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Policy Control
          Amsterdam
      5th & 6th April 2011


    Advanced policy
implementation based on
  subscriber location

        Alberto Boaventura
Who we are




                                                                                      Oi bought Brasil
  Anatel defined                   Brasil Telecom                Oi and Brasil
                                                                                    Telecom and merged
   1800 MHz as                   started its mobile           Telecom acquired
                                                                                      their operations,
  band for mobile                services operation            licenses in 2100
                                                                                     becoming national
 personal services                 based on GSM                   MHz for 3G
                                                                                      wide GSM/UMTS
      (SMP)                         Technology                     operation
                                                                                          operator

                                                                                                                3Q10:


         2000              2002            2004                     2007          2008     2009           Oi Móvel: 39.9 MM
                                                                                                          Oi Fixo: 20.0 MM
                                                                                                          Velox: 4.4 MM
                                                                                                          Oi TV: 275 k
                Oi, former Telemar,                                      Oi started 2G mobile
                 bought license for                                    operations in São Paulo
              operating in 1800 MHz,                                    (region 3). Also, 3G in
                and created de 1st                                             region 1.
              Brazilian GSM Operator:                                 Brasil Telecom started 3G
                         Oi                                             operation in region 2.




Network Architecture and Technology - Network Planning Area
Where we are




                                                                               Region I      Region II     Region III       Total
                                                       Geoeconom ics
                                                              GDP              838,8 B USD   550,0 B USD   711,2 B USD   2100,0 B USD

                                                              Population         105,7 MM       45,4 MM        41,8 MM      192,9 MM
                                                              Municipalities        3.051         1.867           645          5.563
                                                       Oi Service Accesses
                                                              Fixed Lines         12,8 MM        7,2 MM                      20,0 MM
                                                              2G/3G               24,5 MM        8,1 MM         7,3 MM       39,9 MM
                                                              Broadband            2,5 MM        1,9 MM                       4,4 MM
                 Region I
                 Region II
                 Region III




Network Architecture and Technology - Network Planning Area
How big we are
                                                                            Oi has an expressive
                                                                                national and
                                                                            international optical
                                                                                  network
                                                                                        2010




                         Optical Cable Footprint
       Internet.                                                23,340 km
       National                                                 32,584 km
       Regional/Metro.                                         120,261 km
       Total                                                  176,185 km

Network Architecture and Technology - Network Planning Area
Mobile Broadband Industry Consolidation
                                                              2500 MM        Mobile Internet Accesses
                                                                             surpass Desktop Internet
                                                              2000 MM
                                                                                     Accesses
           Global Internet is still
                 growing :
        1.8B Users, +13% Y/Y 18.8T                            1500 MM
         Minutes Spent, +21% Y/Y
                                                              1000 MM
              But, mobile will be
                                                              500 MM
              preferable access
                  in 3 Years                                    0 MM
                                                                        2007E 2008E 2009E 2010E 2011E 2012E 2013E 2014E 2015E

                                                                           Mobile            Desktop     Source: Morgan Stanley 2010




             Revenue forecast per
               application type
                 2008-2015




                                                                                                                 Source: Ericsson 2010




            The MBB is rapidly consolidating, and in couple years will be the
                             preferable Internet access…

Network Architecture and Technology - Network Planning Area
Mainframe-> Mini-> Desktop -> Smartphones/Tablets

                                                                       5 convergence trends: MBB + Social
                                                                      Networking + Video + VoIP + usability in
                                                                              differentiated devices

                                                  Applications                                                     Mobile
                                                                                                                  Internet


                                                                                                      Internet

                                                   Convenience
                                                                                            Desktop

                                                                                    Mini                          10 B+
                                                                       Mainframe


                                                Technology Enablers                                    1 B+




                                                                                            100 MM+
                                                                        1 MM+      10 MM+



                                                                        1960       1970     1980      1990        2020+
                                                                                                       Source: Morgan Stanley 2010
       The expressive Mobile Internet growth projection is justified by
   integration of functionalities (for personal use) in a single device, and
  becoming in next years the preferential Internet device against desktops.
Network Architecture and Technology - Network Planning Area
Phases of M2M Communication
       1st Phase: Vertical Applications                            2nd Phase : Compliant                 3rd Phase: Internet of Things
                                                                  Regulation Applications

        Fleet Management                                        Car Telematic                        Car Telematic
        Positioning Systems                                     Fleet Management                     Fleet Management
        POS-Terminal                                            Parking & Traffic Management in      Parking & Traffic Management in urban
        Remote Management of Assets &                            urban areas                           areas
         Products                                                Positioning Systems                  Positioning Systems
                                                                 Smart Metering                       Smart Metering
                                                                                                       POS-Terminal
                                                                                                       Security
                                                                                                       Remote Monitoring of Green Energy
                                                                                                        power plants
                                                                                                       Remote Management of Assets &
                                                                                                        Products
                                                                                                       Environmental monitoring & ICT support
                                                                                                        to a sustainable economic growth
                                                                                                       eHealth




                          2010                                             2015                                    2020


                                                   M2M just started and ...
Network Architecture and Technology - Network Planning Area
Future: Things Connected




                                           50 Billions of
                                        connected devices
                                          is expected in
                                               2020



Network Architecture and Technology - Network Planning Area
Market is eager for more thoughput
                                                                                         Rel 9 HSPA+     Rel 10 LTE
        TV 3D                                                                           DL: 84 Mbps     DL:> 1 Gbps
                                HDTV                                                    UL: 23 Mbps     BW: 100 MHz
                                                                                        BW: 10 MHz      LTE Advanced
       Rubust
                            On-Demand               Augmented                            Rel 8 HSPA+      Rel 8 LTE
       Gaming
                                                      Reality
                                                                                        DL: 42 Mbps     DL: 326 Mbps
                                                                                        UL: 11,5 Mbps   UL: 86 Mbps
      Video                      P2P                                                    BW: 5 MHz            20 MHz
    Conference                                    Virtualization
                                                                     Visual     Mbps+
                                                                   Networking
                                                                                         Rel 7 HSPA+
                             Mobile TV
      Internet                                                                          DL: 28 Mbps
                                                  Collaboration      M2M                UL: 11,5 Mbps
                                                                                        BW: 5 MHz

                                Music                  Games                    Mbps
                                                                    Social               Rel 6 HSPA
        MMS
                                                                   Networks
                                                                                        DL: 14 Mbps
                                Email               Mobile Web                          UL: 11,5 Mbps
                                                                                        BW: 5 MHz


                                                                                            EDGE
     Telemetry                 LBS/GPS                                          kbps
                                                                                        DL:237 kbps
                                                                                        UL:59 kbps
                                                        EMS
                                 IM                                                         GPRS
         SMS                                                                            DL:80 kbps
                                                                                        UL:20 kbps

    The operators are still intensively investing in network infrastructure
   and new band licenses in order to follow continuous market anxiety for
                               more throughput.
Network Architecture and Technology - Network Planning Area
Service Requirements




          Different Users                                                              Different
                                                         Different    Different        Network
                                                         Services    Applications    Requirements
        Different Devices                                                           (SLA, QoS etc.)



    Users and devices have different requirements which could
                   be explored more efficiently.
               And for Mobile Network Services ...
Network Architecture and Technology - Network Planning Area
Service Requirements




          Different Users                                                              Different
        Different Devices                                Different    Different        Network
                                                         Services    Applications    Requirements
      Different Locations                                                           (SLA, QoS etc.)




                          … new requirement dimension: Location

Network Architecture and Technology - Network Planning Area
Traffic and Revenue decoupling


                                                                           Traffic




                                                                                     Revenue




                                                       Voice Dominant   Data Dominant




                New challenge: how to be profitable in data era?

Network Architecture and Technology - Network Planning Area
Overall Oi’s Technology and Network Vision




                                       Preparing Business and            Preparing the legacy fixed
                                       Operation Support System          and mobile network for
                                       into Service Oriented             supporting IMS and its
                                       Architecture                      interfaces.

                                                                                                         Convergent
                                                                                                         Multimedia &
         Fixed and                     Deploying new broadband                                            Broadband
       Mobile Vertical                 access networks (FTTx, 3G,
         Networks                                                        Implementing IMS and SDP          Service
                                       HSPA, LTE, WiMax )                                                  Oriented
                                                                                                           Network


                                       Creating a flexible and programmable telecommunication
                                       network for quickly and in time launching new services based on
                                       own technology, partners and 3 rd party.




               First step: Consistent network vision construction
                         with right architecture definition
Network Architecture and Technology - Network Planning Area
Service Requirements and QoS Control
  User Expectation & Business Requirements



                                                          QoE < > SLA

                                                                                                                            SLA
                                                                                                                         descriptions
                                                                                          Service & Content Provider

  Service Requirements



                                                                 SLS                                                     Mapping into
                                                                                                                        SLS parameters



                                                                                               Network Operator

  QoS Requirements & Network Configuration

                                                                                                                        Translating to
                                                                Admission
                                                                 Control
                                                                                                                           network
                                                                                                                        configuration
                                                                                                                       parameters and
                                                                                                                        session rules.



                                                   Resource                  Policy
                                                  Reservation               Control                 Network


Network Architecture and Technology - Network Planning Area
QoS Control Phases


             Provides new session
          service authorization based
                on service level                              Admission
             requirements, packet
           scheduling mechanisms,                              Control
          resource load and network
                  capabilities                                                  Provides, per established
                                                                                 session, network policy
                                                                                  enforcement based on
            Provides e2e resource                                             negotiated QoS parameters
        allocations based on session                                          (traffic contract) and policy
         service level requirements                                                       rules.
               (traffic contract)




                                     Resource                              Policy
                                    Reservation                           Control




Network Architecture and Technology - Network Planning Area
Policy Control
                                                              Responsible for offering applications that require
                                                              the control per session or flow.
                                         Application          It can forward to PDP setup information for taking
                                          Function            decision and applying policy rules in any stage of
                                                              session flow.




                                                              Responsible for primarily making policy decision
                                                              per session or flow basis. It authorizes QoS
                                                              resources for each flow using the setup
                                          Policy              information received via Application Server or PEP.
                                      Decision Point          It can use of additional mechanisms and protocols
                                          (PDP)               to achieve additional functionality such as user
                                                              authentication, accounting, policy information
                                                              storage, etc.



  Network resources                                           Responsible for applying the policy rules from
 (transmission, access etc.)                                  PDP, enforcing per session or flow basis the
                                                              current allowed traffic contract.
                                                              It receives a notification or a message that requires
                                                              a policy decision. Given such an event, the PEP
                                                              then formulates a request for a policy decision and
                                                              sends it to the PDP. The PDP returns the policy
                                                              decision and the PEP then enforces the policy
                             Policy Enforcement Point         decision by appropriately accepting or denying the
                                       (PEP)                  request.

Network Architecture and Technology - Network Planning Area
Policy Control in Different Architectures


                                                               Application Function
                                                                                                                Application
                                            (P-CSCF, Service Control Functions, IPTV etc.)                       Function



                  Rx                            Gq’                             Rs                   R5



                                       S-PDF             Rq                PD-FE         Rt
                                                                                                                  Policy
           PCRF                                                                                PF                Decision
                                                                                                                  Point
                                                    RACF                              TRC-FE



                  Gx                           Ia                               Rw                   R3

                                                              Re                          Rn


           PCEF                          BGF                               PE-FE               SFA
          (GGSN/                                                                                                   Policy
           PGW)                                                                                                 Enforcement
                                                    RECF                              TRE-FE              SFM      Point



           3GPP                             TISPAN                              ITU-T           WiMAX

Network Architecture and Technology - Network Planning Area
3GPP Policy & Charging Control Architecture


           P-CSCF                          AF                                  AF                        Application
                                                                                                          Function
                 PDF



                                                Gq                                  Rx



                                                                                                           Policy
                   Go                     PDF                                 PCRF                        Decision
                                                                                                           Point




                                                Go                                  Gx            Sy




                                                                   Charging
                                                                                                  OCS       Policy
            GGSN                         GGSN                      Function   GGSN
                                                                                                  OFCS   Enforcement
                                                              Ga     CRF                 Gy/Gz              Point


     3GPP Release 5                             3GPP Release 6                      3GPP Release 7+


Network Architecture and Technology - Network Planning Area
3GPP Recommendations “Spectrum”
                    Access Network               Core Network                   QoS           Policy & Charging   Charging System
     Architecture




                    25.401/ 36.300                    23.002                  23.107                 23.203            32.240




                    25.301 / 36.401                                                     23.207

                                24.007 / 24.008
     Protocol




                    25.413/36.413                                 29.002

                                                          23.060 / 23.401 / 23.228


                    25.331/36.331                                                29.212 / 29.213 / 29.214


                                                                  29.228                                               32.251
     Parameter




                                                                                                                       32.296

                                                                                                                       32.299




Network Architecture and Technology - Network Planning Area
e2e 3GPP QoS Architecture

                                                                                                                        Performs the policy
                                                                                                                           and charging
                                                              Stores the QoS profile            Analyzes and               enforcement.
                                                              such as maximum bit             takes a decision
                                                               rate, guarantee bit           for right policy to
                                                                rate, priorities etc.            be applied                                Provides credit
                                                                                                                                          control and data
                                                                                                                                         record for on-line
                                                                                                                                        and off-line charging
             Performs eficient                                                                                                              respectively
                                            Performs with RAN
           packet scheduling by                                       HLR/HSS                                              OCS/
                                             QoS policies from                                    PCRF
           using QoS parameter                                         /SPR                                                OFCS
                                            HLR form home and                           Sp
            from core network
                                              roaming users.
              (SPI, ARP, THP)
                                                                            Gr/S6a                    Gx           Gy/Gz


                                                                                                 GGSN
                                                                       SGSN                                                  Internet
                                                                                                 (SGW
                                                                       (MME)
                                            Gb/IuPS/S1                            Gn/S11         PGW)        Gi/SGi




                                Radio Access Bearer                             CN Bearer

                                UMTS Bearer (PDP Context & QoS Profile)                                               External Bearer
                                                              IP Bearer, Applicatin and Services




              Based on recommendations 3GPP TS 23.107, 23.203 and 23.207


Network Architecture and Technology - Network Planning Area
PCC Session Flows
                                                              PULL procedure(Provisioning solicited by
                                                              the PCEF): In response to a request for
                                                              PCC rules being made by the PCEF, as
                       CCR                                                                                            AAR, RAR
                                                              described in the preceding section, the
                                                              PCRF shall provision PCC rules in the CC-
                                                              Answer;

                                    PCRF                                                                                         PCRF
                                                              PUSH procedure(Unsolicited
                                                              provisioning): The PCRF may decide to
                                                              provision PCC rules without obtaining a
                       CCA                                    request from the PCEF, e.g. in response                 AAA, RAA
                                                              to information provided to the PCRF via
                                                              the Rx reference point, or in response to
                                                              an internal trigger within the PCRF.




                                                                               UE             GW            PCRF
                                                                            Initiated      Initiated      Initiated
                                         Session Establishment                  
                                         Session Modification                                               
                                         Session Termination                                               




Network Architecture and Technology - Network Planning Area
PCC Session Establishment Flow Scenario

                                                                               HLR/HSS                                                                   OCS/
                                                      SGSN                                               GGSN                     PCRF
                                                                                /SPR                                                                     OFCS




                Update Location process and static QoS setup.

     Activate PDP Context Request


                                                          Create PDP Context Request
                                                          [IMSI, QoS Subscribed, Charg.Characteristics,      Credit Control Request

                                                          Location Info]                                     [AVPs]

                                                                                                    Profile Request



                                                                                                                             Policy Decision


                                                                                                              Credit Control Application
                                                                                                              [Policies, QoS Negotiated,
                                                                                                              Event Trigger, Cherging Key]

                                                                                                                      CCR/CCA [charging key, quote]

                                                              Create PDP Context Response
                                                              [TEID, PDP Address, Protocol Configuration Options, QoS Negotiated, Charging Id,
                                                              Prohibit Payload Compression, APN Restriction, Cause, CGI/SAI/RAI change report required, BCM) ]
                 RadioAccessBearer Setup


     Activate PDP Context Response


Network Architecture and Technology - Network Planning Area
Role of Location Information in PCC
                       CCR                         The positioning information can be provided by the Event Reporting Function
                                                   (ERF).

                                 PCRF               The Event Reporting Function is located either at the PCEF or, at the BBERF (if
                                                   applicable).

                     CCA                           The PCRF subscribes to new event triggers or remove armed event triggers
             [Event Triggers Arm]                  unsolicited at any time or upon receiving event report or rule request from the
                                                   PCEF (or BBERF).


                     CCR
            [Event Trigger Report]


                                                   The PCEF (or BBERF) performs event trigger detection. When an event matching
                                 PCRF              the event trigger occurs, the PCEF shall report the occurred event to the PCRF.


                    CCA
              [New Policy Rules]




    Location change (serving cell)                            Location change (serving area)      Location change (serving CN node)


Network Architecture and Technology - Network Planning Area
Trigger support in Architetcure Evolution



                             3GPP TS 23.203
                             Event Triggers                               8.0.0   8.1.1   8.4.0
                                PLMN change                                              
                                QoS change                                               
                                QoS change exceeding authorization                       
                                Traffic mapping information change                        
                                Resource modification request                              
                                Change in type of IP‑CAN                                  
                                Loss/recovery of transmission resources                   
                                Location change (serving cell)                             
                                Location change (serving area)                             
                                Location change (serving CN node)                          
                                Out of credit                                              
                                Enforced PCC rule request                                  
                                UE IP address change                                       




Network Architecture and Technology - Network Planning Area
Simplified PCC Flow based on Location Changed

                                                                           HLR/HSS                                                                OCS/
                                                      SGSN                                           GGSN                    PCRF
                                                                            /SPR                                                                  OFCS




                                                                                                            Policy & Event
                                                                                                             Trigger Set
                                                                 Policy & Event Trigger Armed



        Location change (serving cell, serving
                       area)
                                                              Event Trigger detected and informed

                                                                                                        Credit Control Request
                                                                                                        [Location Information]

                                                                                                Profile Request



                                                                                                                         Policy Decision

                                                                                                         Credit Control Application
                                                                                                         [Policies, QoS Negotiated]

                                                                   PDP Context Modification                       CCR/CCA [charging key, quote]

                 RadioAccessBearer Setup




Network Architecture and Technology - Network Planning Area
SUPL (Secure User Plane Location) Architecture

                                                       SMSC              WAP               IMS


                                                              Lup

                                                        Lup                          P-1
                                                              P-2                                Lz
                                                                    Gm

                       SET
                      Mobile
                     Location                                                                          SUPL
                      Service                                                                         Location
                    Application                                                                       Platform
                    SUPL Agent                                Position Information




                                                                          Core                        IP Network
                                                                                                       Internet
                                                                         Network



                GPS capable
               mobile terminal

Network Architecture and Technology - Network Planning Area
SUPL as Service Enabler in PCC environment
             SET
            Mobile                                                                                      SUPL
           Location                                           Position Information
                                                                                                       Location
            Service                                                                                    Platform
          Application
          SUPL Agent



                                                                          Web Services (or DIAMETER)




                                                                                                        OCS/
                                                                                     PCRF
                                                      HLR/HSS/SPR                                       OFCS
                                                                          Sp


                                                                 Gr/                     Gx
                                                                 S6a                           Gy/Gz
                                                                          Gc


                                                              SGSN                   GGSN               IP Network
                                                                                                            Internet
                                                              MME                    S/PGW
                                           Gb/                          Gn/S11                Gi/SGi
                                         IuPS/S1




Network Architecture and Technology - Network Planning Area
Simplified PCC Flow based on Location Changed

                                                      SGSN             HLR/HSS                 GGSN                    PCRF                   SUPL
                                                                        /SPR




                Update Location process and static QoS setup.



                                            Session Establishment




                                        Location Changed based on GPS information (lat-long) via data connection



                                                                                                                                 Inform
                                                                                                                               Location via
                                                                                                                                API or Rx
                                                                                                                                Interface



                                                                                                                   Policy Decision


                                                                                                    AAR/RAR
                                                                                                    [PCC Rules Provision]


                 RadioAccessBearer Setup                       PDP Context Modification

                                                                                                   AAA/RAA



Network Architecture and Technology - Network Planning Area
Current Oi´s FMC Architecture Vision for PCC


                                                                        GGSN                  IP Network
                                                      SGSN
                                                                       S/PGW
                                                      MME                                       Internet
                                                                       (PCEF)
                                        Gb/                   Gn/S11             Gi/SGi
                                       IuPS/                                    Gy/Gz
                                         S1
                                                                                            OCS
                                                                           Gx                                             Applications
                                                                                            OFCS
                                                               Gr

                                                                                            PCRF
                                                                                                                           Enablers




                                                                                                           Web Services
                                                                                            RACF
                                                                                                   Sp
                                                                       Ro/Rf
                                                                                  Rx
                                                                                             HSS
                                                                                            (NASS)
                                                                                       e4          Cx

                                                                       Ia/Re                 IMS



                                                               Mc
                                                     MSAN/                                    IP Network
                                                                       BGF/
                                                      ONU
                                                                       RECF                     Internet
                                                     (AGW)




Network Architecture and Technology - Network Planning Area
Conclusions

    ► Rapid and consistent mobile broadband consolidation, air interface technology advances and machine type
      communication will bring a tsunami of IP data traffic. In the same time rapid service lifecycle forces new
      services to be mature quickly, with low profitability.

    ► Different users have different service expectations and application QoE requirements. Service
      customization based on device, network, access technology and location awareness is essential for fitting
      customer experience improvement with right cost.

    ► Policy & Charging Control is a powerful tool for capturing opportunities and any service lifecycle stage:
      Rating and charging services for developing compelling and competitive revenue models. Also PCC helps
      to transform data into customer-centric intelligence supporting revenue assurance via real-time revenue
      intelligence combined with monitoring and analysis.

    ► Unfortunately PCC architecture is still being formulated by SDOs with incipient definitions, and there is no
      consensus in terms of element network roles, interfaces and protocols. It is imperative to be created by
      operators a robust and proof of future network architecture vision.

    ► For mobile broadband services, 3GPP has a complete framework, but with mature definitions after release
      8. In special, for location services, the event triggers are completely defined in release 8.40 with cellid
      granularity.

    ► Other location service architecture must be investigated, such as OMA SUPL that introduces more location
      accuracy, but it requires a terminal support and hard integration task



Network Architecture and Technology - Network Planning Area
Q&A


Alberto Boaventura
  alberto@oi.net.br
  +55 21 8875 4998

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Advanced Policy Implementation Based On Subscriber Locatioon V3.0

  • 1. Policy Control Amsterdam 5th & 6th April 2011 Advanced policy implementation based on subscriber location Alberto Boaventura
  • 2. Who we are Oi bought Brasil Anatel defined Brasil Telecom Oi and Brasil Telecom and merged 1800 MHz as started its mobile Telecom acquired their operations, band for mobile services operation licenses in 2100 becoming national personal services based on GSM MHz for 3G wide GSM/UMTS (SMP) Technology operation operator 3Q10: 2000 2002 2004 2007 2008 2009 Oi Móvel: 39.9 MM Oi Fixo: 20.0 MM Velox: 4.4 MM Oi TV: 275 k Oi, former Telemar, Oi started 2G mobile bought license for operations in São Paulo operating in 1800 MHz, (region 3). Also, 3G in and created de 1st region 1. Brazilian GSM Operator: Brasil Telecom started 3G Oi operation in region 2. Network Architecture and Technology - Network Planning Area
  • 3. Where we are Region I Region II Region III Total Geoeconom ics GDP 838,8 B USD 550,0 B USD 711,2 B USD 2100,0 B USD Population 105,7 MM 45,4 MM 41,8 MM 192,9 MM Municipalities 3.051 1.867 645 5.563 Oi Service Accesses Fixed Lines 12,8 MM 7,2 MM 20,0 MM 2G/3G 24,5 MM 8,1 MM 7,3 MM 39,9 MM Broadband 2,5 MM 1,9 MM 4,4 MM Region I Region II Region III Network Architecture and Technology - Network Planning Area
  • 4. How big we are Oi has an expressive national and international optical network 2010 Optical Cable Footprint Internet. 23,340 km National 32,584 km Regional/Metro. 120,261 km Total 176,185 km Network Architecture and Technology - Network Planning Area
  • 5. Mobile Broadband Industry Consolidation 2500 MM Mobile Internet Accesses surpass Desktop Internet 2000 MM Accesses Global Internet is still growing : 1.8B Users, +13% Y/Y 18.8T 1500 MM Minutes Spent, +21% Y/Y 1000 MM But, mobile will be 500 MM preferable access in 3 Years 0 MM 2007E 2008E 2009E 2010E 2011E 2012E 2013E 2014E 2015E Mobile Desktop Source: Morgan Stanley 2010 Revenue forecast per application type 2008-2015 Source: Ericsson 2010 The MBB is rapidly consolidating, and in couple years will be the preferable Internet access… Network Architecture and Technology - Network Planning Area
  • 6. Mainframe-> Mini-> Desktop -> Smartphones/Tablets 5 convergence trends: MBB + Social Networking + Video + VoIP + usability in differentiated devices Applications Mobile Internet Internet Convenience Desktop Mini 10 B+ Mainframe Technology Enablers 1 B+ 100 MM+ 1 MM+ 10 MM+ 1960 1970 1980 1990 2020+ Source: Morgan Stanley 2010 The expressive Mobile Internet growth projection is justified by integration of functionalities (for personal use) in a single device, and becoming in next years the preferential Internet device against desktops. Network Architecture and Technology - Network Planning Area
  • 7. Phases of M2M Communication 1st Phase: Vertical Applications 2nd Phase : Compliant 3rd Phase: Internet of Things Regulation Applications  Fleet Management  Car Telematic  Car Telematic  Positioning Systems  Fleet Management  Fleet Management  POS-Terminal  Parking & Traffic Management in  Parking & Traffic Management in urban  Remote Management of Assets & urban areas areas Products  Positioning Systems  Positioning Systems  Smart Metering  Smart Metering  POS-Terminal  Security  Remote Monitoring of Green Energy power plants  Remote Management of Assets & Products  Environmental monitoring & ICT support to a sustainable economic growth  eHealth 2010 2015 2020 M2M just started and ... Network Architecture and Technology - Network Planning Area
  • 8. Future: Things Connected 50 Billions of connected devices is expected in 2020 Network Architecture and Technology - Network Planning Area
  • 9. Market is eager for more thoughput Rel 9 HSPA+ Rel 10 LTE TV 3D DL: 84 Mbps DL:> 1 Gbps HDTV UL: 23 Mbps BW: 100 MHz BW: 10 MHz LTE Advanced Rubust On-Demand Augmented Rel 8 HSPA+ Rel 8 LTE Gaming Reality DL: 42 Mbps DL: 326 Mbps UL: 11,5 Mbps UL: 86 Mbps Video P2P BW: 5 MHz 20 MHz Conference Virtualization Visual Mbps+ Networking Rel 7 HSPA+ Mobile TV Internet DL: 28 Mbps Collaboration M2M UL: 11,5 Mbps BW: 5 MHz Music Games Mbps Social Rel 6 HSPA MMS Networks DL: 14 Mbps Email Mobile Web UL: 11,5 Mbps BW: 5 MHz EDGE Telemetry LBS/GPS kbps DL:237 kbps UL:59 kbps EMS IM GPRS SMS DL:80 kbps UL:20 kbps The operators are still intensively investing in network infrastructure and new band licenses in order to follow continuous market anxiety for more throughput. Network Architecture and Technology - Network Planning Area
  • 10. Service Requirements Different Users Different Different Different Network Services Applications Requirements Different Devices (SLA, QoS etc.) Users and devices have different requirements which could be explored more efficiently. And for Mobile Network Services ... Network Architecture and Technology - Network Planning Area
  • 11. Service Requirements Different Users Different Different Devices Different Different Network Services Applications Requirements Different Locations (SLA, QoS etc.) … new requirement dimension: Location Network Architecture and Technology - Network Planning Area
  • 12. Traffic and Revenue decoupling Traffic Revenue Voice Dominant Data Dominant New challenge: how to be profitable in data era? Network Architecture and Technology - Network Planning Area
  • 13. Overall Oi’s Technology and Network Vision Preparing Business and Preparing the legacy fixed Operation Support System and mobile network for into Service Oriented supporting IMS and its Architecture interfaces. Convergent Multimedia & Fixed and Deploying new broadband Broadband Mobile Vertical access networks (FTTx, 3G, Networks Implementing IMS and SDP Service HSPA, LTE, WiMax ) Oriented Network Creating a flexible and programmable telecommunication network for quickly and in time launching new services based on own technology, partners and 3 rd party. First step: Consistent network vision construction with right architecture definition Network Architecture and Technology - Network Planning Area
  • 14. Service Requirements and QoS Control User Expectation & Business Requirements QoE < > SLA  SLA descriptions Service & Content Provider Service Requirements SLS Mapping into SLS parameters Network Operator QoS Requirements & Network Configuration Translating to Admission Control network configuration parameters and session rules. Resource Policy Reservation Control Network Network Architecture and Technology - Network Planning Area
  • 15. QoS Control Phases Provides new session service authorization based on service level Admission requirements, packet scheduling mechanisms, Control resource load and network capabilities Provides, per established session, network policy enforcement based on Provides e2e resource negotiated QoS parameters allocations based on session (traffic contract) and policy service level requirements rules. (traffic contract) Resource Policy Reservation Control Network Architecture and Technology - Network Planning Area
  • 16. Policy Control Responsible for offering applications that require the control per session or flow. Application It can forward to PDP setup information for taking Function decision and applying policy rules in any stage of session flow. Responsible for primarily making policy decision per session or flow basis. It authorizes QoS resources for each flow using the setup Policy information received via Application Server or PEP. Decision Point It can use of additional mechanisms and protocols (PDP) to achieve additional functionality such as user authentication, accounting, policy information storage, etc. Network resources Responsible for applying the policy rules from (transmission, access etc.) PDP, enforcing per session or flow basis the current allowed traffic contract. It receives a notification or a message that requires a policy decision. Given such an event, the PEP then formulates a request for a policy decision and sends it to the PDP. The PDP returns the policy decision and the PEP then enforces the policy Policy Enforcement Point decision by appropriately accepting or denying the (PEP) request. Network Architecture and Technology - Network Planning Area
  • 17. Policy Control in Different Architectures Application Function Application (P-CSCF, Service Control Functions, IPTV etc.) Function Rx Gq’ Rs R5 S-PDF Rq PD-FE Rt Policy PCRF PF Decision Point RACF TRC-FE Gx Ia Rw R3 Re Rn PCEF BGF PE-FE SFA (GGSN/ Policy PGW) Enforcement RECF TRE-FE SFM Point 3GPP TISPAN ITU-T WiMAX Network Architecture and Technology - Network Planning Area
  • 18. 3GPP Policy & Charging Control Architecture P-CSCF AF AF Application Function PDF Gq Rx Policy Go PDF PCRF Decision Point Go Gx Sy Charging OCS Policy GGSN GGSN Function GGSN OFCS Enforcement Ga CRF Gy/Gz Point 3GPP Release 5 3GPP Release 6 3GPP Release 7+ Network Architecture and Technology - Network Planning Area
  • 19. 3GPP Recommendations “Spectrum” Access Network Core Network QoS Policy & Charging Charging System Architecture 25.401/ 36.300 23.002 23.107 23.203 32.240 25.301 / 36.401 23.207 24.007 / 24.008 Protocol 25.413/36.413 29.002 23.060 / 23.401 / 23.228 25.331/36.331 29.212 / 29.213 / 29.214 29.228 32.251 Parameter 32.296 32.299 Network Architecture and Technology - Network Planning Area
  • 20. e2e 3GPP QoS Architecture Performs the policy and charging Stores the QoS profile Analyzes and enforcement. such as maximum bit takes a decision rate, guarantee bit for right policy to rate, priorities etc. be applied Provides credit control and data record for on-line and off-line charging Performs eficient respectively Performs with RAN packet scheduling by HLR/HSS OCS/ QoS policies from PCRF using QoS parameter /SPR OFCS HLR form home and Sp from core network roaming users. (SPI, ARP, THP) Gr/S6a Gx Gy/Gz GGSN SGSN Internet (SGW (MME) Gb/IuPS/S1 Gn/S11 PGW) Gi/SGi Radio Access Bearer CN Bearer UMTS Bearer (PDP Context & QoS Profile) External Bearer IP Bearer, Applicatin and Services Based on recommendations 3GPP TS 23.107, 23.203 and 23.207 Network Architecture and Technology - Network Planning Area
  • 21. PCC Session Flows PULL procedure(Provisioning solicited by the PCEF): In response to a request for PCC rules being made by the PCEF, as CCR AAR, RAR described in the preceding section, the PCRF shall provision PCC rules in the CC- Answer; PCRF PCRF PUSH procedure(Unsolicited provisioning): The PCRF may decide to provision PCC rules without obtaining a CCA request from the PCEF, e.g. in response AAA, RAA to information provided to the PCRF via the Rx reference point, or in response to an internal trigger within the PCRF. UE GW PCRF Initiated Initiated Initiated Session Establishment  Session Modification   Session Termination    Network Architecture and Technology - Network Planning Area
  • 22. PCC Session Establishment Flow Scenario HLR/HSS OCS/ SGSN GGSN PCRF /SPR OFCS Update Location process and static QoS setup. Activate PDP Context Request Create PDP Context Request [IMSI, QoS Subscribed, Charg.Characteristics, Credit Control Request Location Info] [AVPs] Profile Request Policy Decision Credit Control Application [Policies, QoS Negotiated, Event Trigger, Cherging Key] CCR/CCA [charging key, quote] Create PDP Context Response [TEID, PDP Address, Protocol Configuration Options, QoS Negotiated, Charging Id, Prohibit Payload Compression, APN Restriction, Cause, CGI/SAI/RAI change report required, BCM) ] RadioAccessBearer Setup Activate PDP Context Response Network Architecture and Technology - Network Planning Area
  • 23. Role of Location Information in PCC CCR The positioning information can be provided by the Event Reporting Function (ERF). PCRF The Event Reporting Function is located either at the PCEF or, at the BBERF (if applicable). CCA The PCRF subscribes to new event triggers or remove armed event triggers [Event Triggers Arm] unsolicited at any time or upon receiving event report or rule request from the PCEF (or BBERF). CCR [Event Trigger Report] The PCEF (or BBERF) performs event trigger detection. When an event matching PCRF the event trigger occurs, the PCEF shall report the occurred event to the PCRF. CCA [New Policy Rules] Location change (serving cell) Location change (serving area) Location change (serving CN node) Network Architecture and Technology - Network Planning Area
  • 24. Trigger support in Architetcure Evolution 3GPP TS 23.203 Event Triggers 8.0.0 8.1.1 8.4.0 PLMN change    QoS change    QoS change exceeding authorization    Traffic mapping information change   Resource modification request  Change in type of IP‑CAN   Loss/recovery of transmission resources   Location change (serving cell)  Location change (serving area)  Location change (serving CN node)  Out of credit  Enforced PCC rule request  UE IP address change  Network Architecture and Technology - Network Planning Area
  • 25. Simplified PCC Flow based on Location Changed HLR/HSS OCS/ SGSN GGSN PCRF /SPR OFCS Policy & Event Trigger Set Policy & Event Trigger Armed Location change (serving cell, serving area) Event Trigger detected and informed Credit Control Request [Location Information] Profile Request Policy Decision Credit Control Application [Policies, QoS Negotiated] PDP Context Modification CCR/CCA [charging key, quote] RadioAccessBearer Setup Network Architecture and Technology - Network Planning Area
  • 26. SUPL (Secure User Plane Location) Architecture SMSC WAP IMS Lup Lup P-1 P-2 Lz Gm SET Mobile Location SUPL Service Location Application Platform SUPL Agent Position Information Core IP Network Internet Network GPS capable mobile terminal Network Architecture and Technology - Network Planning Area
  • 27. SUPL as Service Enabler in PCC environment SET Mobile SUPL Location Position Information Location Service Platform Application SUPL Agent Web Services (or DIAMETER) OCS/ PCRF HLR/HSS/SPR OFCS Sp Gr/ Gx S6a Gy/Gz Gc SGSN GGSN IP Network Internet MME S/PGW Gb/ Gn/S11 Gi/SGi IuPS/S1 Network Architecture and Technology - Network Planning Area
  • 28. Simplified PCC Flow based on Location Changed SGSN HLR/HSS GGSN PCRF SUPL /SPR Update Location process and static QoS setup. Session Establishment Location Changed based on GPS information (lat-long) via data connection Inform Location via API or Rx Interface Policy Decision AAR/RAR [PCC Rules Provision] RadioAccessBearer Setup PDP Context Modification AAA/RAA Network Architecture and Technology - Network Planning Area
  • 29. Current Oi´s FMC Architecture Vision for PCC GGSN IP Network SGSN S/PGW MME Internet (PCEF) Gb/ Gn/S11 Gi/SGi IuPS/ Gy/Gz S1 OCS Gx Applications OFCS Gr PCRF Enablers Web Services RACF Sp Ro/Rf Rx HSS (NASS) e4 Cx Ia/Re IMS Mc MSAN/ IP Network BGF/ ONU RECF Internet (AGW) Network Architecture and Technology - Network Planning Area
  • 30. Conclusions ► Rapid and consistent mobile broadband consolidation, air interface technology advances and machine type communication will bring a tsunami of IP data traffic. In the same time rapid service lifecycle forces new services to be mature quickly, with low profitability. ► Different users have different service expectations and application QoE requirements. Service customization based on device, network, access technology and location awareness is essential for fitting customer experience improvement with right cost. ► Policy & Charging Control is a powerful tool for capturing opportunities and any service lifecycle stage: Rating and charging services for developing compelling and competitive revenue models. Also PCC helps to transform data into customer-centric intelligence supporting revenue assurance via real-time revenue intelligence combined with monitoring and analysis. ► Unfortunately PCC architecture is still being formulated by SDOs with incipient definitions, and there is no consensus in terms of element network roles, interfaces and protocols. It is imperative to be created by operators a robust and proof of future network architecture vision. ► For mobile broadband services, 3GPP has a complete framework, but with mature definitions after release 8. In special, for location services, the event triggers are completely defined in release 8.40 with cellid granularity. ► Other location service architecture must be investigated, such as OMA SUPL that introduces more location accuracy, but it requires a terminal support and hard integration task Network Architecture and Technology - Network Planning Area
  • 31. Q&A Alberto Boaventura alberto@oi.net.br +55 21 8875 4998