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Active & passive voice
 Voice   is the form a verb takes to
   indicate whether the subject of the
  verb performs or receives the action.
 There are two types of voice: active
          voice and passive voice.
   Active Voice – indicates that the subject of
                 the verb is acting

   Because the subject does or "acts upon" the
     verb in such sentences, the sentences are
           said to be in the active voice.
   These examples show that the subject
         is doing the verb's action.
        The dog jumped onto the boy.
     The dog (subject) is doing the jumping

                     (verb).

       Kristy will give a book report to the
                         class.
         Kristy (subject) is doing the giving
                         (verb).

             The computer ate my paper.
 Ina passive voice sentence, the subject
    and object flip-flop. The subject
   becomes the passive recipient of the
                  action.

 Because the subject is being "acted upon"
  (or is passive), such sentences are said
         to be in the passive voice.
 Theseexamples show the subject being
        acted upon by the verb.
  The boy was jumped on by the dog.
     Boy (subject) was being jumped on (verb)
A    book report will be given by Kristy to
                  the class.
             Report (subject) will be given (verb).
 My          paper was eaten by the computer.

         Paper (subject) was being eaten (verb).
 Most   writers prefer to use active voice
          because it is more direct.
                  Compare

  Active:The waiter dropped the
            tray of food.
  Passive: The tray of food was
      dropped by the waiter.
       The active voice is less awkward and
            clearly states relationship between
                     subject and action.
                         Compare
           Passive: Your request for funding has been
                 denied by the review committee.
           Active: The review committee denied your
                       request for funding.
   The active voice sentence pattern propels
    the reader forward through your writing
            thus avoiding weak prose.
    In general, the passive voice is less
        direct, less forceful, and less concise
                than the active voice.
       Use the passive voice in the following
                     situations:

            Use passive voice when you do
              not know or do not want to
              reveal the performer of an
                        action.
           Use passive voice when you want
 Awkward   Passive: My bicycle was
  repainted by John.
 Deliberate Passive: My bicycle was
  repainted. (The performer is not
  mentioned and the emphasis is on the
  bicycle.)
 The passive voice requires a "double
     verb" and will always consist of a form
        of the verb "to be" and the past
    participle (usually the "en/ed/t" form) of
                   another verb.
   Example:
            Active: John baked the bread.
        Passive: The bread was baked by John.
           (Was is a form of the verb “be”.)
   Writers should be familiar with the
    forms of "to be" , often called linking
    verbs, so that they can easily identify
    the passive voice in their work.

   Review the forms of "to be":
       am, is, are, was, were, be,
        being, been
 Note the forms of "to be" in the
examples of the verb "to kick" in various
      forms of the passive voice:

 iskicked----------------had been
                 kicked
was kicked-------------is going to be
                 kicked
is being kicked---------will be kicked
 has been kicked-------can be kicked
was being kicked------should be kicked
  Often passive voice sentences will
 contain a "by" phrase indicting who or
      what performed the action.
    Passive sentences can be easily
transformed into active sentences when
  the object of the preposition "by" is
  moved to the subject position in the
                sentence.
   Examples:
    Passive: The cookies were eaten by the
                    children.
     Active: The children ate the cookies.


       Passive: The tunnels are dug by the
                      gophers.
       Active: The gophers dug the tunnels.
   Directions: Change the sentences below to
                 the active voice.
     1.    The statue is being visited by hundreds of
                      tourists every year.
           2. My books were stolen by someone
                           yesterday.
    3.    These books had been left in the classroom
                     by a careless student.
    4.    Coffee is raised in many parts of Hawaii by
                      plantation workers.
    5.    The house had been broken into by someone
              while the owners were on vacation.
   Directions: Change the sentences below
             to the passive voice.
    1.  Children cannot open these bottles easily.
    2. The government built a road right outside
                     her front door.
      3. Mr. Ross broke the antique vase as he
                walked through the store.
     4. When she arrived, the changes amazed
                           her.
       5. The construction workers are making
              street repairs all month long.

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Active & passive voice

  • 2.  Voice is the form a verb takes to indicate whether the subject of the verb performs or receives the action.  There are two types of voice: active voice and passive voice.
  • 3. Active Voice – indicates that the subject of the verb is acting  Because the subject does or "acts upon" the verb in such sentences, the sentences are said to be in the active voice.
  • 4. These examples show that the subject is doing the verb's action.  The dog jumped onto the boy.  The dog (subject) is doing the jumping (verb).  Kristy will give a book report to the class.  Kristy (subject) is doing the giving (verb).  The computer ate my paper.
  • 5.  Ina passive voice sentence, the subject and object flip-flop. The subject becomes the passive recipient of the action.  Because the subject is being "acted upon" (or is passive), such sentences are said to be in the passive voice.
  • 6.  Theseexamples show the subject being acted upon by the verb.  The boy was jumped on by the dog.  Boy (subject) was being jumped on (verb) A book report will be given by Kristy to the class.  Report (subject) will be given (verb).  My paper was eaten by the computer.  Paper (subject) was being eaten (verb).
  • 7.  Most writers prefer to use active voice because it is more direct.  Compare  Active:The waiter dropped the tray of food.  Passive: The tray of food was dropped by the waiter.
  • 8. The active voice is less awkward and clearly states relationship between subject and action.  Compare  Passive: Your request for funding has been denied by the review committee.  Active: The review committee denied your request for funding.  The active voice sentence pattern propels the reader forward through your writing thus avoiding weak prose.
  • 9. In general, the passive voice is less direct, less forceful, and less concise than the active voice.  Use the passive voice in the following situations:  Use passive voice when you do not know or do not want to reveal the performer of an action.  Use passive voice when you want
  • 10.  Awkward Passive: My bicycle was repainted by John.  Deliberate Passive: My bicycle was repainted. (The performer is not mentioned and the emphasis is on the bicycle.)
  • 11.  The passive voice requires a "double verb" and will always consist of a form of the verb "to be" and the past participle (usually the "en/ed/t" form) of another verb.  Example: Active: John baked the bread. Passive: The bread was baked by John. (Was is a form of the verb “be”.)
  • 12. Writers should be familiar with the forms of "to be" , often called linking verbs, so that they can easily identify the passive voice in their work.  Review the forms of "to be":  am, is, are, was, were, be, being, been
  • 13.  Note the forms of "to be" in the examples of the verb "to kick" in various forms of the passive voice:  iskicked----------------had been kicked was kicked-------------is going to be kicked is being kicked---------will be kicked has been kicked-------can be kicked was being kicked------should be kicked
  • 14.  Often passive voice sentences will contain a "by" phrase indicting who or what performed the action.  Passive sentences can be easily transformed into active sentences when the object of the preposition "by" is moved to the subject position in the sentence.
  • 15. Examples:  Passive: The cookies were eaten by the children.  Active: The children ate the cookies.  Passive: The tunnels are dug by the gophers.  Active: The gophers dug the tunnels.
  • 16. Directions: Change the sentences below to the active voice. 1. The statue is being visited by hundreds of tourists every year. 2. My books were stolen by someone yesterday. 3. These books had been left in the classroom by a careless student. 4. Coffee is raised in many parts of Hawaii by plantation workers. 5. The house had been broken into by someone while the owners were on vacation.
  • 17. Directions: Change the sentences below to the passive voice. 1. Children cannot open these bottles easily. 2. The government built a road right outside her front door. 3. Mr. Ross broke the antique vase as he walked through the store. 4. When she arrived, the changes amazed her. 5. The construction workers are making street repairs all month long.