • 47.  Langstroth discovered bee space in 1851  bee space is optimum distance between two surfaces in bee hive essential for normal movement and functioning of bees  The modern hive has been designed on the bases of principle of bee space in which frames can be easily moved  This principle was a big discovery for modern beekeeping 3. Modern beekeeping (Improved or Box hive or Frame hive)
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  • 50. Improved or Box hive or Frame hive…. • The bees construct comb in frames which contain an embossed sheet of beeswax foundation. • The foundation serves as a "pattern" to ensure straight, centered combs in the frames. • Such intricate construction demands relatively good quality wood and expertise in carpentry.
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  • 52. Improved (Box hive) Bee keeping  In this type of bee keeping different types of frame hives are being used  Some of these frame hives being used in our country are Zander and Langstroth hives Zander hive
  • 53. Improved Zander hive (Box hive) Bee keeping Zander hive
  • 54. Langstroth hive / Dadant hives A modern hive consists of: A brood chamber An inner cover An outer cover 12 frames per super A honey super A queen excluder 12 frames per chamber A bottom board
  • 55. Advantages of box hive beekeeping  High yield of honey  Europe= 50-60kg/hive/year  Africa= 15-40kg/hive/year Ethiopia= 15-20kg/hive/year  It produces the highest amount and quality of honey (Brood and honey are never mixed as in log hives )  There is no bee-killing during harvesting  It is environment friendly
  • 56. Advantages of box hive …  Box hives allow all range of managements to maximize the productivity of colonies  Like regular inspection,  Volume adding and reducing  Swarm controlling It is possible to migrate bees for For better forage for honeybees For pollination of certain fruits and cultivated crops It is possible to reuse comb foundation sheet, that reduce work for the bees in making combs
  • 57. modern beekeeping managed under farmers practiced
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  • 60. Disadvantages of box hive beekeeping  The bk equipments are relatively expensive (It is expensive to acquire wax foundation and frames very expensive )  It requires skilled manpower to run the activity  It requires expertise in order to make (It requires specifications)  It produces little propolis  Doesn’t usually give us wax as combs are usually reused  It needs different accessories  Honey extraction from combs requires machines like the centrifugal in extractor
  • 61. The End of Chapter one!
  • 62. Quiz(5%) Answer the following questions 1) List types of beekeeping in Ethiopia and write advantage and disadvantage for each types of beekeeping?
  • 63. Gr. Activity Group representative 1 Seasonal management of honeybee colony 2 Honey harvesting and extracting process 3 Importance of artificial queen rearing and splitting methods of queen rearing 4 Sources of beeswax and its processing method 5 Honeybees communication /how they communicate? Group Assignment Submission date:

Editor's Notes

  1. Fuana = animal life in general: the animal life of a particular region or period 2. list of animals: a list describing the animals of a particular region or period Flora=plants: plant life, especially all the plants found in a particular country, region, or time regarded as a group (formal) the flora description of plants: a systematic set of descriptions of all the plants of a particular place or time Crevices=a narrow crack or opening, especially in rock