SlideShare a Scribd company logo
Ruchita Bhavsar
1st sem B. Pharm
 Introduction to Anatomy
 Definition
 Introduction to Anatomical Terms
 Anatomical Positions
 Anatomical Planes
 Body Cavities
 Summary
 Reference
 Human anatomical terms make up a distinct
nomenclature to describe areas of the body, to provide
orientation when describing parts of human anatomy,
and to distinguish different movements of the body.
An understanding of these terms is necessary to study
the human body in depth. Many of these terms are
also applicable in animal anatomy (zootomy).
 Anatomy is the study of the structure of the human
body
 Anatomic terms describe the directions within the
body as well as the body’s reference positions, planes
and cavities.
 Anatomists use specific terms to indicate visible areas
of the body.
 The cephalon or cephalic region refers to the head.
 This area is further differentiated into the cranium
(skull), facies (face), frons (forehead), oculus (eye
area), auris (ear), bucca (cheek), nausus (nose), oris
(mouth), and mentis (chin).
 The neck area is called the cervicis or cervical region.
superior - closer to the head
Inferior - closer to the feet
reference point - horizontal plane
posterior (dorsal) - closer to the posterior surface of the body
anterior (ventral) - closer to the anterior surface of the body
reference point - frontal or coronal plane
medial - lying closer to the midline
lateral - lying further away from the midline
reference point - sagittal plane
proximal - closer to the origin of a structure
distal - further away from the origin of a structure
reference point - the origin of a structure
 The three basic planes intersect at right angles to each other.
When the three basic planes intersect in the center of the
body (as seen in the image to the right) they can be used to
describe various relationships within the body.
 Main Reference Planes :-
i. Sagittal Plane
ii. Coronal Plane
iii. Transverse Plane
iv. Oblique Plane
i. Sagittal plane (median, wheel) — this vertical (top to
bottom) plane divides the body into left and right sides; a
plane that divides the body down the middle into equal
left and right sides is the Median Sagittal Plane.
ii. Coronal plane (vertical, frontal, door) — a vertical
plane that divides the body into front (anterior or
ventral) and back (posterior or dorsal)
iii. Transverse plane (horizontal, table) — this horizontal
plane is parallel to the ground and divides the body into
up (toward the head) and down (toward the feet)
iv. Oblique plane is not shown; it is a slanted plane (at an
angle) that lies between the horizontal and vertical
planes.
 Body cavities are areas in the body
that contain our internal organs.
 The dorsal and ventral cavities are
the two main cavities.
 The dorsal cavity is on the
posterior (back side) of the body
and contains the cranial cavity
and spinal cavity.
 The ventral cavity is on the front
(anterior) of the body and is
divided into the thoracic cavity
(chest) and abdominopelvic
cavity.
 The dorsal cavity is further divided into sub cavities:
1. Cranial Cavity
2. Vertebral Cavity
 Cranial cavity (also called the calvaria) which
surrounds and holds the brain
 Vertebral cavity (also called the spinal cavity) which
includes the vertebrae (spinal column) and spinal
cord.
 The ventral cavity is on the front of the trunk. The
diaphragm (the main muscle of breathing) divides the
ventral cavity into two simple sub cavities:
1. Thoracic Cavity
2. Abdominopelvic Cavity
 Thoracic cavity which is surrounded by the ribs and chest
muscles is superior to the diaphragm and abdominopelvic
cavity. It is further divided into the pleural cavities (left and
right) which contain the lungs, bronchi, mediastinum
which contains heart, pericardial membranes, large vessels
of the heart, trachea, upper esophagus, thymus gland,
lymph nodes, blood vessels and nerves.
 Abdominopelvic cavity is divided into the abdominal cavity
and pelvic cavity. The abdominal cavity is between the
diaphragm and the pelvis. It is lined with a membrane and
contains the stomach, lower part of the esophagus, small
intestine,large intestine, spleen, liver, gallbladder, pancreas
adrenal glands, kidneys and ureters. The pelvic cavity
contains the bladder, some reproductive organs and the
rectum.
 oral cavity – the space in the mouth inside the teeth
and gums and is filled with the tongue when it is
relaxed.
 nasal cavity – in the nose
 orbital cavities (left and right) – hold the eyes
 middle ear cavities (left and right) – hold the small
bones of the middle ear
 synovial cavities – are inside the joint capsules that
surround freely moving joints (such as the hip, knee,
elbow, and shoulder)
 The international standard anatomical position is the
position that provides a reference point for describing
the structures of the human body. In this position, the
body is standing erect with good posture and the face
is looking directly forward. The feet are about six
inches apart, flat on the floor and the toes pointing
forward. The arms are down at the sides with the
palms turned forward and thumbs pointing away from
the body. When the body is lying face down in the
anatomical position, this is called the prone position.
When the body is lying face up, this is called the
supine position.
 Elements of Human Anatomy, Physiology & Health
Education - by Dr. R. K. Goyal
 Human Anatomy and Physiology for Pharmacy – by
Prof. A. K. Jain
Anatomical planes & cavities

More Related Content

What's hot

Introduction to Human Anatomy
Introduction to Human AnatomyIntroduction to Human Anatomy
Introduction to Human Anatomy
Universiti Teknologi Mara (UiTM)
 
Skeletal system
Skeletal system Skeletal system
Skeletal system
ambika bagora
 
Skeletal system. anatomy and physiology of skeletal system. appendicular skel...
Skeletal system. anatomy and physiology of skeletal system. appendicular skel...Skeletal system. anatomy and physiology of skeletal system. appendicular skel...
Skeletal system. anatomy and physiology of skeletal system. appendicular skel...
mamtabisht10
 
Structure of a human cell
Structure of a human cellStructure of a human cell
Structure of a human cell
ManishKharel6
 
Synovial joint
Synovial jointSynovial joint
Synovial joint
farranajwa
 
Tissues, types and functions(Anatomy)- Easy explanation
Tissues, types and functions(Anatomy)- Easy explanationTissues, types and functions(Anatomy)- Easy explanation
Tissues, types and functions(Anatomy)- Easy explanation
Swatilekha Das
 
Cell physiology
Cell physiologyCell physiology
Cell physiology
Gladys Kalpana
 
Cardiovascular System
Cardiovascular SystemCardiovascular System
Cardiovascular System
Abhay Rajpoot
 
Basic anatomical terminology
Basic anatomical terminologyBasic anatomical terminology
Basic anatomical terminology
Gladys Kalpana
 
Cavities of human body
Cavities of human bodyCavities of human body
Cavities of human body
AYYA NADAR JANAKI AMMAL COLLEGE
 
Introduction to anatomy- easy explanation
Introduction to anatomy- easy explanationIntroduction to anatomy- easy explanation
Introduction to anatomy- easy explanation
Swatilekha Das
 
Tissues
TissuesTissues
Classification of bones (anatomy)
Classification of bones (anatomy)Classification of bones (anatomy)
Classification of bones (anatomy)
Saadiyah Naeemi
 
Structure of blood vessels
Structure of blood vesselsStructure of blood vessels
Structure of blood vessels
AtheenaPandian Enterprises
 
Presentation on bones
Presentation on bonesPresentation on bones
Presentation on bones
Sam Shaikh
 
Cell and tissue
Cell and tissueCell and tissue
Cell and tissue
Vivek Dev
 
Anatomy and Physiology.ppt
Anatomy and Physiology.pptAnatomy and Physiology.ppt
Anatomy and Physiology.pptShama
 
Anatomy of Lymphatic system
Anatomy of Lymphatic systemAnatomy of Lymphatic system
Anatomy of Lymphatic system
Dipali Harkhani
 

What's hot (20)

Introduction to Human Anatomy
Introduction to Human AnatomyIntroduction to Human Anatomy
Introduction to Human Anatomy
 
Skeletal system
Skeletal system Skeletal system
Skeletal system
 
Skeletal system. anatomy and physiology of skeletal system. appendicular skel...
Skeletal system. anatomy and physiology of skeletal system. appendicular skel...Skeletal system. anatomy and physiology of skeletal system. appendicular skel...
Skeletal system. anatomy and physiology of skeletal system. appendicular skel...
 
Structure of a human cell
Structure of a human cellStructure of a human cell
Structure of a human cell
 
Synovial joint
Synovial jointSynovial joint
Synovial joint
 
Tissues, types and functions(Anatomy)- Easy explanation
Tissues, types and functions(Anatomy)- Easy explanationTissues, types and functions(Anatomy)- Easy explanation
Tissues, types and functions(Anatomy)- Easy explanation
 
Cell physiology
Cell physiologyCell physiology
Cell physiology
 
Cardiovascular System
Cardiovascular SystemCardiovascular System
Cardiovascular System
 
Basic anatomical terminology
Basic anatomical terminologyBasic anatomical terminology
Basic anatomical terminology
 
Bones
BonesBones
Bones
 
Cavities of human body
Cavities of human bodyCavities of human body
Cavities of human body
 
Introduction to anatomy- easy explanation
Introduction to anatomy- easy explanationIntroduction to anatomy- easy explanation
Introduction to anatomy- easy explanation
 
Tissues
TissuesTissues
Tissues
 
Body cavities
Body cavitiesBody cavities
Body cavities
 
Classification of bones (anatomy)
Classification of bones (anatomy)Classification of bones (anatomy)
Classification of bones (anatomy)
 
Structure of blood vessels
Structure of blood vesselsStructure of blood vessels
Structure of blood vessels
 
Presentation on bones
Presentation on bonesPresentation on bones
Presentation on bones
 
Cell and tissue
Cell and tissueCell and tissue
Cell and tissue
 
Anatomy and Physiology.ppt
Anatomy and Physiology.pptAnatomy and Physiology.ppt
Anatomy and Physiology.ppt
 
Anatomy of Lymphatic system
Anatomy of Lymphatic systemAnatomy of Lymphatic system
Anatomy of Lymphatic system
 

Similar to Anatomical planes & cavities

1. ANATOMICAL TERMINALOGY.pptx
1. ANATOMICAL TERMINALOGY.pptx1. ANATOMICAL TERMINALOGY.pptx
1. ANATOMICAL TERMINALOGY.pptx
FranciKaySichu
 
Basic anatomy
Basic anatomyBasic anatomy
Basic anatomy
university of lahore
 
Anatomical terms
Anatomical termsAnatomical terms
Anatomical termskh Ripon
 
Body directions- regions -planes
Body directions- regions -planes Body directions- regions -planes
Body directions- regions -planes
vdj134
 
Introduction to Anatomy and Organization of human body
Introduction to Anatomy and Organization of human bodyIntroduction to Anatomy and Organization of human body
Introduction to Anatomy and Organization of human body
ZENITH PARMAR
 
AN 1.1 introduction anatomical terminology-Dr.Gosai
AN 1.1 introduction anatomical terminology-Dr.GosaiAN 1.1 introduction anatomical terminology-Dr.Gosai
AN 1.1 introduction anatomical terminology-Dr.Gosai
Dr.B.B. Gosai
 
General anatomy fierst year 2016
General anatomy  fierst year 2016General anatomy  fierst year 2016
General anatomy fierst year 2016
Ahmed S.Ibrahim
 
INTRODUCTION OF HUMAN BODY (ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY).pptx
INTRODUCTION OF HUMAN BODY (ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY).pptxINTRODUCTION OF HUMAN BODY (ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY).pptx
INTRODUCTION OF HUMAN BODY (ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY).pptx
ABHISHEK PRAJAPATI
 
INTRODUCTION TO HUMAN ANATOMY.pdf
INTRODUCTION TO HUMAN ANATOMY.pdfINTRODUCTION TO HUMAN ANATOMY.pdf
INTRODUCTION TO HUMAN ANATOMY.pdf
Dr Musadiq
 
Anatomy and Physiology.pptx
Anatomy and Physiology.pptxAnatomy and Physiology.pptx
Anatomy and Physiology.pptx
vanessajeanpatindol
 
Unit I Introduction To Anatomical Terms And Organization Of The Human Body.pptx
Unit I Introduction To Anatomical Terms And Organization Of The Human Body.pptxUnit I Introduction To Anatomical Terms And Organization Of The Human Body.pptx
Unit I Introduction To Anatomical Terms And Organization Of The Human Body.pptx
shivalingatalekar1
 
LEC # 01 Introduction to Anatomy, Terminology.pdf
LEC # 01 Introduction to Anatomy, Terminology.pdfLEC # 01 Introduction to Anatomy, Terminology.pdf
LEC # 01 Introduction to Anatomy, Terminology.pdf
MUHAMMADUSMANAMANAT
 
anatomy introduction.pptx
anatomy introduction.pptxanatomy introduction.pptx
anatomy introduction.pptx
GalchuuTennooAdulaa
 
1 Intro
1 Intro1 Intro
Introduction to anatomy
Introduction to anatomyIntroduction to anatomy
Introduction to anatomyLawrence James
 
1 introduction to anatomy
1 introduction to anatomy1 introduction to anatomy
1 introduction to anatomy
isakwisa willey
 
Lecture 1 Anatomy and physiology Introduction
Lecture 1 Anatomy and  physiology IntroductionLecture 1 Anatomy and  physiology Introduction
Lecture 1 Anatomy and physiology Introduction
BilalHoushaymi
 
1-Introduction.pptx
1-Introduction.pptx1-Introduction.pptx
1-Introduction.pptx
ssuser15fd011
 
Lect 1 intro to anp
Lect 1   intro to anpLect 1   intro to anp
Lect 1 intro to anpmissazyaziz
 

Similar to Anatomical planes & cavities (20)

1. ANATOMICAL TERMINALOGY.pptx
1. ANATOMICAL TERMINALOGY.pptx1. ANATOMICAL TERMINALOGY.pptx
1. ANATOMICAL TERMINALOGY.pptx
 
Basic anatomy
Basic anatomyBasic anatomy
Basic anatomy
 
Anatomical terms
Anatomical termsAnatomical terms
Anatomical terms
 
Body directions- regions -planes
Body directions- regions -planes Body directions- regions -planes
Body directions- regions -planes
 
Intro to a p ts 2013 stds
Intro  to a  p ts 2013 stdsIntro  to a  p ts 2013 stds
Intro to a p ts 2013 stds
 
Introduction to Anatomy and Organization of human body
Introduction to Anatomy and Organization of human bodyIntroduction to Anatomy and Organization of human body
Introduction to Anatomy and Organization of human body
 
AN 1.1 introduction anatomical terminology-Dr.Gosai
AN 1.1 introduction anatomical terminology-Dr.GosaiAN 1.1 introduction anatomical terminology-Dr.Gosai
AN 1.1 introduction anatomical terminology-Dr.Gosai
 
General anatomy fierst year 2016
General anatomy  fierst year 2016General anatomy  fierst year 2016
General anatomy fierst year 2016
 
INTRODUCTION OF HUMAN BODY (ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY).pptx
INTRODUCTION OF HUMAN BODY (ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY).pptxINTRODUCTION OF HUMAN BODY (ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY).pptx
INTRODUCTION OF HUMAN BODY (ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY).pptx
 
INTRODUCTION TO HUMAN ANATOMY.pdf
INTRODUCTION TO HUMAN ANATOMY.pdfINTRODUCTION TO HUMAN ANATOMY.pdf
INTRODUCTION TO HUMAN ANATOMY.pdf
 
Anatomy and Physiology.pptx
Anatomy and Physiology.pptxAnatomy and Physiology.pptx
Anatomy and Physiology.pptx
 
Unit I Introduction To Anatomical Terms And Organization Of The Human Body.pptx
Unit I Introduction To Anatomical Terms And Organization Of The Human Body.pptxUnit I Introduction To Anatomical Terms And Organization Of The Human Body.pptx
Unit I Introduction To Anatomical Terms And Organization Of The Human Body.pptx
 
LEC # 01 Introduction to Anatomy, Terminology.pdf
LEC # 01 Introduction to Anatomy, Terminology.pdfLEC # 01 Introduction to Anatomy, Terminology.pdf
LEC # 01 Introduction to Anatomy, Terminology.pdf
 
anatomy introduction.pptx
anatomy introduction.pptxanatomy introduction.pptx
anatomy introduction.pptx
 
1 Intro
1 Intro1 Intro
1 Intro
 
Introduction to anatomy
Introduction to anatomyIntroduction to anatomy
Introduction to anatomy
 
1 introduction to anatomy
1 introduction to anatomy1 introduction to anatomy
1 introduction to anatomy
 
Lecture 1 Anatomy and physiology Introduction
Lecture 1 Anatomy and  physiology IntroductionLecture 1 Anatomy and  physiology Introduction
Lecture 1 Anatomy and physiology Introduction
 
1-Introduction.pptx
1-Introduction.pptx1-Introduction.pptx
1-Introduction.pptx
 
Lect 1 intro to anp
Lect 1   intro to anpLect 1   intro to anp
Lect 1 intro to anp
 

More from Ruchita Bhavsar

Inflammatory bowel disease
Inflammatory bowel diseaseInflammatory bowel disease
Inflammatory bowel disease
Ruchita Bhavsar
 
Hypertension
HypertensionHypertension
Hypertension
Ruchita Bhavsar
 
Endothelin
EndothelinEndothelin
Endothelin
Ruchita Bhavsar
 
Glycine receptor
Glycine receptorGlycine receptor
Glycine receptor
Ruchita Bhavsar
 
Senna
SennaSenna
Schizophrenia
SchizophreniaSchizophrenia
Schizophrenia
Ruchita Bhavsar
 
Quinolones
QuinolonesQuinolones
Quinolones
Ruchita Bhavsar
 

More from Ruchita Bhavsar (7)

Inflammatory bowel disease
Inflammatory bowel diseaseInflammatory bowel disease
Inflammatory bowel disease
 
Hypertension
HypertensionHypertension
Hypertension
 
Endothelin
EndothelinEndothelin
Endothelin
 
Glycine receptor
Glycine receptorGlycine receptor
Glycine receptor
 
Senna
SennaSenna
Senna
 
Schizophrenia
SchizophreniaSchizophrenia
Schizophrenia
 
Quinolones
QuinolonesQuinolones
Quinolones
 

Recently uploaded

THEMATIC APPERCEPTION TEST(TAT) cognitive abilities, creativity, and critic...
THEMATIC  APPERCEPTION  TEST(TAT) cognitive abilities, creativity, and critic...THEMATIC  APPERCEPTION  TEST(TAT) cognitive abilities, creativity, and critic...
THEMATIC APPERCEPTION TEST(TAT) cognitive abilities, creativity, and critic...
Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan,kP,Pakistan
 
Leaf Initiation, Growth and Differentiation.pdf
Leaf Initiation, Growth and Differentiation.pdfLeaf Initiation, Growth and Differentiation.pdf
Leaf Initiation, Growth and Differentiation.pdf
Renu Jangid
 
Shallowest Oil Discovery of Turkiye.pptx
Shallowest Oil Discovery of Turkiye.pptxShallowest Oil Discovery of Turkiye.pptx
Shallowest Oil Discovery of Turkiye.pptx
Gokturk Mehmet Dilci
 
Bob Reedy - Nitrate in Texas Groundwater.pdf
Bob Reedy - Nitrate in Texas Groundwater.pdfBob Reedy - Nitrate in Texas Groundwater.pdf
Bob Reedy - Nitrate in Texas Groundwater.pdf
Texas Alliance of Groundwater Districts
 
Phenomics assisted breeding in crop improvement
Phenomics assisted breeding in crop improvementPhenomics assisted breeding in crop improvement
Phenomics assisted breeding in crop improvement
IshaGoswami9
 
The use of Nauplii and metanauplii artemia in aquaculture (brine shrimp).pptx
The use of Nauplii and metanauplii artemia in aquaculture (brine shrimp).pptxThe use of Nauplii and metanauplii artemia in aquaculture (brine shrimp).pptx
The use of Nauplii and metanauplii artemia in aquaculture (brine shrimp).pptx
MAGOTI ERNEST
 
Unveiling the Energy Potential of Marshmallow Deposits.pdf
Unveiling the Energy Potential of Marshmallow Deposits.pdfUnveiling the Energy Potential of Marshmallow Deposits.pdf
Unveiling the Energy Potential of Marshmallow Deposits.pdf
Erdal Coalmaker
 
3D Hybrid PIC simulation of the plasma expansion (ISSS-14)
3D Hybrid PIC simulation of the plasma expansion (ISSS-14)3D Hybrid PIC simulation of the plasma expansion (ISSS-14)
3D Hybrid PIC simulation of the plasma expansion (ISSS-14)
David Osipyan
 
The binding of cosmological structures by massless topological defects
The binding of cosmological structures by massless topological defectsThe binding of cosmological structures by massless topological defects
The binding of cosmological structures by massless topological defects
Sérgio Sacani
 
DERIVATION OF MODIFIED BERNOULLI EQUATION WITH VISCOUS EFFECTS AND TERMINAL V...
DERIVATION OF MODIFIED BERNOULLI EQUATION WITH VISCOUS EFFECTS AND TERMINAL V...DERIVATION OF MODIFIED BERNOULLI EQUATION WITH VISCOUS EFFECTS AND TERMINAL V...
DERIVATION OF MODIFIED BERNOULLI EQUATION WITH VISCOUS EFFECTS AND TERMINAL V...
Wasswaderrick3
 
EWOCS-I: The catalog of X-ray sources in Westerlund 1 from the Extended Weste...
EWOCS-I: The catalog of X-ray sources in Westerlund 1 from the Extended Weste...EWOCS-I: The catalog of X-ray sources in Westerlund 1 from the Extended Weste...
EWOCS-I: The catalog of X-ray sources in Westerlund 1 from the Extended Weste...
Sérgio Sacani
 
Travis Hills' Endeavors in Minnesota: Fostering Environmental and Economic Pr...
Travis Hills' Endeavors in Minnesota: Fostering Environmental and Economic Pr...Travis Hills' Endeavors in Minnesota: Fostering Environmental and Economic Pr...
Travis Hills' Endeavors in Minnesota: Fostering Environmental and Economic Pr...
Travis Hills MN
 
Chapter 12 - climate change and the energy crisis
Chapter 12 - climate change and the energy crisisChapter 12 - climate change and the energy crisis
Chapter 12 - climate change and the energy crisis
tonzsalvador2222
 
20240520 Planning a Circuit Simulator in JavaScript.pptx
20240520 Planning a Circuit Simulator in JavaScript.pptx20240520 Planning a Circuit Simulator in JavaScript.pptx
20240520 Planning a Circuit Simulator in JavaScript.pptx
Sharon Liu
 
Topic: SICKLE CELL DISEASE IN CHILDREN-3.pdf
Topic: SICKLE CELL DISEASE IN CHILDREN-3.pdfTopic: SICKLE CELL DISEASE IN CHILDREN-3.pdf
Topic: SICKLE CELL DISEASE IN CHILDREN-3.pdf
TinyAnderson
 
The debris of the ‘last major merger’ is dynamically young
The debris of the ‘last major merger’ is dynamically youngThe debris of the ‘last major merger’ is dynamically young
The debris of the ‘last major merger’ is dynamically young
Sérgio Sacani
 
如何办理(uvic毕业证书)维多利亚大学毕业证本科学位证书原版一模一样
如何办理(uvic毕业证书)维多利亚大学毕业证本科学位证书原版一模一样如何办理(uvic毕业证书)维多利亚大学毕业证本科学位证书原版一模一样
如何办理(uvic毕业证书)维多利亚大学毕业证本科学位证书原版一模一样
yqqaatn0
 
mô tả các thí nghiệm về đánh giá tác động dòng khí hóa sau đốt
mô tả các thí nghiệm về đánh giá tác động dòng khí hóa sau đốtmô tả các thí nghiệm về đánh giá tác động dòng khí hóa sau đốt
mô tả các thí nghiệm về đánh giá tác động dòng khí hóa sau đốt
HongcNguyn6
 
Orion Air Quality Monitoring Systems - CWS
Orion Air Quality Monitoring Systems - CWSOrion Air Quality Monitoring Systems - CWS
Orion Air Quality Monitoring Systems - CWS
Columbia Weather Systems
 
原版制作(carleton毕业证书)卡尔顿大学毕业证硕士文凭原版一模一样
原版制作(carleton毕业证书)卡尔顿大学毕业证硕士文凭原版一模一样原版制作(carleton毕业证书)卡尔顿大学毕业证硕士文凭原版一模一样
原版制作(carleton毕业证书)卡尔顿大学毕业证硕士文凭原版一模一样
yqqaatn0
 

Recently uploaded (20)

THEMATIC APPERCEPTION TEST(TAT) cognitive abilities, creativity, and critic...
THEMATIC  APPERCEPTION  TEST(TAT) cognitive abilities, creativity, and critic...THEMATIC  APPERCEPTION  TEST(TAT) cognitive abilities, creativity, and critic...
THEMATIC APPERCEPTION TEST(TAT) cognitive abilities, creativity, and critic...
 
Leaf Initiation, Growth and Differentiation.pdf
Leaf Initiation, Growth and Differentiation.pdfLeaf Initiation, Growth and Differentiation.pdf
Leaf Initiation, Growth and Differentiation.pdf
 
Shallowest Oil Discovery of Turkiye.pptx
Shallowest Oil Discovery of Turkiye.pptxShallowest Oil Discovery of Turkiye.pptx
Shallowest Oil Discovery of Turkiye.pptx
 
Bob Reedy - Nitrate in Texas Groundwater.pdf
Bob Reedy - Nitrate in Texas Groundwater.pdfBob Reedy - Nitrate in Texas Groundwater.pdf
Bob Reedy - Nitrate in Texas Groundwater.pdf
 
Phenomics assisted breeding in crop improvement
Phenomics assisted breeding in crop improvementPhenomics assisted breeding in crop improvement
Phenomics assisted breeding in crop improvement
 
The use of Nauplii and metanauplii artemia in aquaculture (brine shrimp).pptx
The use of Nauplii and metanauplii artemia in aquaculture (brine shrimp).pptxThe use of Nauplii and metanauplii artemia in aquaculture (brine shrimp).pptx
The use of Nauplii and metanauplii artemia in aquaculture (brine shrimp).pptx
 
Unveiling the Energy Potential of Marshmallow Deposits.pdf
Unveiling the Energy Potential of Marshmallow Deposits.pdfUnveiling the Energy Potential of Marshmallow Deposits.pdf
Unveiling the Energy Potential of Marshmallow Deposits.pdf
 
3D Hybrid PIC simulation of the plasma expansion (ISSS-14)
3D Hybrid PIC simulation of the plasma expansion (ISSS-14)3D Hybrid PIC simulation of the plasma expansion (ISSS-14)
3D Hybrid PIC simulation of the plasma expansion (ISSS-14)
 
The binding of cosmological structures by massless topological defects
The binding of cosmological structures by massless topological defectsThe binding of cosmological structures by massless topological defects
The binding of cosmological structures by massless topological defects
 
DERIVATION OF MODIFIED BERNOULLI EQUATION WITH VISCOUS EFFECTS AND TERMINAL V...
DERIVATION OF MODIFIED BERNOULLI EQUATION WITH VISCOUS EFFECTS AND TERMINAL V...DERIVATION OF MODIFIED BERNOULLI EQUATION WITH VISCOUS EFFECTS AND TERMINAL V...
DERIVATION OF MODIFIED BERNOULLI EQUATION WITH VISCOUS EFFECTS AND TERMINAL V...
 
EWOCS-I: The catalog of X-ray sources in Westerlund 1 from the Extended Weste...
EWOCS-I: The catalog of X-ray sources in Westerlund 1 from the Extended Weste...EWOCS-I: The catalog of X-ray sources in Westerlund 1 from the Extended Weste...
EWOCS-I: The catalog of X-ray sources in Westerlund 1 from the Extended Weste...
 
Travis Hills' Endeavors in Minnesota: Fostering Environmental and Economic Pr...
Travis Hills' Endeavors in Minnesota: Fostering Environmental and Economic Pr...Travis Hills' Endeavors in Minnesota: Fostering Environmental and Economic Pr...
Travis Hills' Endeavors in Minnesota: Fostering Environmental and Economic Pr...
 
Chapter 12 - climate change and the energy crisis
Chapter 12 - climate change and the energy crisisChapter 12 - climate change and the energy crisis
Chapter 12 - climate change and the energy crisis
 
20240520 Planning a Circuit Simulator in JavaScript.pptx
20240520 Planning a Circuit Simulator in JavaScript.pptx20240520 Planning a Circuit Simulator in JavaScript.pptx
20240520 Planning a Circuit Simulator in JavaScript.pptx
 
Topic: SICKLE CELL DISEASE IN CHILDREN-3.pdf
Topic: SICKLE CELL DISEASE IN CHILDREN-3.pdfTopic: SICKLE CELL DISEASE IN CHILDREN-3.pdf
Topic: SICKLE CELL DISEASE IN CHILDREN-3.pdf
 
The debris of the ‘last major merger’ is dynamically young
The debris of the ‘last major merger’ is dynamically youngThe debris of the ‘last major merger’ is dynamically young
The debris of the ‘last major merger’ is dynamically young
 
如何办理(uvic毕业证书)维多利亚大学毕业证本科学位证书原版一模一样
如何办理(uvic毕业证书)维多利亚大学毕业证本科学位证书原版一模一样如何办理(uvic毕业证书)维多利亚大学毕业证本科学位证书原版一模一样
如何办理(uvic毕业证书)维多利亚大学毕业证本科学位证书原版一模一样
 
mô tả các thí nghiệm về đánh giá tác động dòng khí hóa sau đốt
mô tả các thí nghiệm về đánh giá tác động dòng khí hóa sau đốtmô tả các thí nghiệm về đánh giá tác động dòng khí hóa sau đốt
mô tả các thí nghiệm về đánh giá tác động dòng khí hóa sau đốt
 
Orion Air Quality Monitoring Systems - CWS
Orion Air Quality Monitoring Systems - CWSOrion Air Quality Monitoring Systems - CWS
Orion Air Quality Monitoring Systems - CWS
 
原版制作(carleton毕业证书)卡尔顿大学毕业证硕士文凭原版一模一样
原版制作(carleton毕业证书)卡尔顿大学毕业证硕士文凭原版一模一样原版制作(carleton毕业证书)卡尔顿大学毕业证硕士文凭原版一模一样
原版制作(carleton毕业证书)卡尔顿大学毕业证硕士文凭原版一模一样
 

Anatomical planes & cavities

  • 2.  Introduction to Anatomy  Definition  Introduction to Anatomical Terms  Anatomical Positions  Anatomical Planes  Body Cavities  Summary  Reference
  • 3.  Human anatomical terms make up a distinct nomenclature to describe areas of the body, to provide orientation when describing parts of human anatomy, and to distinguish different movements of the body. An understanding of these terms is necessary to study the human body in depth. Many of these terms are also applicable in animal anatomy (zootomy).
  • 4.  Anatomy is the study of the structure of the human body  Anatomic terms describe the directions within the body as well as the body’s reference positions, planes and cavities.
  • 5.  Anatomists use specific terms to indicate visible areas of the body.  The cephalon or cephalic region refers to the head.  This area is further differentiated into the cranium (skull), facies (face), frons (forehead), oculus (eye area), auris (ear), bucca (cheek), nausus (nose), oris (mouth), and mentis (chin).  The neck area is called the cervicis or cervical region.
  • 6.
  • 7. superior - closer to the head Inferior - closer to the feet reference point - horizontal plane posterior (dorsal) - closer to the posterior surface of the body anterior (ventral) - closer to the anterior surface of the body reference point - frontal or coronal plane medial - lying closer to the midline lateral - lying further away from the midline reference point - sagittal plane proximal - closer to the origin of a structure distal - further away from the origin of a structure reference point - the origin of a structure
  • 8.
  • 9.  The three basic planes intersect at right angles to each other. When the three basic planes intersect in the center of the body (as seen in the image to the right) they can be used to describe various relationships within the body.  Main Reference Planes :- i. Sagittal Plane ii. Coronal Plane iii. Transverse Plane iv. Oblique Plane
  • 10. i. Sagittal plane (median, wheel) — this vertical (top to bottom) plane divides the body into left and right sides; a plane that divides the body down the middle into equal left and right sides is the Median Sagittal Plane. ii. Coronal plane (vertical, frontal, door) — a vertical plane that divides the body into front (anterior or ventral) and back (posterior or dorsal) iii. Transverse plane (horizontal, table) — this horizontal plane is parallel to the ground and divides the body into up (toward the head) and down (toward the feet) iv. Oblique plane is not shown; it is a slanted plane (at an angle) that lies between the horizontal and vertical planes.
  • 11.
  • 12.
  • 13.
  • 14.  Body cavities are areas in the body that contain our internal organs.  The dorsal and ventral cavities are the two main cavities.  The dorsal cavity is on the posterior (back side) of the body and contains the cranial cavity and spinal cavity.  The ventral cavity is on the front (anterior) of the body and is divided into the thoracic cavity (chest) and abdominopelvic cavity.
  • 15.  The dorsal cavity is further divided into sub cavities: 1. Cranial Cavity 2. Vertebral Cavity  Cranial cavity (also called the calvaria) which surrounds and holds the brain  Vertebral cavity (also called the spinal cavity) which includes the vertebrae (spinal column) and spinal cord.
  • 16.  The ventral cavity is on the front of the trunk. The diaphragm (the main muscle of breathing) divides the ventral cavity into two simple sub cavities: 1. Thoracic Cavity 2. Abdominopelvic Cavity  Thoracic cavity which is surrounded by the ribs and chest muscles is superior to the diaphragm and abdominopelvic cavity. It is further divided into the pleural cavities (left and right) which contain the lungs, bronchi, mediastinum which contains heart, pericardial membranes, large vessels of the heart, trachea, upper esophagus, thymus gland, lymph nodes, blood vessels and nerves.
  • 17.  Abdominopelvic cavity is divided into the abdominal cavity and pelvic cavity. The abdominal cavity is between the diaphragm and the pelvis. It is lined with a membrane and contains the stomach, lower part of the esophagus, small intestine,large intestine, spleen, liver, gallbladder, pancreas adrenal glands, kidneys and ureters. The pelvic cavity contains the bladder, some reproductive organs and the rectum.
  • 18.  oral cavity – the space in the mouth inside the teeth and gums and is filled with the tongue when it is relaxed.  nasal cavity – in the nose  orbital cavities (left and right) – hold the eyes  middle ear cavities (left and right) – hold the small bones of the middle ear  synovial cavities – are inside the joint capsules that surround freely moving joints (such as the hip, knee, elbow, and shoulder)
  • 19.  The international standard anatomical position is the position that provides a reference point for describing the structures of the human body. In this position, the body is standing erect with good posture and the face is looking directly forward. The feet are about six inches apart, flat on the floor and the toes pointing forward. The arms are down at the sides with the palms turned forward and thumbs pointing away from the body. When the body is lying face down in the anatomical position, this is called the prone position. When the body is lying face up, this is called the supine position.
  • 20.  Elements of Human Anatomy, Physiology & Health Education - by Dr. R. K. Goyal  Human Anatomy and Physiology for Pharmacy – by Prof. A. K. Jain