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LTE LATAM 2015 - Base Station Virtualization: Advantages and Challenges

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Brings the discussion about Mobile Access Network centralization due data traffic density explosion. Shows the Cloud RAN as viable alternative for access network and its advantages. However, it presents the critical points of this implementation.

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LTE LATAM 2015 - Base Station Virtualization: Advantages and Challenges

  1. 1. Base Station Virtualization: Advantages and Challenges Network Technology Strategy Department Alberto Boaventura 2015-04-05 April, 7-9th 2015
  2. 2. 12 3 We have approximately 330,000 kilometers of fiber optic cable installed, which makes our network the largest telecommunications backbone in Brazil. Our mobile network, with more than 25,000 outdoor stations and almost 1 million of Wi-Fi hotspot, covers areas where approximately 88.5% of the population lives and works. Currently we provide ADSL and VDSL services in 4703 of 5570 Brazilian cities. We are upgrading with fiber optic-based GPON to support VDSL2 and facilitate the provision of our TV services. Already we offer services up to 100 Mbps and 1 Gbps for residential and enterprise customers respectively. Who we are ... 40,3% 27,1% 32,6% 54,7% 23,1% 21,6% Region 1 Region 2 Region 3 GDP Population After privatization, the Brazilian market has been split in 3 Regions. Oi is fixed incumbent operator in Region 1 & 2, but has presence in all Brazilian regions. Where we are ... Brazil is the largest country in Latin America with 8.5 million of km2. The GDP is 2.246 Trillion of USD and Population is 203 million of inhabitants. 16 States 10 States 1 State 174 202,9 242,2 261,8 271,1 41,5 42 43 44,3 44,8 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 Mobile Accesses Fixed Accesses Millions Source: Teleco/2014
  3. 3. Changes and … Source: Ericsson 2013 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 1000 1800 Voice Data Total(UL+DL)traffic(PetaBytes) Source: Cisco VNI 2012 12 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 6 Mobile File Sharing Mobile M2M Mobile Web/Data Mobile Video Exabytespermonth In 2016, Social Newtorking will be second highest penetrated consumer mobile service with 2, 4 billion users – 53% of consumer mobile users - Cisco 2012 0,0 0,5 1,0 1,5 2,0 2,5 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014* MBB Developing MBB Developed FBB Developing FBB Developed WorldBroadbandSubscriptions(Billions) Source: ITU/ICT/MIS 2014 132 89 113 147 117 161 146 103 181 170 149 151 110 59 66 43 540 min 479 min 474 min 444 min Indonesia China Brazil USA TV Laptop+PC Smartphone Tablet Source: KPCB & Milward Brown 2014 DailyDistr.OfScreenMinutes 13 kbps 50 kbps 125 kbps 200 kbps 684 kbps 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 Source: Cisco VNI (2010/2011/2012/2013) 242% 2009 ‘10 ‘11 ‘12 ‘13 ‘14 ‘15 ‘16 ‘17 ‘18 10 6 LTE UMTS/HSPA GSM;EDGE TD-SCDMA CDMA Other WorldMobileSub.(Billions) Source: Ericsson 2012 LatinAmericaAverageThroughput VIDEO BECOMES SOCIAL …DATA BECOMES VIDEO …MOBILE BECOMES DATA …TELECOM BECOMES MOBILE … On the market demand in dense urban areas during business hours, it has been calculated that 800 Mbps/km2 are required (BuNGee and Artists4G Projects). The Convention Industry Council Manual guidelines recommend 10 square feet per person. It represents 1 Million persons per km2. If all persons upload video with 64 kbps, it represents 64 Gbps/km2! Whatsapp: Over 50bn messages every day. Facebook: 1 billion of active users and a half of them use mobile access (488 million users) regularly. Twitter: 50% users are using the social network via mobile. YouTube: more than ¼ of users use in Mobile Device Instagram: The average Instagram mobile user spent two times comparing tp Twitter. By 2018 there will be nearly 1.4 mobile devices per capita. There will be over 10 billion mobile- connected devices by 2018, including machine-to-machine (M2M) modules—exceeding the world’s population at that time (7.6 billion) – CISCO VNI 2014 … VIDEO & SOCIAL BECOME CROWD TRAFFIC INTERNET OF EVERYTHING TRAFFIC & REVENUE DECOUPLING Voice Centric Data Centric Traffic Reveue
  4. 4. LTE Advanced ITU-R M.2034 Spectral Efficiency DL 15 bits/Hz UL 6.75 bits/Hz Latency User Plane < 10 ms Control Plane < 100 ms Bandwidth ITU-R M.2034 40 MHz ITU-R M.1645 100 MHz ADVANCED Coverage Capacity SmallCells High order MIMO Carrier Aggregation Hetnet/CoMP LTE LTE –A 3GPP TR 36.913 3GPP Release 8 3GPP Release 10 RELEASE 8/9 RELEASE 10/11 RELEASE 12/13 20 MHz OFDM SC-FDMA DL 4x4 MIMO SON, HeNB Carrier Aggregation UL 4x4 MIMO DL/UL CoMP HetNet (x4.33) MU-MIMO (x1.14) Small Cells Enh. CoMP Enh. FD-MIMO (x3.53) DiverseTraffic Support LTE Roadmap Carrier Aggregation Intra & Inter Band Band X Band y Multihop Relay Multihop Relay Smallcells Heterogeneous Network Colaboration MIMO (CoMP) e HetNet High Order DL-MIMO & Advanced UL-MIMO C-plane (RRC) Phantom Celll Macro Cell F1 F2 F2>F1 U-plane D2D New Architecture
  5. 5. METIS PROJECT PREMISES (SOURCE: ETSI/ERICSSON) METIS: 29 PARTNERS 5G Vision and Timeframe ITU-R´s docs paving way to 5G: IMT.VISION (Deadline July 2015) - Title: “Framework and overall objectives of the future development of IMT for 2020 and beyond” Objective: Defining the framework and overall objectives of IMT for 2020 and beyond to drive the future developments for IMT IMT.FUTURE TECHNOLOGY TRENDS (Deadline Oct. 2014) To provide a view of future IMT technology aspects 2015-2020 and beyond and to provide information on trends of future IMT technology aspects EU (Nov 2012) China (Fev2013) Korea (Jun 2013) Japão (Out 2013) 2020 and Beyond Adhoc Exploratory Research Pre-standardization Standardization activities Trials and Commercialization 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 WRC15WRC12 WRC19 Mobile and wireless communications Enablers for the Twenty-twenty Information Society
  6. 6. 5G Potential Technologies 1=0º 1=45º 30 210 60 240 90 270 120 300 150 330 180 ... p1 p2 pN   Native M2M support  A massive number of connected devices with low throughput;  Low latency  Low power and battery consumption hnm h21 h12 h11  Higher MIMO order: 8X8 or more  System capacity increases in fucntion of number of antennas  Spatial-temporal modulation schemes  SINR optimization  Beamforming  Enables systems that illuminate and at the same time provide broadband wireless data connectivity  Transmitters: Uses off-the-shelf white light emitting diodes (LEDs) used for solid-state lighting (SSL);  Receivers: Off-the-shelf p-intrinsic-n (PIN) photodiodes (PDs) or aval anche photo-diodes (APDs) C-plane (RRC) Phantom Celll Macro Cell F1 F2 F2>F1 U-plane D2D  Phantom Cell based architecture  Control Plane uses macro network  User Plane is Device to Device (D2D) in another frequency such as mm-Wave and high order modulation (256 QAM). Net Radio Core Cache  Access Network Caching  Network Virtualization Function  Cloud-RAN  Dynamic and Elastic Network  5G Non-Orthogonal Waveforms for Asynchronous Signalling (5GNOW)  Universal Filtered Multi-Carrier (UFMC) : Potential extension to OFDM ;  Filter Bank Multi Carrier (FBMC): Sustainability fragmented spectra.  Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access (NOMA)  Sparse-Code Multiple Access (SCMA)  High modulation constellation MASSIVE MIMO SPATIAL MODULATION COGITIVE RADIO NETWORKS VISIBLE LIGHT COMMUNICATION DEVICE-CENTRIC ARCHITECTURE NATIVE SUPPORT FOR M2M CLOUD NETWORK & CACHE NEW MODULATION SCHEME  New protocol for shared spectrum rational use  Mitigate and avoid interference by surrounding radio environment and regulate its transmission accordingly.  In interference-free CR networks, CR users are allowed to borrow spectrum resources only when licensed users do not use them.
  7. 7. ... Challenges ITU-R M.2078 projection for the global spectrum requirements in order to accomplish the IMT-2000 future development, IMT-Advanced, in 2020. 531 MHz 749 MHz 971 MHz 749 MHz 557 MHz 723 MHz 997 MHz 723 MHz 587 MHz 693 MHz 1027 MHz 693 MHz Region 1 Region 2 Region 3 MORE SPECTRUM NEW TECHNOLOGY & INFRASTRUCTURE SPLIT CELL & SITE DENSIFICIATION 𝑪 𝒃𝒑𝒔 ≤ 𝑩(𝑯𝒛) ∙ 𝒍𝒐𝒈 𝟐 𝟏 + 𝑺𝑰𝑵𝑹 Smallcells Heterogeneous Network hnm h21 h12 h11  Mobile operation needs spectrum below 6 GHz, but there is no enough around world.  Interference with exiting services: cleanup cost, interference mitigation  High spectrum cost: The average license cost in new spectrum auctions ranges around 100-700 million of Reais per 10 MHz FDD block  Spectrum Refarming  Spectral Efficiency  New infrastructure investment  Technology life cycle and adoption  Market Scale  New site legal barriers  Tax barriers  New site investment  Interference control and mitigation  Backhaul capillarity HIGH ORDER MIMO Cell Site DensificationHIGH ORDER MODULATION
  8. 8. Centralized or Distributed Base Stations?
  9. 9. High Density Traffic 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 0,0 Mbps/km2 500,0 Mbps/km2 1000,0 Mbps/km2 1500,0 Mbps/km2 2000,0 Mbps/km2 0,250 km0,350 km0,450 km0,550 km DOWNTOWN: HIGH DENSITY TRAFFIC Coverage Radius Capacity 2015 Capacity 2016 Capacity 2017 A +63% C D +61% +54% B Green line represents the system capacity density. The capacity associated to coverage grid can capture the demand from 2013 till 2014 – Point A; However, for 2015 it is needed to increase 63% the number of sites, changing the exiting grid – Point B; In 2016 and 2017, they require more 61% and 54% more sites respectivelly; In that time, SmallCells are more appropriated infrastructure to save CapEx and OpEx; TECHNOLOGY ALTERNATIVES AND TOTAL COST OWNERSHIP $$$ $$$ $$$ $$$ $$$ $$$ 1 x 3 x 5 x 7 x 9 x 2600 MHz (10) +1800 MHz (5) +1800 MHz (10) SmallCell 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 Legend Notes: 2600 MHz (10) : Basic Scenario; +1800 MHz (5): Additional 5 MHz using 1800 MHz in Basic Scenario coverage; +1800 (10): Same as above, but using 10 MHz; SmallCell: SmallCell using 2600 MHz with 10 MHz for bandwidth; TIMES BASIC SCENARIO COVERAGE CAPACITY TCO  A B C Indifference between Macro 1800 & 2600 MHz Macro LTE 1800 MHz for coverage Dual layer Macro LTE 1800 & 2600 MHz 181 265 890 SmallCell 2600 MHz 𝑴𝒃𝒑𝒔 𝒌𝒎 𝟐  X: BASIC SCENARIO COVERAGE CAPACITY X  DEMANDS DOWNTOWN DEMAND: HIGH DENSITY TRAFFIC 
  10. 10. Source: SmallCells Forum Indoor Environment Frequency under 1 GHz has a good Indoor propagation. But lack bandwidth for capturing mobile broadband traffic. 90 MHz 150 MHz 200 MHz 500 MHz 13 GHz 700 MHz 1800 MHz 3500 MHz 5800 MHz (LTE-U) mmWave INDOOR TRAFFIC TRAFFIC DENSITY BUILDING PENETRATION LOSS 0,0 dB 10,0 dB 20,0 dB 700 MHz 900 MHz 1800 MHz 2100 MHz 2600 MHz INDOOR LOST PERFORMANCE MACRO SITE DENSITY FOR INDOOR COMPENSATION 39% 32% 14% 4% 11% In Car At Home At Work Travelling Others 0 bps/Hz 4 bps/Hz 8 bps/Hz 12 bps/Hz -130 dBm -110 dBm -90 dBm 3GPP (LTE) Shannon OutdoorIndoor -50% 50% of voice traffic and 80% of data traffic are performed in indoor environment; Building Penetration Loss varies around 10-20 dB, that reduces at minimum of 50% overall performance of outdoor macro sites; FREQUENCY DILEMMA 0 300 600 900 0,25 km0,30 km0,35 km0,40 km0,45 km0,50 km Indoor Outdoor 219% High Concentration Traffic Low dense data traffic. It is dispersed in coverage area Indoor Environment Outdoor Environment The indoor traffic density can be thousand times higher than outdoor. For instance, in stadium & arenas, the number of persons per km2 can reach 1 Million! If all persons upload video with 64 kbps, it represents 64 Gbps/km2 2600 MHz (10 MHz) Graphs Better propagation Outdoor Coverage Radius Building Penetration Loss varies in each frequency. Lowest frequency has better propagation behavior. New Radius for increasing capacity Bandwidth Voice Originating Call Amount of Bandwidth Mbps/km2
  11. 11. Why Centralizing? CAPACITY & COVERAGE: Centralized RAN acts as huge Base Station and can easily coordinate resources for interference avoiding by using functionalities such as CoMP and e-ICIC. CoMP and e-ICIC can together increase the system capacity in 30 times homogeneous network; C-RAN is also suitable for non-uniformly distributed traffic due to the load-balancing capability in the distributed BBU pool. Though the serving RRH changes dynamically according to the movement of UEs, the serving BBU is still in the same BBU pool. 50% of voice traffic and 80% of data traffic are performed in indoor environment, and due concentrated traffic , indoor traffic density can represent 10-100 times outdoor environment; Centralized RAN can be optimal solution and accordingly to Airvana and it is 69% cheaper than DAS; TRANSMISSION & INFRASTRUCTURE: Algorithms such as e-ICIC and CoMP have tighter latency requirement below 10 micro seconds. In general IP backhaul transport cannot accomplish this latency level in X2 interface. Network Synchronization can be simplified by requiring synchronism in less centralized sites Currently almost LTE Cell Site is attended by fiber and DWDM is affordable solution for transport CPRI inside of lambdas. Space/Colocation, air conditioning and other site support equipment's power consumption can be largely reduced. China Mobile estimates a reduction of 71% of power saving comparing to Distributed Cell Site; ROLLOUT, OPERATION & MAINTENANCE : Faster system rollout due simpler remote cell site that reduces 1/3 comparing to Distributed RAN. Multi-Tenant BBUs are aggregated in a few big rooms, it is much easier for centralized management and operation, saving a lot of the O&M cost associated with the large number of BS sites in a traditional RAN network. TCO : Accordingly to China Mobile, 15% and 50% of CapEx and OpEx savings respectivelly comparing to Distributed RAN Core Net. BBU TDM IP BBU BBU Core Net. Fronthaul Backhaul IP BBU BBU BBU eICIC CoMP Distributed RAN Centralized RAN Coherent transm. & Non-Coherent transm. Instantaneous Cell Selection X2 X2 ABS Protected Subframe Aggressor Cell Victim Cell X2 Identifies interfered UE Requests ABS Configure s ABS ABS Info Measurement Subset Info Uses ABS and signals Patern
  12. 12. Base Station Virtualization
  13. 13. Base Station Virtualization & Cloud RAN Architecture Fronthaul Interface Hardware Backplane Backhaul Interface Hardware Hardware Poll Virtualization Layer (Ex.: Hypervisor/VMM) VM BBU 1 VM BBU N Core Network Cache & Local Breakout ... O&M/Control/Orchestrator Fronthaul: CPRI, OBSAI, ETSI ORI Internet RRU/ RRH Radio Unit Network Datacenter Only Radio Unit Backhaul IP RRU/ RRH Backhaul Core Network BBU BBUBBU Internet RRU/ RRH RRU/ RRH GbE Existing Deployed Topology Fronthaul Internet V-BBUs V-Core RRU/ RRH RRU/ RRH RRU/ RRH CPRI/ OBSAI Cloud RAN Topology DEPLOYMENT PARADIGM CHANGE PRINCIPLES AND ADVANTAGES ARCHITECTURE Network Function Virtualization Elastic & liquid Resources Operational Flexibility Reduces space and power consumption Reduces CapEx, OpEx and delivery time Software Defined Network Creates an abstraction layer for: controlling; faster development ; system service orchestration and overall system evolution; Open Development Interface Creates an open environment for new development; Catalyzes new SON & interference mitigation functionalities support;
  14. 14. Cases & ... CENTRALIZED RAN OR SUPER CELLSITE SMALLCELLS VS DAS WATERFRONT SIDEWALK COVERAGE WITH PICO/SMALLCELLS VIRTUALIZED RAN SHARING BBU RRU eNB/DAS 1 Sector  Limited to the throughput of 1 sector and the air link  Engineered for coverage  Satisfies requirements for multi-operator transmission (“neutral host”) BBU 1 BBU N BBU Hotel CPRI  Limited to the throughput of the air interface and backhaul  Is a mini Base Station in itself  Capable to accommodate high density traffic  Not geared toward neutral host operation  According to Airvana, Smallcell deployment can be 69% cheaper than DAS; SmallCells DAS Super CellSite BBUs RRH/RRU Only Fronthaul Interface Hardware Backplane Backhaul Interface Hardware Hardware Poll Virtualization Layer Oper1 (BBU) Oper2 (BBU) ... O&M/Orchestrator OperN (BBU) Multiple sectors Base Station (or Hotel BBU) extended in their neighborhood through the use of fiber to supplement coverage / capacity indoor or outdoor Solution to minimize visual impact on coastlines, parks, public squares, monuments, street furniture and so forth. Alternative to buried/under ground CellSite: extending sectors from existing base station to cover interested places. Complements MOCN RAN Sharing deployment, bringing a new alternative (MORAN Like) for supporting multiple operators, technologies and frequencies. Internet Fronthaul ... RRH/RRU Only Backhaul Super CellSite with Pico/SmallCells RRH/RRU Only BBU N BBU 1 ...
  15. 15. ... Concerns Transport and Fronthaul BBU CPRI OBSAI ETSI ORI Data Control Sync RRU/RRH Transport Media: Typically Optical Link in dedicated lambda BBU N BBU 2 BBU 1 CRAN – BBU Hotel SmallCells unfolds complexity of capillarity 246 Mbps 1200 Mbps 2500 Mbps 9830 Mbps WCDMA (1 Carrier) LTE (MIMO 2x2, 10 MHz) LTE (MIMO 2x2, 20 MHz) WCDMA (1 Carrier, 3 Sectors) + LTE (MIMO 2x2, 20 MHz, 3 sectors) High throughput requirement for supporting MIMO and high order of frequency bandwidth. Although there are fronthaul standards, but each vendor implemented its own flavor. STANDARDIZATION: There exist two main commercial standards CPRI (Common Public Radio Interfce) and OBSAI (Open Base Station Architecture Initiative), but the supporters implemented their own flavor; ETSI has recently introduced new standard for fronthaul technology: Open Radio Interface that promises to support several medias - not only fiber. CAPILLARITY: SmallCells bring scalability concern to provide connectivity to large number of cell sites with high throughput and low latency; However the SmallCells main applications reside in dense/urban and indoor environment where there exist cabling and fiber facilities Wireless fronthaul solutions based on Multipoint to Multipoint have high transport capacity by using mmWave or 28 GHz and eventually can support CPRI/OBSAI HIGH ORDER THROUGHPUT: CPRI/OBSAI requires a huge throughput but compressed versions are commercial, allowing in some cases transport over Ethernet; Currently almost LTE Cell Site is attended by fiber and DWDM is affordable solution for transport CPRI inside of lambdas. LOW LATENCY: CPRI/OBSAI requires low latency 5 micro seconds in total, that introduces limitation of 40 km in terms of distance between BBU and RRU; However, algorithms such as e-ICIC and CoMP have tighter requirement than CPRI, and the limitation must be 15 km. TOTAL COST OWNERSHIP: Although DWDM is more expensive than MPLS-TP, the cost optimization considering CapEx and OpEx can reach 1/3 of Distributed CellSite.
  16. 16. ... Concerns STANDARDIZATION PERFORMANCE Technology and Architecture Hardware Resources Virtualized Network Functions (VNFs) Virtualization Layer VNF ... NFVManagementand Orchestration Compute Storage Network NFV Infrastructure Virtual Compute Virtual Storage Virtual Network VNF VNF VNF Another challenges of virtualization are: real-time processing algorithm implementation; virtualization of the baseband processing pool; dynamic processing capacity allocation to deal with the dynamic cell load in system; exploitation of virtualized resources on commodity hardware, which does not provide the same real-time characteristics as currently deployed hardware. This will introduce an additional computational latency and jitter, which needs to be considered in the protocol design. It is an opportunity for new algorithms exploiting a large amount of resources efficiently (e.g., through stronger parallelization) or new Hardware Architecture (such as Intel DPDK). In theory, a split for function centralization may happen on each protocol layer or on the interface between each layer. However, 3GPP LTE implies certain constraints on timing as well as feedback loops between individual protocol layers. Hence, in a deployment with a constrained backhaul, most of the radio protocol stack and RRM are executed locally, while functions with less stringent requirements such as bearer management and load balancing are placed in centralized platform. If a high capacity backhaul is available, a higher degree of centralization is achieved by shifting lower-layer functions (e.g., parts of the physical, PHY, and medium access control, MAC, layers or scheduling) into the centralized platform. Source: Intel Network Packet Size Server Packet Size WHAT TO VIRTUALIZE RF PHY MAC RRM AC/LC NM RF PHY MAC RRM AC/LC NM How much to centralize Executed at RRH Centralized Executed Centralized Executed CRAN/SDRMonolithic Executed at BTS Middle Range Virtualization Source: IEEE Communications Magazine In order to use a common HW and Virtual Network functions, standardization is imperative to guarantee interchangeability of elements, functionalities and interfaces; NFV ISG formed under ETSI (Nov. 2012), led by network operators with wide industry participation. It defined the architecture for NFV and 9 Use Case, including CRAN. However an oldest process is in course through 3GPP process, such as 37 series for SDR/MSR. CRAN needs to capture the best practices of these two processes and to have a single movement. A Mobile SDN is needed for redefining processes in North/South Bound Interfaces and protocol between Flow Controller and Forward Engine – “MobileFlow” (IEEE Communications Magazine)
  17. 17. ... Concerns Infrastructure POWERING FOR DISTRIBUTED RRH/RRU IN CENTRALIZED RAN BATTERY BACKUP: DISTRIBUTED OR CENTRALIZED? VISUAL POLLUTION SITE ACQUISITION Li-Ion Battery Lead-Acid Battery SmallCells and RRH/RRH can be powered locally. However it is necessary to provide SLA in case of commercial power unavailability; The Lead-Acid Battery still requires a large space to install. An alternative is Li- Ion Battery that is becoming affordable solution. Lithium ion battery can work at the temperature of 60℃ normally. The cycle life can reach 5-to Machine room cost The volume and weight of lithium ion battery is 1/3 of 5 10years. that in lead-acid battery with the same capacity, which save the space efficient and without consider the floor weight. Electric power cost Lithium ion battery can work at high temperature.Improve the air conditioner temperature in machine room so to save electric power; Another advantages: Energy density=> space saving; Safety; High Temperature; Large current; Environmental protection With centrilized RAN the site acquisition and collocation contracts must change. New type must be considered in different bases; SmallCells deployment are in order of 10-100 times macro sites and their installation can be in different places: train and bus stations; airports; lighting poles; building façade; payphones etc. New types of leases/contracts should be developed. In an Informa Telecoms & Media Small Cells Market Status Report, nearly 60% of respondents rated deployment issues and backhaul as the top 2 challenges for outdoor small cells. Lack of access to backhaul and power, environmental issues, and cell placement - including the need to deal with multiple landlords, new types of site owners and zoning issues – can delay deployment. Some operators fail in SmallCells deployment due they did not account a long checklist: transport and infrastructure facilities; legal and site-acquisition issues A Site Certification program removes these barriers, bringing the value-added suppliers with expertise in small cells to make sure metro deployment happens right the first time, with speed, and on a large scale.    Powering RRH/RRHU centralized/virtaualizaed RAN environment constitutes in one of big challenges; Power of Ethernet is a preferable implementation for indoor and short distance outdoor SmallCells; However Ethernet has capacity transport limitation and PoE is limited to 30-50 m; Another alternative is powered fiber cable system that can offers a reach greater than 10 times the distance of power over Ethernet (POE+) cables. Up to 12 Optical Fibers SMF/MMF 12 AGW or 16 AGW Conductors Source: TE Connectivity Visual Polution: Due a number of SmallCells, the shape and format may impact in acceptance to install in building and public facilities.    
  18. 18. What are we doing?
  19. 19. Rural Suburban Urban Dense Urban Ultra Dense Urban & Indoor Individual satellite access or Satellite Backhaul. Residential & Enterprise Wi-Fi 3G HSPA Macro LTE 2600 MHz (Anatel Obligation) Residential, Enterprise & corporate Wi-Fi Indoor DAS 3G HSPA densification Macro LTE 2600 MHz densification Residential, Enterprise & corporate Wi-Fi Metro Wi-Fi Wi-Fi Public Payphone Indoor DAS 3G HSPA densification Macro LTE 2600 MHz densification Residential, Enterprise & corporate Wi-Fi Metro Wi-Fi Wi-Fi Public Payphone Indoor DAS 3G HSPA densification Macro LTE 2600 MHz densification Macro Cell Site LTE 450 MHz or 1800 MHz Residential & Enterprise Wi-Fi 3G HSPA Femtocell for 3G indoor coverage & voice offload SmallCell to indoor Macro LTE 1800 MHz for traffic below 181 Mbps/km2 Res., Enter. & corp.Wi-Fi Femtocell for 3G SmallCell to indoor & outdoor Hetnet Metro Wi-Fi (802.11ac) Wi-Fi Public Payphone Indoor DAS 3G HSPA densification Macro LTE 2600 MHz densification Dual Frequency Layer LTE for load balancing or CA Res., Enter. & corp.Wi-Fi Femtocell for 3G SmallCell to indoor & outdoor Hetnet Metro Wi-Fi (802.11ac) Wi-Fi Public Payphone Indoor DAS 3G HSPA densification Multi-sector Macro & LTE 2600 MHz densification Dual Frequency Layer LTE for load balancing or CA Res., Enter. & corp.Wi-Fi (802.11ad) Femtocell for 3G Indoor & outdoor SmallCells Cloud RAN & Hetnet Metro Wi-Fi (802.11ac) Wi-Fi Public Payphone Indoor DAS 3G HSPA densification High Order MIMO/FD-MIMO Multi sector Macro & LTE 2600 MHz densification Multiple Frequency Layer LTE for load balancing or CA Macro Cell Site LTE 450 MHz or 1800 MHz Wi-Fi 802.11af (TVWS) – M2M Residential & Enterprise Wi-Fi 3G HSPA Femtocell for 3G indoor coverage & voice offload SmallCell to indoor Macro LTE 1800 MHz for traffic below 181 Mbps/km2 Res., Enter. & corp.Wi-Fi Femtocell for 3G SmallCell to indoor & outdoor Hetnet Metro Wi-Fi (802.11ac) Wi-Fi Public Payphone Multiple Frequency Layer LTE for load balancing or CA Res., Enter. & Corp. Wi-Fi Metro Wi-Fi (802.11ax -HEW) Wi-Fi Public Payphone Cloud RAN & HetNet High Order MIMO/FD-MIMO Multi sector Macro & Multiple Frequency Layer LTE for load balancing or CA Res., Enter. & Corp. Wi-Fi (802.11ad), SmallCell LTE-U (Supp. DL) Metro Wi-Fi (802.11ax -HEW) Wi-Fi Public Payphone Cloud RAN & HetNet High Order MIMO/FD-MIMO Multi sector Macro & Multiple Frequency Layer LTE for load balancing or CA Coverage & Capacity Strategy Example Short Term Mid Term Long Term 𝑴𝒃𝒑𝒔 𝒌𝒎 𝟐 Macro <1 GHz Macro Mddle Freq. Macro High Freq. SmallCell/Wi-FI
  20. 20. Base Station Virtualization in Phases CLOUD RANHETNETCENTRALIZED RANMULTI STANDARD RAN Multi-sector BBU or BBU Hotel Overall TCO (CapEx+OpEx) saving of New Cell Site Network elasticity based on resource pooled in a single BBU Network synchronization simplification Fronthaul Rollout Vendor consolidation MSR and SDR deployment 2G+3G+4G in single BBU CellSite Modernization IP Backhauling Lifecycle Management Optimization SmallCell Rollout Capacity improvement by using CoMP, eICIC, CA etc. Taking advantage of LTE-A & B (Rel.11 and Rel.12) Baseband pooled across BBU Using General Purpose HW EPC and Cloud RAN in a same Network Datacenter Core Net. 2G 3G 4G 2G 3G 4G 2G 3G 4G TDM IP Core Net. 2G +3G+4G TDM IP 2G +3G+4G 2G +3G+4G Core Net. BBU TDM IP BBU BBU Core Net. BBU Fronthaul Backhaul IP BBU BBU Core Net. BBU Fronthaul Backhaul IP BBU BBU Core Net. Fronthaul Backhaul IP BBU BBU BBU Core Net. Fronthaul Backhaul IP BBU BBU BBU Fronthaul Backhaul IP SBI/Fronthaul NBI/Internet Hardware Poll Virtualization Layer BBU1 ... O&M/Orchestrator BBU2 BBUn EPC IMS MTAS
  21. 21. Alberto Boaventura alberto@oi.net.br +55 21 98875 4998 ¡GRACIAS! THANKS! OBRIGADO!

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