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A SURVEY OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS'
         ATTITUDE TOWARDS SCIENCE


                      A Thesis
                    Presented to
    Faculty of Educational Management and Technology
  Institute of Leadership and Management
                Lahore, Pakistan
                     Affiliated With
  Hamdard University, Karachi, Pakistan


             In Partial Fulfillment
     of the Requirement for the Degree
              Master of Education


                      By
              Maqsood Ahmad            



          ILM ID# 000108-002
                  July, 2001
ii




                          Certificate of Approval

It is certified that Maqsood Ahmad has successfully completed his research study

entitled "A Survey of Secondary School Students' Attitude towards Science" under

the supervision of Prof. Abdus Samad. His thesis meets the scholarly standard as set

by the institute of Leadership and Management (ILM) Lahore, affiliated with Hamdard

University, Karachi.
iii




                       ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The researcher owes his sincerest gratitude to Prof. Abdus Samad, the advisor of this
research work, whose unfailing patience, vast experience, guidance and willingness to
help have been highly inspiring.


The researcher is indebted to Prof. Dr. Usman Khalil Yousaf Zai coordinator of M.Ed
program for his guidance and valuable suggestions.


The researcher would also like to express his profound gratitude to Dr.
Mushtaq-ur-Rehman Siddiqui Associate Dean, Faculty of Educational Management
and Technology, without whose support this piece of work would not have been
completed.


The researcher feels pleasure to acknowledge the help of Prof. Rizwan Akram Rana
and Prof. Ubaidullah of Institute of Educational Research Department, University of the
Punjab, Lahore, for their help in analysis of the data.


The researcher is also grateful to his friend Mr. Munir Akhtar for his help in collecti on
of data from girls schools.


                                                     M a q s o o d         A h m a d
iv




              DEDICATIONS
                      Dedicated

To
HAZRAT MUHAMMAD (PEACE BE UPON HIM)

WHO IS THE LAST MESSENGER OF ALLAH.




To
LOVING PARENTS, WHOSE
UTMOST EFFORTS AND PRAYERS ARE ALWAYS WITH ME.



To
RESPECTED TEACHERS, WHOSE
KIND GUIDANCE AND ENCOURAGEMENT HELPED ME TO REACH AT
THIS STAGE.



To
THOSE, WHO INSPIRED ME TO SEEK KNOWLEDGE FOR THE
WELFARE OF MANKIND.
v

Contents                                                                                                                                                       pages

Certificate of Approval                                                                                                                                            ii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS                                                                                                                                                   iii

DEDICATIONS                                                                                                                                                         iv

Table of Contents                                                                                                                                                       v

ABSTRACT ................................................................................................................................................... 1
I. Introduction .................................................................................................................................................... 2
   Why positive attitudes towards science are necessary? ....................................................................................... 3

   Why negative attitudes towards science are not desirable? ................................................................................. 4

   Statement of the Study ......................................................................................................................................... 4

   Significance of the Study ..................................................................................................................................... 4

   significance of the study can be gathered through: .............................................................................................. 4

   Objectives of the Study: ....................................................................................................................................... 5

   Research Questions: ............................................................................................................................................. 5

   Null hypothesis .................................................................................................................................................... 5

   Sub group No.l:                 "Self perceptions" .............................................................................................................. 6

   Sub group No.2:                "Future expectations from science" .................................................................................... 6

   Sub group No.3:                 "Expectations from teachers" ............................................................................................ 7

   Sub group No.4:                "Expectations from gender"................................................................................................ 7

   Definition of terms: .............................................................................................................................................. 7

   Assumptions:........................................................................................................................................................ 8

   Delimitations of the study: ................................................................................................................................... 8

   General Methods and Procedures: ....................................................................................................................... 8

II. Review of Related Literature.................................................................................................................. 9
   What is Attitude? ................................................................................................................................................. 9

   Characteristics of Attitude: ................................................................................................................................ 10

   Importance of Attitudes: .................................................................................................................................... 10
vi

   Components of Attitude: .................................................................................................................................... 11

   Cognitive Components: ..................................................................................................................................... 11

   Affective Components: ...................................................................................................................................... 11

   Action Components: .......................................................................................................................................... 12

   Measurement of Attitude: .................................................................................................................................. 12

   The Opinionnaire or Attitude Scale: .................................................................................................................. 13

   Likert Scale: ....................................................................................................................................................... 13

   Scale value ......................................................................................................................................................... 14

   Influences Contributing to Acquisition of Attitudes:......................................................................................... 14

   Effect of Teacher on Attitudes: .......................................................................................................................... 14

   Effects of Parents on Attitudes: ......................................................................................................................... 15

   Effects of Gender on Attitudes: ......................................................................................................................... 16

III. Procedure and Methodology ............................................................................................................... 18
   Population of the Study:..................................................................................................................................... 18

   Selection of Sample: .......................................................................................................................................... 18

   Tool of Research: ............................................................................................................................................... 19

   Administering the Questionnaire: ...................................................................................................................... 19

   Procedure: .......................................................................................................................................................... 19

IV. Analysis and Interpretation of Data ................................................................................................. 20
   Data Analysis: .................................................................................................................................................... 20

   T-Test: ................................................................................................................................................................ 20

   Analysis of Variance: ......................................................................................................................................... 20

   Post Hoc Multiple Comparison Test: ................................................................................................................. 20

   LSD .................................................................................................................................................................... 20

   FINDINGS ........................................................................................................................................................ 21

   Findings on Sub-Groups .................................................................................................................................... 28

   Sub Group No.1                                    Self-Perceptions............................................................................................. 28
vii

 Sub Group No.2                                   Future Expectations ....................................................................................... 33

 Sub group No.3                                    Expectations from Teacher ............................................................................ 38

 Sub group No.4                                    Expectations from Gender ............................................................................. 41

V. Summary, Findings, Conclusions and Recommendations                                                                                                               45

 Summary: ........................................................................................................................................................... 45

 Findings: ............................................................................................................................................................ 45

 Conclusions ........................................................................................................................................................ 48

 Conclusions of sub-groups ................................................................................................................................. 48

 Recommendations .............................................................................................................................................. 48

 BIBLIOGRAPHY .............................................................................................................................................. 50

 Appendix             “A”                                                                                                         51

 Appendix             “B”                                                                                                         54
 Appendix             “C”                                                                                                         57
1



                                           ABSTRACT
                A SURVEY OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS'
                      ATTITUDE TOWARDS SCIENCE

        This study was carried out to assess the attitude of students of secondary classes towards science. The

data was collected from seven secondary schools situated in Model Town and Kahna area of Lahore. The

sample consisted of 600 students, both boys and girls drawn from science as well as humanities streams. The

instrument used for collection of data was a modified version of Modified Fennema-Sherman Attitude Scales

by Diana Doepken, Ellen Lawsky and Linda Padwa'. It consisted of 28 items questionnaire to be responded on

a 5-point Likert Scale. The analysis of the data was done by using;



 T-test (a Student's t distribution or paired difference test that is used when comparing two sets of measurements

to assess whether their population means differ),

ANOVA (Analysis of Variance),

LSD (Least Significant Difference) test and

Post Hoc Multiple Comparison Test: Compare means two at a time in the form of post hoc (after the fact)
comparisons.



The study revealed that all students of secondary classes had positive attitude towards science. Attitudes of

girls are even more positive. Similarly students of Science Group have more positive attitude than those of

Humanities Group. The study further revealed that parental attitude and school type also contribute towards

development of positive attitude of students towards science.




1. E-mail: webmaster@Woodrow.org
2




                                                          CHAPTER I
                                                       INTRODUCTION
           Attitude is commonly defined as a predisposition to respond positively or negatively to things, people,
places, events, or ideas.
        Attitudes or feelings towards science refer to a person's positive or negative response to the enterprise of
science. Put another way they refer specifically to whether a person likes or dislikes science. A seven-item
subscale designed by Simpson and Oliver (1990)1 measures student attitude in terms of specific feelings towards
science.
        o         Science is fun
        o         I have good feelings toward science.
        o         I enjoy science courses.
        o         I really like science.
        o         I would enjoy being a scientist.
        o         I think scientists are neat people.
        o         Everyone should learn about science.
             Included in the scale are other dimensions related to attitude toward science.
        One example is motivation to achieve in science. Items from this subscale include:
        o         I always try hard, no matter how difficult the work is?
        o         When I fail that makes me try much harder.
        o         I always try to do my best in school.
        o         I try hard to do well in science.
        Another dimension related to attitude toward science is;
        science anxiety, the negative pole of the attitude concept. Items in this subscale include:
              o   Science makes me feel as though I'm lost in a jungle of numbers and words.
              o   My mind goes blank when I do science.
              o   Science tests make me nervous.
              o   I would not do well in science if I took it in college.

1.„Simpson, R.D., & Oliver, J. S. (1990). A summary of major influences on attitude toward and achievement in science among
adolescent students. Science Education, 74, 1-18.
3

Attitude of Students towards science can include; science teacher’s personal attitude towards his students.
Examples of items representing this dimension include:
        o       My science teacher encourages me to learn more science.
        o       I enjoy talking to my science teacher after class.
        o       My science teacher makes good plans for us.
        o       Sometimes my science teacher makes me feel dumb.
        o       My science teacher expects me to make good grades.
        Attitude toward science curriculum is another important affective variable.
        Examples of statements representing feelings are:
        o       We do a lot of fun activities in science class.
        o       We learn about important things in science class.
        o       We cover interesting topics in science class.
        o       I like our science textbook.
          "Thus the attitude is a little thing that may make a big difference."

Why positive attitudes towards science are necessary?
Science is a human enterprise that contributes enormously towards extending the intellectual horizons and
also in solving many of our practical problems for example: -
(i)     Science is an important way to understand the world. Understanding means to gain insight into the
way nature works in a causal and mechanistic sense. Science helps us to understand motions in the heavens , in
the tides, and in the movement of terrestrial bodies, in the chemical constituents of the matter and nature and
evolution of living organisms. There is no other way to understand such objects and processes.

(ii)    Science attempts to explain natural phenomena in terms of the underlying causes in as economical
way as possible, preferably using mathematics. The ideas have to be self-consistent and corresponding with
reality. They must be tested scientifically.
(iii)   Scientific knowledge is self-consistent. The self-consistency implies that one branch of science must
be consistent with all the others; Biological theories cannot contradict Chemistry.
(iv)    Science is a special form of knowledge but the differences lie both in the subject matter and the
techniques. In science the ideas are value-free.
(v)     A surprising aspect of science is that almost every important idea can be expressed in a precise
manner.
(vi)    There is hope, even expectation, that science can provide the solution to our many problems: the cure for
cancer and other illnesses, cheap and environmentally friendly nuclear power. There also is consider able
enthusiasm for popular science books and programmes, which reveal the mysteries of the origin and workings of
4

the universe including the origins of human beings like us. Science is intellectually exciting.

Why negative attitudes towards science are not desirable?
        While there is much interest and admiration for science, there is also some fear and hostility. Science is
perceived as materialistic and dehumanizing, arrogant and dangerous. Reductionism, a hallmark of scientific
research, robs all the mystery and wonders of life.
        Some others see its practitioners as a band of cold, competitive and unfeeling technicians wielding power
without responsibility. The threats of nuclear war and the genetic manipulation of embryos loom large. Science
is also blamed for polluting the environment.
        Such attitudes and feelings about science are however uncalled for; that we remain ignorant about many
aspects of human behavior is not a failure of science but a reflection of human complexity. What science cannot
do is to tell us how to live, what is good or bad. It has nothing to contribute to moral and ethical issues; these can,
however, arise in relation to the application of scientific ideas. In principle, if we understood more about how
society works, it could help us design a just society once we made clear the ethical and moral principles that we
want.

Statement of the Study
        The purpose of this study is to know and learn about the behavior and attitudes of secondary school
students towards science learning. Thus the statement of this research project is,
        “A survey of secondary school students' attitude towards science"

Significance of the Study
        The attitude of a learner towards a subject determines, to a large extent, his/her success and consequently
his/her choice of a profession. In most cases this attitude is formed during secondary classes. It is, therefore,
important to discover attitudes of students and try to modify, if possible, through teaching strategies.

The significance of the study can be gathered through the following:
(1)     Student's attitudes towards a subject deeply affect their learning of that subject. So it is needed to
        know their attitudes, which will be helpful for teachers, curriculum designer and head teachers of
        schools.
(2)     Gender difference in attitudes may be important because females usually feel themselves inferior in
        science. It may therefore, be useful to know their attitudes. This study will be helpful for females that
        what attitudes they should adopt and how these attitudes will fulfill their needs.
(3)     The study will help to know the attitudes of science students, so that proper emphasis may be given to
        develop science attitudes.
(4)     The findings of the study may provide useful insights to curriculum planners and textbook writers to
5

           promote desirable attitudes and counter negative attitudes for improved learning.
(5)        The study may provide incentives for further researches in this domain.

Objectives of the Study:
This study is conducted to achieve the following objectives:
(1)      To measure the attitudes of secondary school students
(2)      To measure the gender difference in attitudes of secondary school students
(3)      To know the relationship, if any, in the type of school and the attitudes of their students towards
         science
(4)      To study the attitudes of science and non-science students towards science at secondary level to
         counter some wrong notions that science is a difficult subject or that some stude nts cannot study
         science at all

Research Questions:
      1. What are students' attitudes towards science at secondary level?
      2. What are significant differences between students' attitudes towards science at secondary level in
         Lahore City?
      3. What are significant differences between science and non-science students' attitudes towards science
         at secondary level in Lahore City?
      4. What are significant differences between 9th and l0th class students' attitudes towards science at
         secondary level?
      5. What are significant differences between 9 th and 10th class science students' attitudes towards
         science?
      6. What are significant differences between 9th and 10th class non-science students' attitudes towards science?
      7. What is gender effect on student's attitudes towards science at secondary level?

      8. What are the effects of father‟s education on students' attitudes towards science at secondary level?
      9. What are the effects of mother‟s education on students' attitudes towards science at secondary level?
      10. What are the effects of school type on students' attitudes towards science at secondary level?

To answer these questions following null hypothesis were formulated:
Ho1.       There is no gender effect on students' attitude towards science.
Ho2.       There is no significant difference between science and non-science students' attitude towards science.

Ho3.       There is no significant difference between 9th class science and non-science students' attitude towards
science.

Ho4.       There is no significant difference between 10th class science and non-science students' attitude towards
6

science.

Ho5.       There is no effect of father‟s education on students' attitude towards science.

Ho6.       There is no effect of mother‟s education on students' attitude towards science.

Ho7.       There is no effect of school type on students' attitude towards science.
Ho8.       There is no significant difference between 9th and 10th class science and non- science students' attitude
towards science.

Ho9.    There is no significant difference between 9th and 10th class science students' attitude towards science.

Ho10. There is no significant difference between 9th and 10th class non-science students' attitude towards science.

                  Since the questionnaire was divided into four sub-groups for detailed analysis,

                   So the researcher formulated null hypothesis with respect to four sub-groups.

Sub group No.l:                                 "Self perceptions"
       The following null hypotheses were formulated.
Ho1        There is no significant difference between science and non-science students' self-perceptions about
science at secondary level.
Ho2        There is no significant difference between male and female students' self- perceptions about science at
secondary level.
Ho3        There is no significant difference between 9 th, 10th class students' self- perceptions about science at
secondary level.
Ho4        There is no effect of school type on students' self-perceptions about science at secondary level.
Ho5        There is no effect of father education on students' self-perceptions about science at secondary level.
Ho6        There is no effect of mother education on students' self-perceptions about science at secondary level.

Sub group No.2:                          "Future expectations from science"
       The following null hypotheses were formulated.
Ho1 There is no significant difference between science and non-science students' future expectations
       from science at secondary level.
Ho2 There is no significant difference between male and female students' future expectations from
       science at secondary level.
 Ho3       There is no significant difference between 9th and 10th class students' future expectations from science
at secondary level.
Ho4        There is no effect of school type on students' future expectations from science at secondary level.
Ho5        There is no effect of father education on students' future expectations from science at secondary level.
7

Ho6     There is no effect of mother education on students' future expectations from science at secondary level.

        Sub group No.3:                 "Expectations from teachers"
       The following null hypotheses were formulated.
Ho1. There is no significant difference between science and non-science students' expectations from
       teacher at secondary level.
H o 2 . There is no significant difference between boys and girls students' expectations from teacher at
       secondary school level.
Ho3. There is no significant difference between 9 t h and 10th class students' expectations from teacher at
       secondary level.
Ho4.    There is no effect of school type on students' expectations from teacher at secondary level.
Ho5.    There is no effect of father education on students' expectations from teacher at secondary level.
Ho6.    There is no effect of mother education on students' expectations from teacher at secondary level.

Sub group No.4:                       "Expectations from gender"
       The following null hypotheses were formulated.
Ho1. There is no significant difference between science and non-science students' expectations from
       gender role in science at secondary level.
Ho2.   There is no significant difference between boys and girls students' expectations from gender
role in science at secondary level.
H o 3 . There is no significant difference between 9 th and 10th class students' expectations from gender role
       in science at secondary level.
Ho4. There is no effect of school type on students' expectations from gender role in science at secondary
       level.
Ho5. There is no effect of father education on students' expectations from gender role in science at
       secondary level.
H o 6 . There is no effect of mother education on students' expectations from gender role in science at
       secondary level.

Definition of terms:

(a)    Attitude: - Attitude is commonly defined as a predisposition to respond positively or negatively to
        things, people, places, events, or ideas.
(b)     Attitude towards science: - Attitudes or feelings towards science refer to a person's positive or
        negative response to the enterprise of science. Put another way, they refer specifically to whether a
8

        person likes or dislikes science.
(c)     Secondary school: - An institution where students learn from level 6 to 10 (age group 12 to 17).
(d)     Students: - Regular students of a secondary school.
(e)    Science students: - Students who are studying science at secondary level.
(f)    Non-science students: - Students who are studying humanities or social sciences at secondary level.

Assumptions:

1)       Attitude can be negative or positive.
       (i) In terms of positive attitude the learner will be high achiever.
       (ii) In terms of negative attitude the learner will be low achiever
2)       Attitude is changeable.
3)       Attitude can be changed due to learning.
4)       Attitude can be changed due to experience.

5)      The study will help teachers to give more emphasis on learning in affective domain.


Delimitations of the study:
The study will be delimited to: -
             1.    The population and sample will be boys and girls students studying in different secondary
                   schools of Lahore.
             2.    The data for the study will be obtained only through a questionnaire.
             3.    The study will be limited only to "attitude towards science"
             4.    The study will only be conducted in secondary classes (9th and 10th)



General Methods and Procedures:

              a.   The investigator will conduct the study through quantitative research method.
              b.   The investigator will take the sample through convenient sampling.
              c.   Questionnaire method will be adopted for collecting data from students.
              d.   The investigator will get filled the questionnaire from students.
              e.   The investigator will analyze the data through quantitative techniques.
9



                                                      CHAPTER II
                                  REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
What is Attitude?
      According to Kobella (1989), the term attitude encompasses a wide range of affective behaviors (e.g.
prefer, accept, appreciate, and commit) and is used loosely and without basis by some writers. It is also applied
in number of contexts and with a variety of meanings.
     Vaidya (1989)2 explained attitude as "a condition of readiness for a certain type of activity". Attitudes
held by the individuals may be simple or complex, stable or unstable, temporary or permanent and superficial
or fundamental. Judgments based upon insufficient facts are likely to yield wrong results and thereby develop
biased attitudes.
     Hayes (1995)3 described, "Attitude affect the way in which we perceive the world around us".
   Anastasi (1969)4 defined attitude as, "a tendency to react favourably or unfavourably toward a designated
class of stimuli". It is evident that when so defined, attitudes cannot be directly observed, but must be inferred
from overt behavior, both verbal and non-verbal.
   Rosenberg and Hovland (1960) 5 express that, "attitudes are typically defined as, predispositions to respond
in a particular way towards a specified class of objects".
   Being predispositions they are not directly neither observable nor measurable. Instead they are inferred
from the way we react to a particular stimulus.

     MsGuire (1976)6 who has reviewed numerous definitions of attitudes concluded that these definitions
differ in almost every conceivable important way. Some psychologists define attitudes as inner states, but a
few refer to attitudes as consisting of groups of responses. Some define attitudes as a disposition to respond,
others considers the response as representing the attitude. Some regard an attitude as having a unity, but others
regard it as having a set of distinct components. Some distinguish between attitude and knowledge while others
regard both as unified cognitive components.

Kobella, Thomas R. (1989). Changing and Measuring Attitude in the Science Classroom. Research Matters to the Science Teacher, No.
8901. http://www.barst.irg/research/attitude.htm.
' Vaidya, Narendera. (1989). The Impact Science Teaching. Now Delhi: Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. Hayes, Wm A. (1995). Scientific
Attitudes. Cleveland: MS 38733. http:// www.riverboathouse.com/dochayes/scithinwahsat.html.
' Anastasi, Anne. (1969). Psychological Testing London: Macmillan Publishing Co.
' Rosenberg, Milton J. & Havland, Carl I. (1960). Attitude Organization and Change, An Analysis if Consistency Among Attitude
Components. New York: Yale University Press.
MsGuire, W.J. (1976). Attitude change and the information -processing paradigm. In E.P. Hollandrer & R. G. Hunt (Eds.), Current
perspectives in social psychology. New York: University Press.
10

          Fishbein and Ajzen‟s (1980)7 featured work based on hypothesized relationship among beliefs, attitudes,
behavioral intentions, and behavior.
Characteristics of Attitude:
          Mohsin (1990)8 described that the attitude has following characteristic that are commonly accepted:
    1. Attitudes are not inborn; they are learned through experience.
    2. Like most psychological concepts, they can be inferred from the observed antecedent stimulus and the
          consequent behavior pattern. They are thus, of the nature of an intervening variable and a hypothetical
          construct.
    3. Attitudes have objective reference; one holds an attitude regarding some object, person, or issue. In this
          respect, they differ from motives or personality traits that have subjective reference.
    4. Attitudes differ in valence, having an attitude regarding an object signifies that the person concerned is
          either favourably or unfavourably disposed towards it. Stated otherwise, attitudes are positive or negative,
          pro or anti.
    5. They orient the organism to the attitude object and channel the energy at the disposal of the organism.
    6. Once formed, attitudes persist in time; they are enduring dispositions and are unlikely to change under
          ordinary conditions.
    7. From operational point of view, attitudes are manifested in the consistency of responses made to a
          specific object situation.
Importance of Attitudes:
          The predominant role of attitudes is the determining of our thoughts, memory and learning process. Thus
they not only determine the conclusions we derive from facts, but also influence the every effect we are willing to
accept.
       The concept of attitude includes mental set, task set and intention-determining tendencies of very brief
duration as well as the relatively permanent biases of politics, economics, and religion. It is easy to observe that
students with attitudes unfavourable to certain things learn them with greater difficulty than those whose attitudes
are favourable.
          Edwards (1957)9 verified the hypothesis that people select and remember from a speech those items, which
fit their attitudes, rejecting data which conflict with their views.
          The relationship between attitude and information suggests that people acquire facts most readily, which are
congruent with their views. Being products of education attitudes are basic to many educational activities. Thus
progress in any field depends upon attitudes developed in children at school level. Attitudes are seldom exempted


7.Ajzen, I., & Fishbein, M. (1980). Understanding attitudes and predicting social behavior, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: prentice Hall.
8.Mohsin, S.M. (1990). Attitude concept, formation and change. New Delhi: wiley Eastern Ltd.
9.Edward, Allen L (1957), the social desirability variable in perso nality assessment and research. New York: Dryden Press.
11

today from discussions of student and schooling problems.

Components of Attitude:
        Individuals have many attitudes, most attitudes are interconnected in clusters, but some are relatively
isolated. Occasionally, attitudes are acquired through one traumatic emotional experience but with little
information about the attitude object. Most often they are acquired through a series of lesser emotional
experiences and with more information. Some are acquired with very little feeling or emotion and considerable
information about the attitude object. (Klausmeier and Ripple, 1971)10
                         "Attitude includes the following components"

Cognitive Components:
        The cognitive components consist of ideas and beliefs, which the attitude holder has about an object.
(Encyclopedia of Educational Research 1992)11 Attitudes differ in the extent to which they involve knowledge and
beliefs. Some attitudes are highly intellectualized.
       Whereas sometime attitudes are based on large store of incorrect information and false beliefs and cognitive
basis for attitudes may be misinformation. A person may hold an attitude and have no strong feeling about the
matter that is; the affective component may be minor. On the other hand, his attitudes may not only be highly
intellectualized, but may also have a strong affective component. The intellectual component and the affective
components work hand in hand, but they are still independent components. The intellectual component s of
attitude sometimes referred to as the cognitive (knowing) components. Hence, the cognitive component of an
attitude is that aspect which is based on knowledge or derived from it in some way. (Travers, 1977) 12

Affective Components:
         Travers (1977)13 explained that affective components consist of positive or negative affects (feelings).
Attitudes may differ in the extent to which they involve such affective components. Some attitudes are quite
irrational and involve little except this affective component. The person who like one set of ideas and dislikes
another, but cannot tell why, reflects an attitude that has a major affective component but very little else. Many
attitudes are of this nature, and common observation suggests that they are quite easily learned; most people are
characterized by many attitudes that are of this character.

         According to (Encyclopedia of Educational Research 1992)14, „affective component refers to the
feelings and emotions one has towards the object.


10. Klausmeier, Herbert J. & Ripple, Richard E. (1971). Learning and Human Abilities, Educational IPsycholiey. New York: Harper and Row
Publisher. (3 'd Edition)
11.Alkin, Marvin C. (1992). Encyclopedia of Education Research. Vol. I, New York: Macmillan Publishing Co.
12Travers, Robert W.M. (1977). Essentials of Learning New York: the Macmillan Publishing Co.
13Op.cit.
14 Op. cit.
12

Action Components:
         Behavioral or action component consists of one's actions and tendencies towards the object.
(Encyclopedia of Educational Research, 1992) 15
         According to Travers (1977) 16 many expressed attitudes bear little relation to behavior. The fact that the
action component can be independent of the other components is important for planning education. Much of
attitude education is the education of the affective and the cognitive components of attitudes, and these
components may never be carried over into action systems. The action system of an attitude may have little
support from the cognitive system, which may be almost entirely laming.
         Gagne & Medsker (1996)17 suggested that these three components of attitude are considered as highly
interrelated and believed that all three may be usefully addressed in attitude development.
Measurement of Attitude:
Usually measurement of attitudes is carried out through verbal behavior.
        Edwards (1957)18 defined, measurement of attitudes as "the degree of positive or negative effect
associated with some psychological object". So measures of attitude are measures of effect and hence do not
attempt to measure either the cognitive component or the action component of attitude.
        Verbal behavior may be used in many ways in the determination of underlying attitudes. Any expression
of opinion provides a small amount of evidence and it can be obtained by asking a person whether he agrees or
disagrees with a particular statement of opinion. Series of opinions are ordered into scales with respect to
particular issues. Such ordered sets of statements are referred to as attitude scale. They are used to appraise
attitudes as asking subjects to examine each statement and to indicate agreement or disagreement. An
examination of these responses can then be used to provide a measure of attitude. It is clear that endorsement of
extreme statements would indicate an extreme attitude. On the other hand, the endorsement of statements nearer
a middle position indicates a corresponding scale position of attitude.

        Thurstone (1927, 1928)19 suggested, "Attitudes can be measured" by using techniques that generate
interval levels, i.e, scales of people's attitudes or values. (Encyclopedia of Educational Research, 1992) 20
        Anastasi (1969)21 proposed that attitudes can't be directly observed but must be inferred from overt
behavior, both verbal and non-verbal.

12Travers, Robert W.M. (1977). Essentials of Learning New York: the Macmillan Publishing Co.
13Op.cit.
14 Op. cit.
15Op. cit.
16 Op. cit.
17 Gagne, Robert M. & Medsker, Karen L. (1996). The Conditions of Learning. London: Harcourt Brace College Publishers.
Edward, Allen L (1957). The Social Desirability Variable in Personality Assessment & Research New York: Dryden Press.
19 Thurstone, L. L. (1928) Attitudes can be measured. American Journal of Sociology, 33(4), 529-554.
20 Op. cit
21 Op. cit
13

          Attitudes are multidimensional and that appropriate methods are those that uncover the important
dimensions underlying the measurement. (Encyclopedia of Educational Research, 1992) 22
         The measurement of attitudes is both difficult and controversial, whether expressed opinions can be
regarded as indicators of "real" attitudes has frequently been questioned. This problem concerns the
relationship between verbal and non- verbal overt behavior, which may not always provide an accurate index
of attitude (Anastasi, 1969) 23.
The Opinionnaire or Attitude Scale:
          According to Encyclopedia of Educational Research (1992)24, the commonest type of attitude
measurement is the opinion scale based on the assumption that, in general attitudes are reflected in opinion.
          An information form that attempts to measure the attitude or belief of an individual is, known as
opinionnaire or attitude scale. How people feel or what they believe is their attitude, difficult to describe and
measure. Researchers must depend upon what people say and what are their beliefs and feelings? Through th e
use of questions, or by getting people's expressed reaction to statements, a sample of their opinions is
obtained. From this statement of opinion, one may infer or estimate their attitude, what they really believe.

          Attitude scales yield a total score indicating the direction and intensity of the individual's attitude
toward a company, group of people, policy or other stimulus category. In the construction of an attitude scale
the different questions are designed to measure a single attitude or dimensional variable, and some objective
procedures are usually followed in the effort to approach this goal.
          Attitude scales, for example, may provide an index for evaluating different instructional procedures or
they may be utilized in measuring the changes in student attitudes toward literature, art, different racial and
cultural groups, or social or economic programmes (Anastasi, 1969) 25.
The procedures extensively used for eliciting opinion and attitudes are:
                        Thurstone Technique
                        Likert Scale
                        Semantic Differential Scale

Likert Scale:
        Instead of classification of items by a group of judges, items are selected solely on the basis of the
responses of subjects to whom they are administered in the course of developing the test. Internal
consistency is often the only criterion for item selection, although external criteria may be employed when
available (Anastasi, 1969) 26.

22 Op. cit
23 op. cit.
2 4 op. cit.
25 op. cit.
26 Op. cit.
14

        First a number of statements are collected about a subject. The importance is not of the correctness of
the statements but of expression of favorableness or un-favorableness. Then a trial test is administered to a
number of subjects. Only those items that correlate with the total test are retained. This testing for internal
consistency helps to eliminate statements that are ambiguous or that are not of the same type as the rest of
the scale.
        The attitude or opinion scale may be analyzed by indicating percentage responses for each individual
statement. This assigns a scale value to each of the five responses and the instrument yields a total score for
each respondent. All statements favoring the above position are scored:
Scale value
   Strongly agree        Agree           Undecided           Disagree         strongly disagree
             5              4                 3                   2                    1
        For statements opposing this point of view, the items are scored in the opposite order:
   Strongly agree        Agree           Undecided           Disagree         strongly disagree
             1              2                 3                   4                    5
If an opinionnaire consisted of 30 statements or items, the following score values would be revealing:
                 30 x 5 =          150     Most favorable response possible
                 30 x 3 =          90      A neutral response/attitude
                 30 x 1 =          30      Most unfavorable attitude
        The score of any individual would fall between 30 and 150, above 90 if opinions tended to be
favorable to the given point of view, and vice versa.
Influences Contributing to Acquisition of Attitudes:
      During elementary school years, children's attitude generally is in close approximation of the attitudes
held by the significant adults in their world, particularly their parents and family group and their teachers.
(Klausmeier & Ripple, 1971) 27
    Craig (1958)28 suggested that the school and home should provide a wide choice of experiences for
children for the behavior patterns formed in the early years of life could become basic patterns for a lifetime.
So parents may be thought of as a child's first teacher of science.
Effects of Teacher on Attitude:
    The prestige of the parents is soon transferred to the teacher. Personal attitudes of teachers influence the
attitudes of their pupils because they tend to resemble them in many respects. So attitudes of teachers are
important. (Encyclopedia of Educational Research, 1992)29 A science teacher can play a major role in


27 Op. cit.
28 Craig, Gerald S. (1958). Science for the Elementary School Teachers New York: Ginn & Company.
29 op. cit.
15

developing scientific attitudes among his students and thus he can do this by manipulating various situations
and practising various elements of scientific attitudes that infuse among the pupils these characteristics. The
practical examples given by the teacher leave an indelible mark on the personality of his students. Pupils who
engage themselves in wide reading in science develop scientific attitudes more than those who study
textbooks. Thus a teacher should encourage his students to read library books and supplementary books on
science.

     A student of science gets many opportunities for learning scientific attitudes during his practical period.
It is for the teacher to properly use such opportunities for developing scientific attitudes amongst his pupils.
He should actively participate in discussion and interpretation of results after the experiment. He must
inculcate in his students the habit to postpone judgments in the absence of sufficient evidence to support a
hypothesis.
     Personal examples of the teacher are perhaps the single greatest force helpful in inculcating the scientific
attitudes among his pupils. Students have a great tendency to copy their teachers. So a science teacher must be
free from biases and prejudices while dealing with his students. He should have an open-mind and be critical
in thought and action in his every day dealings. He should be totally free from superstitions and unfounded
beliefs and should be objective and impartial in his approach to his everyday problems. He should be truthful
and should have faith in cause and effect relationship.
        For inculcating the scientific attitudes among his pupils teacher should create a desirable atmosphere
for encouraging them in various activities. He should feel pleasure in facing a large number of intelligent
questions and answering and explaining them and must avoid snubbing his pupils for asking so many
questions. (Yadav, 1992) 30
Effects of Parents on Attitudes:
          Most people are likely to acquire many of their attitudes at their homes. A large part of the education
of children consists in training and conditioning them to take their place in adult society, and parents provide
examples, which are constantly before their children. Parental attitudes, may be taken o ver by children and
made their own, and this is one way in which their influence may be exerted.

          Freudian theory teaches that the parents‟ behaviors and attitudes to the child are primary elements in
the environment in which he works out his adjustments, and there is plenty of evidence to support this.
          Although many attitudes are acquired during childhood as a result of domestic influences, these are
not necessarily immutable. Fortunately, attitudes change and develop throughout life and parents and
teachers help in this process very much. So home, schools and society all have their part to play in the
inculcation of attitudes and interests (Evans, 1965) 31.

30 Yadav, M.S. (1992). Teaching of Science. New Delhi: Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd.
31 Evans, K.M. (1965). Attitudes and Interests in Education. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd.
16

         Since the child is more closely attached to his parents than to any other adult, it is plausible that his
attitudes would correlate highly with them. These similarities in attitudes are due part ly to suggestion and
partly to the fact that parents automatically bring the child into certain institutional groups.
         Some acceptance of parental attitudes by children is due to deliberate instruction. Parents and
teachers through facial expression, tone of voice, and other signs of hostility, without open verbal
statements of prejudice, apparently communicate many prejudices. Even more important for the
development of certain attitudes is the emotional relationship of child and parent.
        Stodgily concluded, that family influences are more important than such factors, as socio-economic
status or intelligence in developing children attitudes, although social status may be a conditioning factor.
(Encyclopedia of Educational Research, 1992) 32
        It must be recognized that behavior may reflect the home and the general background of the children.
Frequently children use parent's opinions as reliable information. Adults may display attitudes such as
open-mindedness by the way the adults approach the interests of children. A dogmatic parent may cause to
lose initiative and independence to become gullible and incurious.
        Teachers and parents may teach a great deal through a little behavior. The behavior of small children
very frequently reflects the attitudes and behavior of parents. (Craig, 1958) 33
        According to Encyclopedia of Educational Research (1992) 34 Davis and McGinnis studies the
effectiveness of parent education on parental attitudes toward children's behavior. They found that only slight
changes occurred after participation in child study groups, but that expert instruction was more effective than
lay instruction.
        Mohanty (1996)35 proposed that educated parents can provide better facilities for the education of their
children:
Effects of Gender on attitudes:
        Motivation is seen as the cognitive area that affects girls' achievement levels in science and
competence in mathematic is clearly a primary factor affecting girls' entrance retention, and success in science
courses and careers.
        Several different sources of gender differences in science participation and achievement, ranging and
from cognitive abilities to socio cultural stereotyping of science as masculine, have been identified, through
research have gone into science classrooms to delineate differential partici pation patterns that contribute to
two types of experiences in school science. Those experiences are accumulative, and they compound the
difference in out-of-school science activities that have been documented for boys and girls. The result is that

32 Op. cit.
33 Op. cit.
34Op. cit.
35 Mohanty, Susandhya. (1996). Teaching of Science in Secondary Schools. New Delhi: Wiley Eastern Ltd.
17

many girls do not have equal opportunities to learn science, and their continued lag in achievement reflects that
lack of opportunity.
       Brickhouse maintains that the myth of objectivity, value-free inquiry, scientific method, and rationality
that surrounds science, presents students with a false image of science, and, thereby, limits their participation in it.
Although she concurs that school science has a masculine image, she suggests three ways in which that image may
be changed.
           o Studying science within its historical and sociological context will allow students to see science as
               part of their culture.
           o Students examine current or historical scientific controversies about which scientists have not
               agreed.
           o Teach and use science together, then students can see science in relation to the world.
18

                                                CHAPTER III

                                PROCEDURE AND METHODOLOGY

           This chapter deals with procedure and methodology of the research project. It describes in details
    the different aspects through which the research project has under gone for collecting relevant information
    and data in order to arrive at reliable conclusion.
Population of the Study:
    The population of the study was male and female students of seven secondary schools of Model Town and
    Kahna areas of Lahore District (Appendix C).
Selection of Sample:
           Researcher selected seven schools (four of boys and three of girls) on the basis of convenient
    sampling. Some schools had only two sections (mix section for science and non-science students at 9th level)
    and (mix section for science and non-science students at 10th level) while some schools had separate sections
    for science and non-science students at 9th and 10th class level.
           The researcher selected different sections if a school had separate sections for science and
    non-science students and he selected both of the sections if a school had only two sections (single mix section
    for science and non-science students at 9th level and single mix section for science and non-science students
    at 10th level). All students available in those sections were selected as sample of the study. Selected sample
    was consisted of six hundred secondary school students (300 boys and 300 girls from 18 sections) studying in
    those schools.
            Distribution of sample is shown in the table A.
            School Name             Sections    Science       Non       9th    10th    Boys     Girls   Sub
                                               Students      Science                                    Total
                                                            Students
     Govt.Model H/S                    02         58          38        96     00       96      00       96
     Model Town Lhr.                   01         47          00        00     47       47      00       47
     Govt. Junior Model H/S            01         43          00        43     00       43      00       43
     Model Town Lhr.                   01         29          15        00     44       44      00       44
     Govt.FD Model H/S                 01         25          00        25     00       25      00       25
     Garden Town Lhr.                  01         00          09        00     09       09      00       09
     Govt.Apwa Girls H/S               01         08          26        34     00       00      34       34
     GOR.1. Lhr.                       01         00          20        00     20       00      20       20
     Govt.Dar-un-Niswan Girls H/S      02         10          40        50     00       00      50       50
     Jail Rd. Lhr.                     02         11          48        00     59       00      59       59
     HIS jail road Lhr.
     Govt. Girls H/S                   02         20          48        68     00       00      68       68
     Feroze Pur road Lhr.              02         34          35        00     69       00      69       69
     Govt. H/S Kahna Nau. Lhr.         01         00          36        00     36       36      00       36
     Grand Total                       18         285         315       316    284      300     300     600
19


Tool of Research:
       This study was a survey research so for the collection of relevant data and information a comprehensive
questionnaire was downloaded from Internet. It had 47 items with five options per statement starting from;
Strongly agree (SA), Agree (A), Undecided (U), Disagree (D), Strongly Disagree (SD). This scale was
discussed with the adviser of the study. After consultation the scale was translated in Urdu and short down to 28
items due to some contrast in the statements. Students have to response each item on a five points Likert Scale,
already discussed. The questionnaire was prepared for male and females students by using particular language
altered at appendix A and B.
       For more detailed analysis 28 questions were divided in four sub groups.
               Sub group                                     Item No
       (1)     Self perceptions                              1     9
       (2)     Future expectations                            10     14
       (3)     Expectations from teacher                      15     19
       (4)     Expectations from gender                       20     28

       The reliability of the questionnaire was determined with the help of computer by using SPSS version VI,
and it was 0.8857.

Administering the Questionnaire:
    The researcher administered the oppionnaire personally in classrooms. The oppionaire was administered
in seven schools (four of boys and three of girls). Instructions to give answer were written on the
Questionnaire. The subjects were supported to put a tick mark against each item according to their own choice.

Procedure:
       The study was carried out to assess the attitude towards science on the basis of boys, girls, 9th, 10th class,
science, non-science, parental education and school type.
       The researcher took 600 students from seven different schools of Lahore District. The number of
students from which data was collected is given in selection of sampling. In order to check the responses a
scoring scheme of the scale was designed by the researcher. And it was A = 5, B = 4, C = 3, D = 2, and E = 1.
The collected data was tabulated and analyzed through computer by using SPSS program me.
       The analyzed data is presented in the next chapter in the form of tables followed by their
interpretations.
20

                                                    CHAPTER IV

                         ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA



Data Analysis:
        The data collected on a questionnaire from seven different schools was tabulated and analyzed by
applying t-test, LSD, analysis of variance and post hoc multiple comparison test.



T-Test:
        The independent sample t-test evaluates the difference between the means of two independent groups with
an independent sample t-test; each case must have a score on two variables, the grouping variable and the test
variable. The t-test evaluates whether the mean value of the test variable for one group differ significantly from the
mean value of the test variable for the second group.



Analysis of Variance:
        For one way (ANOVA) analysis of variances each individual or case must have scores on two variables. A
factor divides individuals into two or more groups or levels while the dependent variable differentiates individuals
on some quantitative dimension. The ANOVA F-test evaluates whether the group means on the dependent
variable differ significantly from each other.



Post Hoc Multiple Comparison Test:
          Compare means two at a time in the form of post hoc (after the fact) comparisons.
          Post-hoc multiple comparison tests are used to compare each group's means difference. If the answer is
lower than mean score then there is difference within groups and if the answer is higher than mean score then there
is no difference within groups. Conducting multiple post hoc comparisons (like these) leads to a problem in
interpretation called “The Problem of Multiple Comparisons.” This identifies too many random differences when
many “looks” are taken.


LSD (Least Significant Difference) test:
21


                                              FINDINGS ON
                                 ATTITUDE TOWARDS SCIENCE

Q # 1: what are the attitudes of secondary school students towards science?
           Table 1:        t. test for students' score on attitude towards science scale
                                 No of students Mean St. D
                                 600               4.06    0.51
       In the five point Likert Scale the mean score 4.06 indicates that all students have positive attitude
towards science.


Ho1:    There is no gender effect on student's attitude towards science.
                      Table 2:                t. test for gender comparison
              Group N          Mean value St. D t-value df            Significance
              Male      300 3.9713           0.567 -4.13      598    .000
              Female 300 4.1406              0.428
       Table 2 shows that t-value is significant at P<0.05 levels of significance.
So our null hypothesis is rejected and it is concluded that there is a significant difference between male and
female students' attitude towards science at secondary level and table 2 also shows that female students have
more positive attitude towards science as compared to male students.

Ho2:     There is no significant difference between science and non-science students' attitude towards
science.
                Table 3:         t. test for science and non-science comparison
           Group           N     Mean value St. D t-value df            Significance
           Science         285 4.2439           0.381 9.18        598 .000
           Non Science 315 3.8859               0.549

       Table 3 shows that t-value is significant at P<0.05 levels of significance.
So our null hypothesis is rejected and it is concluded that there is a significant difference between science and
non-science students' attitude towards science at secondary level. Table 3 also shows that science students have
more positive attitude towards science as compared to non-science students.
22

Ho3: There is no significant difference between 9 th class science and non-science students' attitude
towards science.
               Table 4:     t. test for science and non-science comparison
                                                  Mean
                          Groups            N                St. D   t-value     df    Significance
                                                  value
                          Science          171    4.2283 0.400        7.04       324          .000
                      Non Science          155    3.8111 0.651
                     Table 4 shows that t-value is significant at P<0.05 levels of significance.
So our null hypothesis is rejected and it is concluded that there is a significant difference between 9 th class
science and non-science students' attitude towards science. Table 4 also shows that science students have more
positive attitude towards science as compared to non- science students.


Ho4: There is no significant difference between10th class science and non-science students' attitude
           towards science.
                 Table 5: t. test for science and non science comparison

                Group               N   Mean value St. D t-value df
                                                                               Significance
                Science             114 4.2672     0.352 6.42 272              0.000
                Non Science         160 3.9585       0.419

                 Table 5 shows that t-value is significant at P<0.05 levels of significance.
So our null hypothesis is rejected and it is concluded that there is a significant difference between 10 th class
science and non-science students' attitude towards science. Table 5 also shows that science students have more
positive attitude towards science as compared to non-science students.


Ho5: There is no effect of father education on students' attitude towards science.
                       Table 6:                       Analysis of Variance
                     Source         df Sum of squares Mean squares F ratio F prob.
                     Between groups 4  2.6659 squares .6665
                                        um of                      2.5985 .0353
                     Within groups 595 152.6037       .2565
                     Total              599 155.2696
       Table 6 reveals that F ratio is significant at P<0.05 levels of significance.
So our null hypothesis is rejected and it is concluded that father education affects the students' attitude towards
science.
23

Since the F ratio is significant it was decided to run a post hoc multiple comparison test.
                                         Father EDU Means

                                         B.A             4.1213
                                         F.A             4.2099
                                         Matric          4.0122
                                         Literate        4.0281
                                         Illiterate      4.0233
                     Table 7:          Post-hoc multiple comparisons vs LSD test.
                            Father Education            Mean Difference
                            B.A        VS F.A           -0.0886
                            B.A        VS Matric         0.1091
                            B.A        VS Literate       0.0932
                            B.A        VS Illiterate     0.0980
                            FA         VS Matric        0.1977*
                            FA         VS Literate      0.1818*
                            FA         VS Illiterate 0.1866*
                            Matric     VS Literate      -0.0159
                            Matric     VS Illiterate -0.0111
                            Literate   VS Illiterate 0.0048
                                                *Significant at P<0.05 level
        After Analysis of variance post hoc test LSD was used to see the difference between all possible pairs. It is
concluded from table 7 that LSD test for:

      FA vs Illiterate mean score of students are statistically significant.
      FA vs literate mean score of students are statistically significant.
      FA vs Matric mean score of students are statistically significant.

Ho6: There is no affect of mother education on students' attitude towards science.
                       Table 8:                          Analysis of Variance
           Source            df      Sum of square Mean square F Ratio F prob.
           Between groups    4       2.7512            0.6878          2.6899    0.0304
           Within groups     593 151.6310              0.2557
           Total             597 154.3822

        Table 8 shows that F prob. is significant at P<0.05 levels of significance.
 So our null hypothesis is rejected and it is concluded that mother education affects the students' attitude towards
science.
24

Since the F ratio is significant. It was decided to run a post-hoc multiple comparison tests.
                                Mother Education Mean
                                BA                      4.2748
                                FA                      4.0867
                                Matric                  4.1302
                                Literate                4.0428
                                Illiterate              4.0007
                   Table 9:       Post hoc multiple comparisons vs LSD test
                         Comparison                  Mean Difference
                         B.A     VS      F.A         0.1881
                         B.A     VS      Matric      0.1446
                         B.A     VS      Literate 0.2320*
                         B.A     VS      Illiterate 0.2741*
                         FA      VS      Matric      -0.0435
                         FA      VS      Literate    0.0439
                         FA      VS      Illiterate 0.0860
                         Matric VS       Literate    0.0874
                         Matric VS       Illiterate 0.1295*
                         Literate V S    Illiterate 0.0421
                                             Significant at P<0.05 level
        After Analysis of variance post hoc test vs LSD was used to see the difference between all possible
pairs. It is concluded from table 9 that LSD test for:
BA vs Illiterate mean scores of students are statistically significant.
BA vs Literate mean scores of students are statistically significant.
Matric vs Illiterate mean scores of students are statistically significant.

Ho7: There is no affect of school type on students' attitude towards science.
                Table 10:             Analysis of Variance
                  Source            df Sum of square Mean square F Ratio F prob.
                  Between groups 6        14.5482          2.4247           10.2177 .0000
                  Within groups 593 140.7214               0.2373
                  Total             599 155.2696
         Table 10 shows that F prob. is significant at P<0.05 levels of significance.
So our null hypothesis is rejected and it is concluded that school type affects the students' attitude towards
science.
25

Since the F prob. is significant. It was decided to run a post hoc multiple comparison tests
    School Name                                                                  Mean
    GM H/S MTL                Govt. Model H/S Model Town Lhr.                    3.8826
    GJM H/S MTL               Govt. Junior Model H/S Model Town Lhr.             4.0792
    GFDM H/S GTL              Govt. F.D Model H/S Garden Town Lhr.               4.3393
    GAG H/S GORIL             Govt. Apwa Girls H/S GOR.1. Lhr.                   4.0952
    GDNG H/S JRL              Govt. Dar-ur-Niswan Girls H/S Jail Road Lhr. 4.0786
    GG H/S FPRL               Govt. Girls H/S Ferozpur Road Lhr.                 4.2078
    G H/S KNL                 Govt. H/S Kahna Nau Lhr.                           3.7153

              Table 11:      Post hoc multiple comparisons LSD test
              School Name                                    Mean Difference
        GM H/S MTL              VS    GJM H/S MTL                     -0.1966*
        GM H/S MTL              VS    GFDM H/S GTL                    -0.4567*
        GM H/S MTL              VS    GAG H/S GORIL                   -0.2126*
        GM H/S MTL              VS    GDNG H/S JRL                    -0.1960*
        GM H/S MTL              VS    GG H/S FPRL                     -0.3252*
        GM H/S MTL              VS    G H/S KNL                       0.1673
        GJM H/S MTL             VS    GFDM H/S GTL                    -0.2601*
        GJM H/S MTL             VS    GAG H/S GORIL                   -0.0160
        GJM H/S MTL             VS    GDNG H/S JRL                    0.0006
        GJM H/S MTL             VS    GG H/S FPRL                     -0.1286
        GJM H/S MTL             VS    G H/S KNL                       0.3639*
        GFDM H/S GTL            VS    GAG H/S GORIL                   0.2441*
        GFDM H/S GTL            VS    GDNG H/S JRL                    0.2607*
        GFDM H/S GTL            VS    GG H/S FPRL                     0.1315
        GFDM H/S GTL            VS    G H/S KNL                       0.6240*
        GAG H/S GORIL           VS    GDNG H/S JRL                    0.0166
        xGAG H/S GORIL          VS    GG H/S FPRL                     -0.1126
        GAG H/S GORIL           VS    G H/S KNL                       0.3799*
        GDNG H/S JRL            VS    GG H/S FPRL                     -0.1292*
        GDNG H/S JRL            VS    G H/S KNL                       0.3633*
        GG H/S FPRL             VS    G H/S KNL                       0.4925*
                                       *Significant at P<0.05 level
 After analysis of variance post-hoc test vs LSD was used to see the difference between all possible pairs.
26

It is concluded from table 11 LSD test for:
(1) GM H/S MTL VS GJM H/S MTL mean scores of students are statistically significant.
(2) GM H/S MTL VS GFDM H/S GTL mean scores of students are statistically significant.
(3) GM H/S MTL VS GAG H/S GORIL means scores of students are statistically significant.
(4) GM H/S MTL VS GDNG H/S JRL mean scores of students are statistically significant.
(5) GM H/S MTL VS GG H/S FPRL mean scores of students are statistically significant.
(6) GJM H/S MTL VS GFDM H/S GTL mean scores of students are statistically significant.
(7) GJM H/S MTL VS G H/S KNL mean scores of students are statistically significant.
(8) GFDMH/SGTL VS GAGH/SGORIL mean scores of students are statistically significant.
(9) GFDM H/S GTL VS GDNG H/S JRL mean scores of students are statistically significant.
(10)   GFDM H/S GTL VS G H/S KNL mean scores of students are statistically significant.
(11)   GAG H/S GORIL VS G H/S KNL mean scores of students are statistically significant.
(12)   GDNG H/S JRL VS GG H/S FPRL mean scores of students are statistically significant.
(13)   GDNG H/S JRL VS G H/S KNL mean scores of students are statistically significant.
(14)   GG H/S FPRL VS G H/S KNL mean scores of students are statistically significant.
Ho 8: There is no significant difference between 9th, 10th science and non-science students' attitude
       towards science.
                        Table 12:        t. test for class comparison

            Group          N        Mean Value St. D t-value df            Significance
            9th Class      316 4.0299            0.573
                                                         -1.37     598 0.172
            10th Class 284 4.0869                0.420


       Table 12 shows that t-value is not significant at P<0.05 levels of significance.
So our null hypothesis is accepted and it is concluded that there is no significant difference between 9th, 10th
class science and non-science students' attitude towards science.

Ho 9: There is no significant difference between 9th, 10th class science students' attitude towards science.
                          Table 13:          t-test for class comparison

            Group         N     Mean Value St. D t-value df             Significance
            9th class     171 4.2283             0.400 -0.84      283 0.399
            10th class 114 4.2672                0.352
       Table 13 shows that t-value is not significant at P<0.05 levels of significance.
27

So our null hypothesis is accepted and it is concluded that there is no significant difference between 9 th, 10th
class science students' attitude towards science.
Ho10: There is no significant difference between 9 th, 10th class non-science students' attitude towards
       science.
                   Table 14:                        t-test for class comparison

             Group        N    Mean Value St. D t-value df              Significance
             9th class    155 3.8111           0.651 -2.40        313 0.017
             l0th class   160 3.9585           0.419

       Table 14 shows that t-value is significant at P<0.05 levels of significance.
So our null hypothesis is rejected and it is concluded that there is a significant difference between 9 th, 10th class
non-science students' attitude towards science. Table 14 also shows that 10 th class non-science students have
more positive attitude towards science as compared to 9 th class non-science students.
28

                                            Findings on Sub-Groups
        The investigator divided the questionnaire in four sub-groups for more detailed and better analysis.

                         Sub Group No.1                                     Self-Perceptions
Ho1. There is no significant difference between science and non-science students' self-perceptions about
      science at secondary level.
             Table 15:                   t-test for science and non-science comparison
                Group                N       Mean Value           St. D   t-value     df    Significance
                Science              285     4.3587               0.437   11.94       598   0.000
                Non-science          315     3.8021               0.669
               Table 15 shows that t-value is significant at P<0.05 levels of significance.
So our null hypothesis is rejected and it is concluded that there is a significant difference between science and
non-science students' self-perceptions about science. It is also concluded that science students have more
positive self-perceptions about science as compared to non-science students at secondary level.
Ho2 . There is no significant difference between male and female students' self-perceptions about science
       at secondary level.
                    Table 16:            t-test for male and female comparison
                    Group        N       Mean Value       St. D t-value df
                                                                            Significance
                    Male         300 4.0859               0.685 0.75    598 0.453
                    Female       300 4.0470               0.579

       Table 16 shows that t-value is not significant at P<0.05 levels of significance.
So our null hypothesis is accepted and it is concluded that there is no significant difference between male and
female students' self-perceptions about science at secondary level.
Ho3. There is no significant difference between 9th and 10th class students' self-perceptions about science
at secondary level.
               Table 17:                    t-test for 9th and 10th class comparison
                         Group       N       Mean Value St. D t-value df
                                                                                      Significance
                          th
                         9 class     316 4.0116              0.723 -2.32          598 0.021
                         l0th class 284 4.1318               0.503
       Table 17 shows that t-value is significant at P<0.05 levels of significance.

So our null hypothesis is rejected and it is concluded that there is a significant difference between 9 th and 10th
class students' self-perceptions about science. Table 17 also shows that 10th class students have more positive
self-perceptions about science as compared to 9th class students.
29

 Ho4: There is no affect of school type on students' self perceptions about science at secondary level.
                     Table 18:                       Analysis of Variance
        Source             df       Sum of squares   Mean square      F ratio F prob.
        Between groups        6     13.6403          2.2734           5.9323 0.0000
        With in groups        593   227.2510         0.3832
        Total                 599   240.8913
              Table 18 reveals that F prob. is significant at P< 0.05 levels of significance.
So our null hypothesis is rejected and it is concluded that school type affects the students' self-perceptions about
science at secondary level.
Since the F prob. is significant. It was decided to run a post hoc multiple comparison tests
           School Name                                                           Mean
           GM H/S MTL                 Govt. Model H/S Model Town Lhr.           4.0000
           GJM H/S MTL                Govt. Junior Model H/S Model Town         4.2363
           Lhr. H/S GTL
           GFDM                       Govt. F.D Model H/S Garden Town Lhr. 4.4183
           GAG H/S GOR.1.L           Govt. Apwa Girls H/S GOR.1. Lhr.           4.0329
           GDNG H/S JRL              Govt. Dar-ur-Niswan Girls H/S Jail Road 3.9358
           Lhr.H/S FPRL
           GG                        Govt girls H/S Ferozpur Road Lhr.          4.1411
           G H/S KNL                 Govt. H/S Kahna Nau Lhr.                   3.7500
                 Table 1 9:              Post hoc multiple comparison vs L S D test
                 School Name                                      Mean Difference
                 GM H/S MTL VS GJM H/S MTL                        -0.2363*
                 GM H/S MTL VS GFDM H/S GTL                       -0.4183*
                 GM H/S MTL VS GAG H/S GORIL                      -0.0329
                 GM H/S MTL VS GDNG H/S JRL                       0.0642
                 GM H/S MTL VS GG H/S FPRL                        -0.1411
                 GM H/S MTL VS G H/S KNL                          0.2500*
                 GJM H/S MTL VS GFDM H/S GTL                      -0.1820
                 GJM H/S MTL VS GAG H/S GORIL                     0.2034
                 GJM H/S MTL VS GDNG H/S JRL                      0.3005*
                 GJM H/S MTL VS GG H/S FPRL                       0.0952
                 GJM H/S MTL VS G H/S KNL                         0.4863*
                 GFDM H/S GTL VS GAG H/S GORIL                    0.3854*
                 GFDM H/S GTL VS GDNG H/S JRL                     0.4825*
                 GFDM H/S GTL V S GG H/S FPRL                     0.2772 *
                 GFDM H/S GTL VS G H/S KNL                        0.6683*
30

                   GAG H/S GORIL V S GDNG H/S JRL                  0.0971
                   GAG H/S GORIL VS GG H/S FPRL                    -0.1082
                   GAG H/S GORIL VS G H/S KNL                      0.2829*
                   GDNG H/S JRL VS GG H/S FPRL                     -0.2053*
                   GDNG H/S JRL VS G H/S KNL                       0.1858
                   GG H/S FPRL VS G H/S KNL.                       0.3911 *
                                            *Significant at P< 0.05 level
         After analysis of variance post hoc test vs LSD was used to see the difference between all possible pairs. It
is concluded from table 19 LSD test for:
(1) GM H/S MTL VS GJM H/S MTL means score of students are statistically significant.
(2) GM H/S MTL VS GFDM H/S GTL means score of students are statistically significant.
(3) GM H/S MTL VS G H/S KNL means score of students are statistically significant.
(4) GJM H/S MTL VS GDNG H/S JRL means score of students are statistically significant.
(5) GJM H/S MTL VS G H/S KNL means score of students are statistically significant.
(6) GFDM H/S GTL VS GAG H/S GORIL means score of students are statistically significant.
(7) GFDM H/S GTL VS GDNG H/S JRL means score of students are statistically significant.
(8) GFDM H/S GTL VS GG H/S FPRL means score of students are statistically significant.
(9) GFDM H/S GTL VS G H/S KNL means score of students are statistically significant.
(10)     GAG H/S GORIL VS G H/S KNL means score of students are statistically significant.
(11)     GDNG H/S JRL VS GG H/S FPRL means score of students are statistically significant.
(12)     GG H/S FPRL VS G H/S KNL means score of students are statistically significant.


Ho5: There is no affect of father education on students' self-perceptions about science at secondary
level.
                Table 20:                      Analysis of variance
          Source             df    Sum of squares Mean square F ratio F prob.
          Between groups 4   7.0707                    1.7677          4.4982 0.0014
          With in groups 595 233.8207                  0.3933
          Total          599 240.8913
               Table 20 shows that F prob. is significant at P< 0.05 levels of significance.
So our null hypothesis is rejected and it is concluded that father education affects the students' self- perceptions
about science at secondary level.
31

Since the F prob. is significant. It was decided to run a post hoc multiple comparison tests.
                                  Father Education          Mean
                                  BA                        4.1689
                                  FA                        4.2928
                                  Matric                    3.9508
                                  Literate                  4.0512
                                  Illiterate                4.0612
                   Table 21:       Post hoc multiple comparisons vs LSD test:
                         Comparison                     Mean Difference
                         B.A      VS       F.A          -0.1239
                         B.A      VS       Matric       0.2181*
                         B.A      VS       Literate     0.1177
                         B.A      VS       Illiterate   0.1077
                         FA       VS       Matric       0.3420*
                         FA       VS       Literate     0.2416*
                         FA       VS       Illiterate   0.2316*
                         Matric VS         Literate     -0.1004
                         Matric VS         Illiterate -0.1104
                         Literate VS       Illiterate -0.0100
                                          * Significant at P<0.05 level
        After Analysis of variance post hoc test vs LSD was used to see the difference between all possible
pairs. It is concluded from table 21 that LSD test for:

         B.A vs Matric means scores of students are statistically significant.
         F.A vs Matric means scores of students are statistically significant.
         F.A vs literate means scores of students are statistically significant.
         F.A vs Illiterate means scores of students are statistically significant.

Ho6: There is no affect of mother education on students' self-perfections about science at secondary
level.
                      Table 22:                         Analysis of variance
         Source            df      Sum of squares Mean square             F ratio F prob.
         Between groups    4   3.9180                     0.9795           2.4527 0.0449
         With in groups    593 236.8188                   0.3994
         Total             597 240.7368
      Table 22 shows that F prob. is significant at P< 0.05 levels of significance.
So our null hypothesis is rejected and it is concluded that mother education affects the students'
32

self-perceptions about science at secondary level.
Since the F prob. is significant. It was decided to run a post hoc multiple comparison tests.
                                 Mother Education Mean
                                BA                        4.2899
                                FA                        4.2024
                                Matric                    4.1497
                                Literate                  4.0368
                                Illiterate                4.0009
                   Table 23:      Post hoc multiple comparisons vs LSD test
                        Comparison                    Mean Difference
                        B.A      VS        F.A        0.0875
                        B.A      VS        Matric     0.1402
                        B.A      VS        Literate 0.2531
                        B.A      VS        Illiterate 0.2890*
                        FA       VS        Matric     0.0527
                        FA       VS        Literate   0.1656
                        FA       VS        Illiterate 0.2015
                        Matric VS          Literate   0.1129
                        Matric VS          Illiterate 0.1488*
                        Literate VS        Illiterate 0.0359
                                             * Significant at P<0.05 level
        After Analysis of variance post hoc test vs LSD was used to see the difference between all possible
pairs. It is concluded from table 23 that LSD test for:
(1)     B.A vs Illiterate means scores of students are statistically significant.
(2)     Matric vs Illiterate means scores of students are statistically significant.
33

                      Sub Group No.2                            Future Expectations

Ho1. There is no significant difference between science and non-science students' future expectations
from science at secondary level.
                             Table 24:           t-test for science and non science comparison
                      Group              N     Mean Value St. D t-value df            Significance
                      Science            285 4.4751           0.513 9.11        598 0.000
                      Non-science 315 3.9975                  0.738
                   Table 24 shows that t-value is significant at P<0.05 levels of significance.
So our null hypothesis is rejected and it is concluded that there is a significant difference between science and
non-science students' future expectations from science. It is also concluded that science students have more
positive expectations from science as compared to non-science students at secondary level.
Ho2: There is no significant difference between male and female students' future expectations about
science at secondary level.
                               Table 25:           t-test for male and female comparison
                            Group   N        Mean Value     St. D t-value df       Significance
                            Male    300 4.1333             0.746 -3.29       598 0.001
                            Female 300 4.3153              0.604
                  Table 25 shows that t-value is significant at P<0.05 levels of significance.
So our null hypothesis is rejected and it is concluded that there is a significant difference between male and
female students' future expectations from science. Table 25 also shows that female students have more positive
future expectations from science as compared to male students at secondary level.
Ho3: There is no significant difference between 9th class and 10th class students' future expectations from
science at secondary level.
                        Table 26:                         t-test for 9th and 10th class comparison
                     Comparison N              Mean Value St. D t-value df            Significance
                       th
                     9 class             316 4.1767           0.770 -1.87       598 0.063
                     10th class          284 4.2810           0.560
          Table 26 shows that t-value is not significant at P<0.05 levels of significance.
So our null hypothesis is accepted and it is concluded that there is no significant difference between 9 th and 10th
class students' future expectations from science.
Students' Attitude towards Science
Students' Attitude towards Science
Students' Attitude towards Science
Students' Attitude towards Science
Students' Attitude towards Science
Students' Attitude towards Science
Students' Attitude towards Science
Students' Attitude towards Science
Students' Attitude towards Science
Students' Attitude towards Science
Students' Attitude towards Science
Students' Attitude towards Science
Students' Attitude towards Science
Students' Attitude towards Science
Students' Attitude towards Science
Students' Attitude towards Science
Students' Attitude towards Science
Students' Attitude towards Science
Students' Attitude towards Science
Students' Attitude towards Science
Students' Attitude towards Science
Students' Attitude towards Science
Students' Attitude towards Science
Students' Attitude towards Science

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Students' Attitude towards Science

  • 1. A SURVEY OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS' ATTITUDE TOWARDS SCIENCE A Thesis Presented to Faculty of Educational Management and Technology Institute of Leadership and Management Lahore, Pakistan Affiliated With Hamdard University, Karachi, Pakistan In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirement for the Degree Master of Education By Maqsood Ahmad ILM ID# 000108-002 July, 2001
  • 2. ii Certificate of Approval It is certified that Maqsood Ahmad has successfully completed his research study entitled "A Survey of Secondary School Students' Attitude towards Science" under the supervision of Prof. Abdus Samad. His thesis meets the scholarly standard as set by the institute of Leadership and Management (ILM) Lahore, affiliated with Hamdard University, Karachi.
  • 3. iii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The researcher owes his sincerest gratitude to Prof. Abdus Samad, the advisor of this research work, whose unfailing patience, vast experience, guidance and willingness to help have been highly inspiring. The researcher is indebted to Prof. Dr. Usman Khalil Yousaf Zai coordinator of M.Ed program for his guidance and valuable suggestions. The researcher would also like to express his profound gratitude to Dr. Mushtaq-ur-Rehman Siddiqui Associate Dean, Faculty of Educational Management and Technology, without whose support this piece of work would not have been completed. The researcher feels pleasure to acknowledge the help of Prof. Rizwan Akram Rana and Prof. Ubaidullah of Institute of Educational Research Department, University of the Punjab, Lahore, for their help in analysis of the data. The researcher is also grateful to his friend Mr. Munir Akhtar for his help in collecti on of data from girls schools. M a q s o o d A h m a d
  • 4. iv DEDICATIONS Dedicated To HAZRAT MUHAMMAD (PEACE BE UPON HIM) WHO IS THE LAST MESSENGER OF ALLAH. To LOVING PARENTS, WHOSE UTMOST EFFORTS AND PRAYERS ARE ALWAYS WITH ME. To RESPECTED TEACHERS, WHOSE KIND GUIDANCE AND ENCOURAGEMENT HELPED ME TO REACH AT THIS STAGE. To THOSE, WHO INSPIRED ME TO SEEK KNOWLEDGE FOR THE WELFARE OF MANKIND.
  • 5. v Contents pages Certificate of Approval ii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS iii DEDICATIONS iv Table of Contents v ABSTRACT ................................................................................................................................................... 1 I. Introduction .................................................................................................................................................... 2 Why positive attitudes towards science are necessary? ....................................................................................... 3 Why negative attitudes towards science are not desirable? ................................................................................. 4 Statement of the Study ......................................................................................................................................... 4 Significance of the Study ..................................................................................................................................... 4 significance of the study can be gathered through: .............................................................................................. 4 Objectives of the Study: ....................................................................................................................................... 5 Research Questions: ............................................................................................................................................. 5 Null hypothesis .................................................................................................................................................... 5 Sub group No.l: "Self perceptions" .............................................................................................................. 6 Sub group No.2: "Future expectations from science" .................................................................................... 6 Sub group No.3: "Expectations from teachers" ............................................................................................ 7 Sub group No.4: "Expectations from gender"................................................................................................ 7 Definition of terms: .............................................................................................................................................. 7 Assumptions:........................................................................................................................................................ 8 Delimitations of the study: ................................................................................................................................... 8 General Methods and Procedures: ....................................................................................................................... 8 II. Review of Related Literature.................................................................................................................. 9 What is Attitude? ................................................................................................................................................. 9 Characteristics of Attitude: ................................................................................................................................ 10 Importance of Attitudes: .................................................................................................................................... 10
  • 6. vi Components of Attitude: .................................................................................................................................... 11 Cognitive Components: ..................................................................................................................................... 11 Affective Components: ...................................................................................................................................... 11 Action Components: .......................................................................................................................................... 12 Measurement of Attitude: .................................................................................................................................. 12 The Opinionnaire or Attitude Scale: .................................................................................................................. 13 Likert Scale: ....................................................................................................................................................... 13 Scale value ......................................................................................................................................................... 14 Influences Contributing to Acquisition of Attitudes:......................................................................................... 14 Effect of Teacher on Attitudes: .......................................................................................................................... 14 Effects of Parents on Attitudes: ......................................................................................................................... 15 Effects of Gender on Attitudes: ......................................................................................................................... 16 III. Procedure and Methodology ............................................................................................................... 18 Population of the Study:..................................................................................................................................... 18 Selection of Sample: .......................................................................................................................................... 18 Tool of Research: ............................................................................................................................................... 19 Administering the Questionnaire: ...................................................................................................................... 19 Procedure: .......................................................................................................................................................... 19 IV. Analysis and Interpretation of Data ................................................................................................. 20 Data Analysis: .................................................................................................................................................... 20 T-Test: ................................................................................................................................................................ 20 Analysis of Variance: ......................................................................................................................................... 20 Post Hoc Multiple Comparison Test: ................................................................................................................. 20 LSD .................................................................................................................................................................... 20 FINDINGS ........................................................................................................................................................ 21 Findings on Sub-Groups .................................................................................................................................... 28 Sub Group No.1 Self-Perceptions............................................................................................. 28
  • 7. vii Sub Group No.2 Future Expectations ....................................................................................... 33 Sub group No.3 Expectations from Teacher ............................................................................ 38 Sub group No.4 Expectations from Gender ............................................................................. 41 V. Summary, Findings, Conclusions and Recommendations 45 Summary: ........................................................................................................................................................... 45 Findings: ............................................................................................................................................................ 45 Conclusions ........................................................................................................................................................ 48 Conclusions of sub-groups ................................................................................................................................. 48 Recommendations .............................................................................................................................................. 48 BIBLIOGRAPHY .............................................................................................................................................. 50 Appendix “A” 51 Appendix “B” 54 Appendix “C” 57
  • 8. 1 ABSTRACT A SURVEY OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS' ATTITUDE TOWARDS SCIENCE This study was carried out to assess the attitude of students of secondary classes towards science. The data was collected from seven secondary schools situated in Model Town and Kahna area of Lahore. The sample consisted of 600 students, both boys and girls drawn from science as well as humanities streams. The instrument used for collection of data was a modified version of Modified Fennema-Sherman Attitude Scales by Diana Doepken, Ellen Lawsky and Linda Padwa'. It consisted of 28 items questionnaire to be responded on a 5-point Likert Scale. The analysis of the data was done by using; T-test (a Student's t distribution or paired difference test that is used when comparing two sets of measurements to assess whether their population means differ), ANOVA (Analysis of Variance), LSD (Least Significant Difference) test and Post Hoc Multiple Comparison Test: Compare means two at a time in the form of post hoc (after the fact) comparisons. The study revealed that all students of secondary classes had positive attitude towards science. Attitudes of girls are even more positive. Similarly students of Science Group have more positive attitude than those of Humanities Group. The study further revealed that parental attitude and school type also contribute towards development of positive attitude of students towards science. 1. E-mail: webmaster@Woodrow.org
  • 9. 2 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Attitude is commonly defined as a predisposition to respond positively or negatively to things, people, places, events, or ideas. Attitudes or feelings towards science refer to a person's positive or negative response to the enterprise of science. Put another way they refer specifically to whether a person likes or dislikes science. A seven-item subscale designed by Simpson and Oliver (1990)1 measures student attitude in terms of specific feelings towards science. o Science is fun o I have good feelings toward science. o I enjoy science courses. o I really like science. o I would enjoy being a scientist. o I think scientists are neat people. o Everyone should learn about science. Included in the scale are other dimensions related to attitude toward science. One example is motivation to achieve in science. Items from this subscale include: o I always try hard, no matter how difficult the work is? o When I fail that makes me try much harder. o I always try to do my best in school. o I try hard to do well in science. Another dimension related to attitude toward science is; science anxiety, the negative pole of the attitude concept. Items in this subscale include: o Science makes me feel as though I'm lost in a jungle of numbers and words. o My mind goes blank when I do science. o Science tests make me nervous. o I would not do well in science if I took it in college. 1.„Simpson, R.D., & Oliver, J. S. (1990). A summary of major influences on attitude toward and achievement in science among adolescent students. Science Education, 74, 1-18.
  • 10. 3 Attitude of Students towards science can include; science teacher’s personal attitude towards his students. Examples of items representing this dimension include: o My science teacher encourages me to learn more science. o I enjoy talking to my science teacher after class. o My science teacher makes good plans for us. o Sometimes my science teacher makes me feel dumb. o My science teacher expects me to make good grades. Attitude toward science curriculum is another important affective variable. Examples of statements representing feelings are: o We do a lot of fun activities in science class. o We learn about important things in science class. o We cover interesting topics in science class. o I like our science textbook. "Thus the attitude is a little thing that may make a big difference." Why positive attitudes towards science are necessary? Science is a human enterprise that contributes enormously towards extending the intellectual horizons and also in solving many of our practical problems for example: - (i) Science is an important way to understand the world. Understanding means to gain insight into the way nature works in a causal and mechanistic sense. Science helps us to understand motions in the heavens , in the tides, and in the movement of terrestrial bodies, in the chemical constituents of the matter and nature and evolution of living organisms. There is no other way to understand such objects and processes. (ii) Science attempts to explain natural phenomena in terms of the underlying causes in as economical way as possible, preferably using mathematics. The ideas have to be self-consistent and corresponding with reality. They must be tested scientifically. (iii) Scientific knowledge is self-consistent. The self-consistency implies that one branch of science must be consistent with all the others; Biological theories cannot contradict Chemistry. (iv) Science is a special form of knowledge but the differences lie both in the subject matter and the techniques. In science the ideas are value-free. (v) A surprising aspect of science is that almost every important idea can be expressed in a precise manner. (vi) There is hope, even expectation, that science can provide the solution to our many problems: the cure for cancer and other illnesses, cheap and environmentally friendly nuclear power. There also is consider able enthusiasm for popular science books and programmes, which reveal the mysteries of the origin and workings of
  • 11. 4 the universe including the origins of human beings like us. Science is intellectually exciting. Why negative attitudes towards science are not desirable? While there is much interest and admiration for science, there is also some fear and hostility. Science is perceived as materialistic and dehumanizing, arrogant and dangerous. Reductionism, a hallmark of scientific research, robs all the mystery and wonders of life. Some others see its practitioners as a band of cold, competitive and unfeeling technicians wielding power without responsibility. The threats of nuclear war and the genetic manipulation of embryos loom large. Science is also blamed for polluting the environment. Such attitudes and feelings about science are however uncalled for; that we remain ignorant about many aspects of human behavior is not a failure of science but a reflection of human complexity. What science cannot do is to tell us how to live, what is good or bad. It has nothing to contribute to moral and ethical issues; these can, however, arise in relation to the application of scientific ideas. In principle, if we understood more about how society works, it could help us design a just society once we made clear the ethical and moral principles that we want. Statement of the Study The purpose of this study is to know and learn about the behavior and attitudes of secondary school students towards science learning. Thus the statement of this research project is, “A survey of secondary school students' attitude towards science" Significance of the Study The attitude of a learner towards a subject determines, to a large extent, his/her success and consequently his/her choice of a profession. In most cases this attitude is formed during secondary classes. It is, therefore, important to discover attitudes of students and try to modify, if possible, through teaching strategies. The significance of the study can be gathered through the following: (1) Student's attitudes towards a subject deeply affect their learning of that subject. So it is needed to know their attitudes, which will be helpful for teachers, curriculum designer and head teachers of schools. (2) Gender difference in attitudes may be important because females usually feel themselves inferior in science. It may therefore, be useful to know their attitudes. This study will be helpful for females that what attitudes they should adopt and how these attitudes will fulfill their needs. (3) The study will help to know the attitudes of science students, so that proper emphasis may be given to develop science attitudes. (4) The findings of the study may provide useful insights to curriculum planners and textbook writers to
  • 12. 5 promote desirable attitudes and counter negative attitudes for improved learning. (5) The study may provide incentives for further researches in this domain. Objectives of the Study: This study is conducted to achieve the following objectives: (1) To measure the attitudes of secondary school students (2) To measure the gender difference in attitudes of secondary school students (3) To know the relationship, if any, in the type of school and the attitudes of their students towards science (4) To study the attitudes of science and non-science students towards science at secondary level to counter some wrong notions that science is a difficult subject or that some stude nts cannot study science at all Research Questions: 1. What are students' attitudes towards science at secondary level? 2. What are significant differences between students' attitudes towards science at secondary level in Lahore City? 3. What are significant differences between science and non-science students' attitudes towards science at secondary level in Lahore City? 4. What are significant differences between 9th and l0th class students' attitudes towards science at secondary level? 5. What are significant differences between 9 th and 10th class science students' attitudes towards science? 6. What are significant differences between 9th and 10th class non-science students' attitudes towards science? 7. What is gender effect on student's attitudes towards science at secondary level? 8. What are the effects of father‟s education on students' attitudes towards science at secondary level? 9. What are the effects of mother‟s education on students' attitudes towards science at secondary level? 10. What are the effects of school type on students' attitudes towards science at secondary level? To answer these questions following null hypothesis were formulated: Ho1. There is no gender effect on students' attitude towards science. Ho2. There is no significant difference between science and non-science students' attitude towards science. Ho3. There is no significant difference between 9th class science and non-science students' attitude towards science. Ho4. There is no significant difference between 10th class science and non-science students' attitude towards
  • 13. 6 science. Ho5. There is no effect of father‟s education on students' attitude towards science. Ho6. There is no effect of mother‟s education on students' attitude towards science. Ho7. There is no effect of school type on students' attitude towards science. Ho8. There is no significant difference between 9th and 10th class science and non- science students' attitude towards science. Ho9. There is no significant difference between 9th and 10th class science students' attitude towards science. Ho10. There is no significant difference between 9th and 10th class non-science students' attitude towards science. Since the questionnaire was divided into four sub-groups for detailed analysis, So the researcher formulated null hypothesis with respect to four sub-groups. Sub group No.l: "Self perceptions" The following null hypotheses were formulated. Ho1 There is no significant difference between science and non-science students' self-perceptions about science at secondary level. Ho2 There is no significant difference between male and female students' self- perceptions about science at secondary level. Ho3 There is no significant difference between 9 th, 10th class students' self- perceptions about science at secondary level. Ho4 There is no effect of school type on students' self-perceptions about science at secondary level. Ho5 There is no effect of father education on students' self-perceptions about science at secondary level. Ho6 There is no effect of mother education on students' self-perceptions about science at secondary level. Sub group No.2: "Future expectations from science" The following null hypotheses were formulated. Ho1 There is no significant difference between science and non-science students' future expectations from science at secondary level. Ho2 There is no significant difference between male and female students' future expectations from science at secondary level. Ho3 There is no significant difference between 9th and 10th class students' future expectations from science at secondary level. Ho4 There is no effect of school type on students' future expectations from science at secondary level. Ho5 There is no effect of father education on students' future expectations from science at secondary level.
  • 14. 7 Ho6 There is no effect of mother education on students' future expectations from science at secondary level. Sub group No.3: "Expectations from teachers" The following null hypotheses were formulated. Ho1. There is no significant difference between science and non-science students' expectations from teacher at secondary level. H o 2 . There is no significant difference between boys and girls students' expectations from teacher at secondary school level. Ho3. There is no significant difference between 9 t h and 10th class students' expectations from teacher at secondary level. Ho4. There is no effect of school type on students' expectations from teacher at secondary level. Ho5. There is no effect of father education on students' expectations from teacher at secondary level. Ho6. There is no effect of mother education on students' expectations from teacher at secondary level. Sub group No.4: "Expectations from gender" The following null hypotheses were formulated. Ho1. There is no significant difference between science and non-science students' expectations from gender role in science at secondary level. Ho2. There is no significant difference between boys and girls students' expectations from gender role in science at secondary level. H o 3 . There is no significant difference between 9 th and 10th class students' expectations from gender role in science at secondary level. Ho4. There is no effect of school type on students' expectations from gender role in science at secondary level. Ho5. There is no effect of father education on students' expectations from gender role in science at secondary level. H o 6 . There is no effect of mother education on students' expectations from gender role in science at secondary level. Definition of terms: (a) Attitude: - Attitude is commonly defined as a predisposition to respond positively or negatively to things, people, places, events, or ideas. (b) Attitude towards science: - Attitudes or feelings towards science refer to a person's positive or negative response to the enterprise of science. Put another way, they refer specifically to whether a
  • 15. 8 person likes or dislikes science. (c) Secondary school: - An institution where students learn from level 6 to 10 (age group 12 to 17). (d) Students: - Regular students of a secondary school. (e) Science students: - Students who are studying science at secondary level. (f) Non-science students: - Students who are studying humanities or social sciences at secondary level. Assumptions: 1) Attitude can be negative or positive. (i) In terms of positive attitude the learner will be high achiever. (ii) In terms of negative attitude the learner will be low achiever 2) Attitude is changeable. 3) Attitude can be changed due to learning. 4) Attitude can be changed due to experience. 5) The study will help teachers to give more emphasis on learning in affective domain. Delimitations of the study: The study will be delimited to: - 1. The population and sample will be boys and girls students studying in different secondary schools of Lahore. 2. The data for the study will be obtained only through a questionnaire. 3. The study will be limited only to "attitude towards science" 4. The study will only be conducted in secondary classes (9th and 10th) General Methods and Procedures: a. The investigator will conduct the study through quantitative research method. b. The investigator will take the sample through convenient sampling. c. Questionnaire method will be adopted for collecting data from students. d. The investigator will get filled the questionnaire from students. e. The investigator will analyze the data through quantitative techniques.
  • 16. 9 CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE What is Attitude? According to Kobella (1989), the term attitude encompasses a wide range of affective behaviors (e.g. prefer, accept, appreciate, and commit) and is used loosely and without basis by some writers. It is also applied in number of contexts and with a variety of meanings. Vaidya (1989)2 explained attitude as "a condition of readiness for a certain type of activity". Attitudes held by the individuals may be simple or complex, stable or unstable, temporary or permanent and superficial or fundamental. Judgments based upon insufficient facts are likely to yield wrong results and thereby develop biased attitudes. Hayes (1995)3 described, "Attitude affect the way in which we perceive the world around us". Anastasi (1969)4 defined attitude as, "a tendency to react favourably or unfavourably toward a designated class of stimuli". It is evident that when so defined, attitudes cannot be directly observed, but must be inferred from overt behavior, both verbal and non-verbal. Rosenberg and Hovland (1960) 5 express that, "attitudes are typically defined as, predispositions to respond in a particular way towards a specified class of objects". Being predispositions they are not directly neither observable nor measurable. Instead they are inferred from the way we react to a particular stimulus. MsGuire (1976)6 who has reviewed numerous definitions of attitudes concluded that these definitions differ in almost every conceivable important way. Some psychologists define attitudes as inner states, but a few refer to attitudes as consisting of groups of responses. Some define attitudes as a disposition to respond, others considers the response as representing the attitude. Some regard an attitude as having a unity, but others regard it as having a set of distinct components. Some distinguish between attitude and knowledge while others regard both as unified cognitive components. Kobella, Thomas R. (1989). Changing and Measuring Attitude in the Science Classroom. Research Matters to the Science Teacher, No. 8901. http://www.barst.irg/research/attitude.htm. ' Vaidya, Narendera. (1989). The Impact Science Teaching. Now Delhi: Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. Hayes, Wm A. (1995). Scientific Attitudes. Cleveland: MS 38733. http:// www.riverboathouse.com/dochayes/scithinwahsat.html. ' Anastasi, Anne. (1969). Psychological Testing London: Macmillan Publishing Co. ' Rosenberg, Milton J. & Havland, Carl I. (1960). Attitude Organization and Change, An Analysis if Consistency Among Attitude Components. New York: Yale University Press. MsGuire, W.J. (1976). Attitude change and the information -processing paradigm. In E.P. Hollandrer & R. G. Hunt (Eds.), Current perspectives in social psychology. New York: University Press.
  • 17. 10 Fishbein and Ajzen‟s (1980)7 featured work based on hypothesized relationship among beliefs, attitudes, behavioral intentions, and behavior. Characteristics of Attitude: Mohsin (1990)8 described that the attitude has following characteristic that are commonly accepted: 1. Attitudes are not inborn; they are learned through experience. 2. Like most psychological concepts, they can be inferred from the observed antecedent stimulus and the consequent behavior pattern. They are thus, of the nature of an intervening variable and a hypothetical construct. 3. Attitudes have objective reference; one holds an attitude regarding some object, person, or issue. In this respect, they differ from motives or personality traits that have subjective reference. 4. Attitudes differ in valence, having an attitude regarding an object signifies that the person concerned is either favourably or unfavourably disposed towards it. Stated otherwise, attitudes are positive or negative, pro or anti. 5. They orient the organism to the attitude object and channel the energy at the disposal of the organism. 6. Once formed, attitudes persist in time; they are enduring dispositions and are unlikely to change under ordinary conditions. 7. From operational point of view, attitudes are manifested in the consistency of responses made to a specific object situation. Importance of Attitudes: The predominant role of attitudes is the determining of our thoughts, memory and learning process. Thus they not only determine the conclusions we derive from facts, but also influence the every effect we are willing to accept. The concept of attitude includes mental set, task set and intention-determining tendencies of very brief duration as well as the relatively permanent biases of politics, economics, and religion. It is easy to observe that students with attitudes unfavourable to certain things learn them with greater difficulty than those whose attitudes are favourable. Edwards (1957)9 verified the hypothesis that people select and remember from a speech those items, which fit their attitudes, rejecting data which conflict with their views. The relationship between attitude and information suggests that people acquire facts most readily, which are congruent with their views. Being products of education attitudes are basic to many educational activities. Thus progress in any field depends upon attitudes developed in children at school level. Attitudes are seldom exempted 7.Ajzen, I., & Fishbein, M. (1980). Understanding attitudes and predicting social behavior, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: prentice Hall. 8.Mohsin, S.M. (1990). Attitude concept, formation and change. New Delhi: wiley Eastern Ltd. 9.Edward, Allen L (1957), the social desirability variable in perso nality assessment and research. New York: Dryden Press.
  • 18. 11 today from discussions of student and schooling problems. Components of Attitude: Individuals have many attitudes, most attitudes are interconnected in clusters, but some are relatively isolated. Occasionally, attitudes are acquired through one traumatic emotional experience but with little information about the attitude object. Most often they are acquired through a series of lesser emotional experiences and with more information. Some are acquired with very little feeling or emotion and considerable information about the attitude object. (Klausmeier and Ripple, 1971)10 "Attitude includes the following components" Cognitive Components: The cognitive components consist of ideas and beliefs, which the attitude holder has about an object. (Encyclopedia of Educational Research 1992)11 Attitudes differ in the extent to which they involve knowledge and beliefs. Some attitudes are highly intellectualized. Whereas sometime attitudes are based on large store of incorrect information and false beliefs and cognitive basis for attitudes may be misinformation. A person may hold an attitude and have no strong feeling about the matter that is; the affective component may be minor. On the other hand, his attitudes may not only be highly intellectualized, but may also have a strong affective component. The intellectual component and the affective components work hand in hand, but they are still independent components. The intellectual component s of attitude sometimes referred to as the cognitive (knowing) components. Hence, the cognitive component of an attitude is that aspect which is based on knowledge or derived from it in some way. (Travers, 1977) 12 Affective Components: Travers (1977)13 explained that affective components consist of positive or negative affects (feelings). Attitudes may differ in the extent to which they involve such affective components. Some attitudes are quite irrational and involve little except this affective component. The person who like one set of ideas and dislikes another, but cannot tell why, reflects an attitude that has a major affective component but very little else. Many attitudes are of this nature, and common observation suggests that they are quite easily learned; most people are characterized by many attitudes that are of this character. According to (Encyclopedia of Educational Research 1992)14, „affective component refers to the feelings and emotions one has towards the object. 10. Klausmeier, Herbert J. & Ripple, Richard E. (1971). Learning and Human Abilities, Educational IPsycholiey. New York: Harper and Row Publisher. (3 'd Edition) 11.Alkin, Marvin C. (1992). Encyclopedia of Education Research. Vol. I, New York: Macmillan Publishing Co. 12Travers, Robert W.M. (1977). Essentials of Learning New York: the Macmillan Publishing Co. 13Op.cit. 14 Op. cit.
  • 19. 12 Action Components: Behavioral or action component consists of one's actions and tendencies towards the object. (Encyclopedia of Educational Research, 1992) 15 According to Travers (1977) 16 many expressed attitudes bear little relation to behavior. The fact that the action component can be independent of the other components is important for planning education. Much of attitude education is the education of the affective and the cognitive components of attitudes, and these components may never be carried over into action systems. The action system of an attitude may have little support from the cognitive system, which may be almost entirely laming. Gagne & Medsker (1996)17 suggested that these three components of attitude are considered as highly interrelated and believed that all three may be usefully addressed in attitude development. Measurement of Attitude: Usually measurement of attitudes is carried out through verbal behavior. Edwards (1957)18 defined, measurement of attitudes as "the degree of positive or negative effect associated with some psychological object". So measures of attitude are measures of effect and hence do not attempt to measure either the cognitive component or the action component of attitude. Verbal behavior may be used in many ways in the determination of underlying attitudes. Any expression of opinion provides a small amount of evidence and it can be obtained by asking a person whether he agrees or disagrees with a particular statement of opinion. Series of opinions are ordered into scales with respect to particular issues. Such ordered sets of statements are referred to as attitude scale. They are used to appraise attitudes as asking subjects to examine each statement and to indicate agreement or disagreement. An examination of these responses can then be used to provide a measure of attitude. It is clear that endorsement of extreme statements would indicate an extreme attitude. On the other hand, the endorsement of statements nearer a middle position indicates a corresponding scale position of attitude. Thurstone (1927, 1928)19 suggested, "Attitudes can be measured" by using techniques that generate interval levels, i.e, scales of people's attitudes or values. (Encyclopedia of Educational Research, 1992) 20 Anastasi (1969)21 proposed that attitudes can't be directly observed but must be inferred from overt behavior, both verbal and non-verbal. 12Travers, Robert W.M. (1977). Essentials of Learning New York: the Macmillan Publishing Co. 13Op.cit. 14 Op. cit. 15Op. cit. 16 Op. cit. 17 Gagne, Robert M. & Medsker, Karen L. (1996). The Conditions of Learning. London: Harcourt Brace College Publishers. Edward, Allen L (1957). The Social Desirability Variable in Personality Assessment & Research New York: Dryden Press. 19 Thurstone, L. L. (1928) Attitudes can be measured. American Journal of Sociology, 33(4), 529-554. 20 Op. cit 21 Op. cit
  • 20. 13 Attitudes are multidimensional and that appropriate methods are those that uncover the important dimensions underlying the measurement. (Encyclopedia of Educational Research, 1992) 22 The measurement of attitudes is both difficult and controversial, whether expressed opinions can be regarded as indicators of "real" attitudes has frequently been questioned. This problem concerns the relationship between verbal and non- verbal overt behavior, which may not always provide an accurate index of attitude (Anastasi, 1969) 23. The Opinionnaire or Attitude Scale: According to Encyclopedia of Educational Research (1992)24, the commonest type of attitude measurement is the opinion scale based on the assumption that, in general attitudes are reflected in opinion. An information form that attempts to measure the attitude or belief of an individual is, known as opinionnaire or attitude scale. How people feel or what they believe is their attitude, difficult to describe and measure. Researchers must depend upon what people say and what are their beliefs and feelings? Through th e use of questions, or by getting people's expressed reaction to statements, a sample of their opinions is obtained. From this statement of opinion, one may infer or estimate their attitude, what they really believe. Attitude scales yield a total score indicating the direction and intensity of the individual's attitude toward a company, group of people, policy or other stimulus category. In the construction of an attitude scale the different questions are designed to measure a single attitude or dimensional variable, and some objective procedures are usually followed in the effort to approach this goal. Attitude scales, for example, may provide an index for evaluating different instructional procedures or they may be utilized in measuring the changes in student attitudes toward literature, art, different racial and cultural groups, or social or economic programmes (Anastasi, 1969) 25. The procedures extensively used for eliciting opinion and attitudes are:  Thurstone Technique  Likert Scale  Semantic Differential Scale Likert Scale: Instead of classification of items by a group of judges, items are selected solely on the basis of the responses of subjects to whom they are administered in the course of developing the test. Internal consistency is often the only criterion for item selection, although external criteria may be employed when available (Anastasi, 1969) 26. 22 Op. cit 23 op. cit. 2 4 op. cit. 25 op. cit. 26 Op. cit.
  • 21. 14 First a number of statements are collected about a subject. The importance is not of the correctness of the statements but of expression of favorableness or un-favorableness. Then a trial test is administered to a number of subjects. Only those items that correlate with the total test are retained. This testing for internal consistency helps to eliminate statements that are ambiguous or that are not of the same type as the rest of the scale. The attitude or opinion scale may be analyzed by indicating percentage responses for each individual statement. This assigns a scale value to each of the five responses and the instrument yields a total score for each respondent. All statements favoring the above position are scored: Scale value Strongly agree Agree Undecided Disagree strongly disagree 5 4 3 2 1 For statements opposing this point of view, the items are scored in the opposite order: Strongly agree Agree Undecided Disagree strongly disagree 1 2 3 4 5 If an opinionnaire consisted of 30 statements or items, the following score values would be revealing: 30 x 5 = 150 Most favorable response possible 30 x 3 = 90 A neutral response/attitude 30 x 1 = 30 Most unfavorable attitude The score of any individual would fall between 30 and 150, above 90 if opinions tended to be favorable to the given point of view, and vice versa. Influences Contributing to Acquisition of Attitudes: During elementary school years, children's attitude generally is in close approximation of the attitudes held by the significant adults in their world, particularly their parents and family group and their teachers. (Klausmeier & Ripple, 1971) 27 Craig (1958)28 suggested that the school and home should provide a wide choice of experiences for children for the behavior patterns formed in the early years of life could become basic patterns for a lifetime. So parents may be thought of as a child's first teacher of science. Effects of Teacher on Attitude: The prestige of the parents is soon transferred to the teacher. Personal attitudes of teachers influence the attitudes of their pupils because they tend to resemble them in many respects. So attitudes of teachers are important. (Encyclopedia of Educational Research, 1992)29 A science teacher can play a major role in 27 Op. cit. 28 Craig, Gerald S. (1958). Science for the Elementary School Teachers New York: Ginn & Company. 29 op. cit.
  • 22. 15 developing scientific attitudes among his students and thus he can do this by manipulating various situations and practising various elements of scientific attitudes that infuse among the pupils these characteristics. The practical examples given by the teacher leave an indelible mark on the personality of his students. Pupils who engage themselves in wide reading in science develop scientific attitudes more than those who study textbooks. Thus a teacher should encourage his students to read library books and supplementary books on science. A student of science gets many opportunities for learning scientific attitudes during his practical period. It is for the teacher to properly use such opportunities for developing scientific attitudes amongst his pupils. He should actively participate in discussion and interpretation of results after the experiment. He must inculcate in his students the habit to postpone judgments in the absence of sufficient evidence to support a hypothesis. Personal examples of the teacher are perhaps the single greatest force helpful in inculcating the scientific attitudes among his pupils. Students have a great tendency to copy their teachers. So a science teacher must be free from biases and prejudices while dealing with his students. He should have an open-mind and be critical in thought and action in his every day dealings. He should be totally free from superstitions and unfounded beliefs and should be objective and impartial in his approach to his everyday problems. He should be truthful and should have faith in cause and effect relationship. For inculcating the scientific attitudes among his pupils teacher should create a desirable atmosphere for encouraging them in various activities. He should feel pleasure in facing a large number of intelligent questions and answering and explaining them and must avoid snubbing his pupils for asking so many questions. (Yadav, 1992) 30 Effects of Parents on Attitudes: Most people are likely to acquire many of their attitudes at their homes. A large part of the education of children consists in training and conditioning them to take their place in adult society, and parents provide examples, which are constantly before their children. Parental attitudes, may be taken o ver by children and made their own, and this is one way in which their influence may be exerted. Freudian theory teaches that the parents‟ behaviors and attitudes to the child are primary elements in the environment in which he works out his adjustments, and there is plenty of evidence to support this. Although many attitudes are acquired during childhood as a result of domestic influences, these are not necessarily immutable. Fortunately, attitudes change and develop throughout life and parents and teachers help in this process very much. So home, schools and society all have their part to play in the inculcation of attitudes and interests (Evans, 1965) 31. 30 Yadav, M.S. (1992). Teaching of Science. New Delhi: Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. 31 Evans, K.M. (1965). Attitudes and Interests in Education. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd.
  • 23. 16 Since the child is more closely attached to his parents than to any other adult, it is plausible that his attitudes would correlate highly with them. These similarities in attitudes are due part ly to suggestion and partly to the fact that parents automatically bring the child into certain institutional groups. Some acceptance of parental attitudes by children is due to deliberate instruction. Parents and teachers through facial expression, tone of voice, and other signs of hostility, without open verbal statements of prejudice, apparently communicate many prejudices. Even more important for the development of certain attitudes is the emotional relationship of child and parent. Stodgily concluded, that family influences are more important than such factors, as socio-economic status or intelligence in developing children attitudes, although social status may be a conditioning factor. (Encyclopedia of Educational Research, 1992) 32 It must be recognized that behavior may reflect the home and the general background of the children. Frequently children use parent's opinions as reliable information. Adults may display attitudes such as open-mindedness by the way the adults approach the interests of children. A dogmatic parent may cause to lose initiative and independence to become gullible and incurious. Teachers and parents may teach a great deal through a little behavior. The behavior of small children very frequently reflects the attitudes and behavior of parents. (Craig, 1958) 33 According to Encyclopedia of Educational Research (1992) 34 Davis and McGinnis studies the effectiveness of parent education on parental attitudes toward children's behavior. They found that only slight changes occurred after participation in child study groups, but that expert instruction was more effective than lay instruction. Mohanty (1996)35 proposed that educated parents can provide better facilities for the education of their children: Effects of Gender on attitudes: Motivation is seen as the cognitive area that affects girls' achievement levels in science and competence in mathematic is clearly a primary factor affecting girls' entrance retention, and success in science courses and careers. Several different sources of gender differences in science participation and achievement, ranging and from cognitive abilities to socio cultural stereotyping of science as masculine, have been identified, through research have gone into science classrooms to delineate differential partici pation patterns that contribute to two types of experiences in school science. Those experiences are accumulative, and they compound the difference in out-of-school science activities that have been documented for boys and girls. The result is that 32 Op. cit. 33 Op. cit. 34Op. cit. 35 Mohanty, Susandhya. (1996). Teaching of Science in Secondary Schools. New Delhi: Wiley Eastern Ltd.
  • 24. 17 many girls do not have equal opportunities to learn science, and their continued lag in achievement reflects that lack of opportunity. Brickhouse maintains that the myth of objectivity, value-free inquiry, scientific method, and rationality that surrounds science, presents students with a false image of science, and, thereby, limits their participation in it. Although she concurs that school science has a masculine image, she suggests three ways in which that image may be changed. o Studying science within its historical and sociological context will allow students to see science as part of their culture. o Students examine current or historical scientific controversies about which scientists have not agreed. o Teach and use science together, then students can see science in relation to the world.
  • 25. 18 CHAPTER III PROCEDURE AND METHODOLOGY This chapter deals with procedure and methodology of the research project. It describes in details the different aspects through which the research project has under gone for collecting relevant information and data in order to arrive at reliable conclusion. Population of the Study: The population of the study was male and female students of seven secondary schools of Model Town and Kahna areas of Lahore District (Appendix C). Selection of Sample: Researcher selected seven schools (four of boys and three of girls) on the basis of convenient sampling. Some schools had only two sections (mix section for science and non-science students at 9th level) and (mix section for science and non-science students at 10th level) while some schools had separate sections for science and non-science students at 9th and 10th class level. The researcher selected different sections if a school had separate sections for science and non-science students and he selected both of the sections if a school had only two sections (single mix section for science and non-science students at 9th level and single mix section for science and non-science students at 10th level). All students available in those sections were selected as sample of the study. Selected sample was consisted of six hundred secondary school students (300 boys and 300 girls from 18 sections) studying in those schools. Distribution of sample is shown in the table A. School Name Sections Science Non 9th 10th Boys Girls Sub Students Science Total Students Govt.Model H/S 02 58 38 96 00 96 00 96 Model Town Lhr. 01 47 00 00 47 47 00 47 Govt. Junior Model H/S 01 43 00 43 00 43 00 43 Model Town Lhr. 01 29 15 00 44 44 00 44 Govt.FD Model H/S 01 25 00 25 00 25 00 25 Garden Town Lhr. 01 00 09 00 09 09 00 09 Govt.Apwa Girls H/S 01 08 26 34 00 00 34 34 GOR.1. Lhr. 01 00 20 00 20 00 20 20 Govt.Dar-un-Niswan Girls H/S 02 10 40 50 00 00 50 50 Jail Rd. Lhr. 02 11 48 00 59 00 59 59 HIS jail road Lhr. Govt. Girls H/S 02 20 48 68 00 00 68 68 Feroze Pur road Lhr. 02 34 35 00 69 00 69 69 Govt. H/S Kahna Nau. Lhr. 01 00 36 00 36 36 00 36 Grand Total 18 285 315 316 284 300 300 600
  • 26. 19 Tool of Research: This study was a survey research so for the collection of relevant data and information a comprehensive questionnaire was downloaded from Internet. It had 47 items with five options per statement starting from; Strongly agree (SA), Agree (A), Undecided (U), Disagree (D), Strongly Disagree (SD). This scale was discussed with the adviser of the study. After consultation the scale was translated in Urdu and short down to 28 items due to some contrast in the statements. Students have to response each item on a five points Likert Scale, already discussed. The questionnaire was prepared for male and females students by using particular language altered at appendix A and B. For more detailed analysis 28 questions were divided in four sub groups. Sub group Item No (1) Self perceptions 1 9 (2) Future expectations 10 14 (3) Expectations from teacher 15 19 (4) Expectations from gender 20 28 The reliability of the questionnaire was determined with the help of computer by using SPSS version VI, and it was 0.8857. Administering the Questionnaire: The researcher administered the oppionnaire personally in classrooms. The oppionaire was administered in seven schools (four of boys and three of girls). Instructions to give answer were written on the Questionnaire. The subjects were supported to put a tick mark against each item according to their own choice. Procedure: The study was carried out to assess the attitude towards science on the basis of boys, girls, 9th, 10th class, science, non-science, parental education and school type. The researcher took 600 students from seven different schools of Lahore District. The number of students from which data was collected is given in selection of sampling. In order to check the responses a scoring scheme of the scale was designed by the researcher. And it was A = 5, B = 4, C = 3, D = 2, and E = 1. The collected data was tabulated and analyzed through computer by using SPSS program me. The analyzed data is presented in the next chapter in the form of tables followed by their interpretations.
  • 27. 20 CHAPTER IV ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA Data Analysis: The data collected on a questionnaire from seven different schools was tabulated and analyzed by applying t-test, LSD, analysis of variance and post hoc multiple comparison test. T-Test: The independent sample t-test evaluates the difference between the means of two independent groups with an independent sample t-test; each case must have a score on two variables, the grouping variable and the test variable. The t-test evaluates whether the mean value of the test variable for one group differ significantly from the mean value of the test variable for the second group. Analysis of Variance: For one way (ANOVA) analysis of variances each individual or case must have scores on two variables. A factor divides individuals into two or more groups or levels while the dependent variable differentiates individuals on some quantitative dimension. The ANOVA F-test evaluates whether the group means on the dependent variable differ significantly from each other. Post Hoc Multiple Comparison Test: Compare means two at a time in the form of post hoc (after the fact) comparisons. Post-hoc multiple comparison tests are used to compare each group's means difference. If the answer is lower than mean score then there is difference within groups and if the answer is higher than mean score then there is no difference within groups. Conducting multiple post hoc comparisons (like these) leads to a problem in interpretation called “The Problem of Multiple Comparisons.” This identifies too many random differences when many “looks” are taken. LSD (Least Significant Difference) test:
  • 28. 21 FINDINGS ON ATTITUDE TOWARDS SCIENCE Q # 1: what are the attitudes of secondary school students towards science? Table 1: t. test for students' score on attitude towards science scale No of students Mean St. D 600 4.06 0.51 In the five point Likert Scale the mean score 4.06 indicates that all students have positive attitude towards science. Ho1: There is no gender effect on student's attitude towards science. Table 2: t. test for gender comparison Group N Mean value St. D t-value df Significance Male 300 3.9713 0.567 -4.13 598 .000 Female 300 4.1406 0.428 Table 2 shows that t-value is significant at P<0.05 levels of significance. So our null hypothesis is rejected and it is concluded that there is a significant difference between male and female students' attitude towards science at secondary level and table 2 also shows that female students have more positive attitude towards science as compared to male students. Ho2: There is no significant difference between science and non-science students' attitude towards science. Table 3: t. test for science and non-science comparison Group N Mean value St. D t-value df Significance Science 285 4.2439 0.381 9.18 598 .000 Non Science 315 3.8859 0.549 Table 3 shows that t-value is significant at P<0.05 levels of significance. So our null hypothesis is rejected and it is concluded that there is a significant difference between science and non-science students' attitude towards science at secondary level. Table 3 also shows that science students have more positive attitude towards science as compared to non-science students.
  • 29. 22 Ho3: There is no significant difference between 9 th class science and non-science students' attitude towards science. Table 4: t. test for science and non-science comparison Mean Groups N St. D t-value df Significance value Science 171 4.2283 0.400 7.04 324 .000 Non Science 155 3.8111 0.651 Table 4 shows that t-value is significant at P<0.05 levels of significance. So our null hypothesis is rejected and it is concluded that there is a significant difference between 9 th class science and non-science students' attitude towards science. Table 4 also shows that science students have more positive attitude towards science as compared to non- science students. Ho4: There is no significant difference between10th class science and non-science students' attitude towards science. Table 5: t. test for science and non science comparison Group N Mean value St. D t-value df Significance Science 114 4.2672 0.352 6.42 272 0.000 Non Science 160 3.9585 0.419 Table 5 shows that t-value is significant at P<0.05 levels of significance. So our null hypothesis is rejected and it is concluded that there is a significant difference between 10 th class science and non-science students' attitude towards science. Table 5 also shows that science students have more positive attitude towards science as compared to non-science students. Ho5: There is no effect of father education on students' attitude towards science. Table 6: Analysis of Variance Source df Sum of squares Mean squares F ratio F prob. Between groups 4 2.6659 squares .6665 um of 2.5985 .0353 Within groups 595 152.6037 .2565 Total 599 155.2696 Table 6 reveals that F ratio is significant at P<0.05 levels of significance. So our null hypothesis is rejected and it is concluded that father education affects the students' attitude towards science.
  • 30. 23 Since the F ratio is significant it was decided to run a post hoc multiple comparison test. Father EDU Means B.A 4.1213 F.A 4.2099 Matric 4.0122 Literate 4.0281 Illiterate 4.0233 Table 7: Post-hoc multiple comparisons vs LSD test. Father Education Mean Difference B.A VS F.A -0.0886 B.A VS Matric 0.1091 B.A VS Literate 0.0932 B.A VS Illiterate 0.0980 FA VS Matric 0.1977* FA VS Literate 0.1818* FA VS Illiterate 0.1866* Matric VS Literate -0.0159 Matric VS Illiterate -0.0111 Literate VS Illiterate 0.0048 *Significant at P<0.05 level After Analysis of variance post hoc test LSD was used to see the difference between all possible pairs. It is concluded from table 7 that LSD test for: FA vs Illiterate mean score of students are statistically significant. FA vs literate mean score of students are statistically significant. FA vs Matric mean score of students are statistically significant. Ho6: There is no affect of mother education on students' attitude towards science. Table 8: Analysis of Variance Source df Sum of square Mean square F Ratio F prob. Between groups 4 2.7512 0.6878 2.6899 0.0304 Within groups 593 151.6310 0.2557 Total 597 154.3822 Table 8 shows that F prob. is significant at P<0.05 levels of significance. So our null hypothesis is rejected and it is concluded that mother education affects the students' attitude towards science.
  • 31. 24 Since the F ratio is significant. It was decided to run a post-hoc multiple comparison tests. Mother Education Mean BA 4.2748 FA 4.0867 Matric 4.1302 Literate 4.0428 Illiterate 4.0007 Table 9: Post hoc multiple comparisons vs LSD test Comparison Mean Difference B.A VS F.A 0.1881 B.A VS Matric 0.1446 B.A VS Literate 0.2320* B.A VS Illiterate 0.2741* FA VS Matric -0.0435 FA VS Literate 0.0439 FA VS Illiterate 0.0860 Matric VS Literate 0.0874 Matric VS Illiterate 0.1295* Literate V S Illiterate 0.0421 Significant at P<0.05 level After Analysis of variance post hoc test vs LSD was used to see the difference between all possible pairs. It is concluded from table 9 that LSD test for: BA vs Illiterate mean scores of students are statistically significant. BA vs Literate mean scores of students are statistically significant. Matric vs Illiterate mean scores of students are statistically significant. Ho7: There is no affect of school type on students' attitude towards science. Table 10: Analysis of Variance Source df Sum of square Mean square F Ratio F prob. Between groups 6 14.5482 2.4247 10.2177 .0000 Within groups 593 140.7214 0.2373 Total 599 155.2696 Table 10 shows that F prob. is significant at P<0.05 levels of significance. So our null hypothesis is rejected and it is concluded that school type affects the students' attitude towards science.
  • 32. 25 Since the F prob. is significant. It was decided to run a post hoc multiple comparison tests School Name Mean GM H/S MTL Govt. Model H/S Model Town Lhr. 3.8826 GJM H/S MTL Govt. Junior Model H/S Model Town Lhr. 4.0792 GFDM H/S GTL Govt. F.D Model H/S Garden Town Lhr. 4.3393 GAG H/S GORIL Govt. Apwa Girls H/S GOR.1. Lhr. 4.0952 GDNG H/S JRL Govt. Dar-ur-Niswan Girls H/S Jail Road Lhr. 4.0786 GG H/S FPRL Govt. Girls H/S Ferozpur Road Lhr. 4.2078 G H/S KNL Govt. H/S Kahna Nau Lhr. 3.7153 Table 11: Post hoc multiple comparisons LSD test School Name Mean Difference GM H/S MTL VS GJM H/S MTL -0.1966* GM H/S MTL VS GFDM H/S GTL -0.4567* GM H/S MTL VS GAG H/S GORIL -0.2126* GM H/S MTL VS GDNG H/S JRL -0.1960* GM H/S MTL VS GG H/S FPRL -0.3252* GM H/S MTL VS G H/S KNL 0.1673 GJM H/S MTL VS GFDM H/S GTL -0.2601* GJM H/S MTL VS GAG H/S GORIL -0.0160 GJM H/S MTL VS GDNG H/S JRL 0.0006 GJM H/S MTL VS GG H/S FPRL -0.1286 GJM H/S MTL VS G H/S KNL 0.3639* GFDM H/S GTL VS GAG H/S GORIL 0.2441* GFDM H/S GTL VS GDNG H/S JRL 0.2607* GFDM H/S GTL VS GG H/S FPRL 0.1315 GFDM H/S GTL VS G H/S KNL 0.6240* GAG H/S GORIL VS GDNG H/S JRL 0.0166 xGAG H/S GORIL VS GG H/S FPRL -0.1126 GAG H/S GORIL VS G H/S KNL 0.3799* GDNG H/S JRL VS GG H/S FPRL -0.1292* GDNG H/S JRL VS G H/S KNL 0.3633* GG H/S FPRL VS G H/S KNL 0.4925* *Significant at P<0.05 level After analysis of variance post-hoc test vs LSD was used to see the difference between all possible pairs.
  • 33. 26 It is concluded from table 11 LSD test for: (1) GM H/S MTL VS GJM H/S MTL mean scores of students are statistically significant. (2) GM H/S MTL VS GFDM H/S GTL mean scores of students are statistically significant. (3) GM H/S MTL VS GAG H/S GORIL means scores of students are statistically significant. (4) GM H/S MTL VS GDNG H/S JRL mean scores of students are statistically significant. (5) GM H/S MTL VS GG H/S FPRL mean scores of students are statistically significant. (6) GJM H/S MTL VS GFDM H/S GTL mean scores of students are statistically significant. (7) GJM H/S MTL VS G H/S KNL mean scores of students are statistically significant. (8) GFDMH/SGTL VS GAGH/SGORIL mean scores of students are statistically significant. (9) GFDM H/S GTL VS GDNG H/S JRL mean scores of students are statistically significant. (10) GFDM H/S GTL VS G H/S KNL mean scores of students are statistically significant. (11) GAG H/S GORIL VS G H/S KNL mean scores of students are statistically significant. (12) GDNG H/S JRL VS GG H/S FPRL mean scores of students are statistically significant. (13) GDNG H/S JRL VS G H/S KNL mean scores of students are statistically significant. (14) GG H/S FPRL VS G H/S KNL mean scores of students are statistically significant. Ho 8: There is no significant difference between 9th, 10th science and non-science students' attitude towards science. Table 12: t. test for class comparison Group N Mean Value St. D t-value df Significance 9th Class 316 4.0299 0.573 -1.37 598 0.172 10th Class 284 4.0869 0.420 Table 12 shows that t-value is not significant at P<0.05 levels of significance. So our null hypothesis is accepted and it is concluded that there is no significant difference between 9th, 10th class science and non-science students' attitude towards science. Ho 9: There is no significant difference between 9th, 10th class science students' attitude towards science. Table 13: t-test for class comparison Group N Mean Value St. D t-value df Significance 9th class 171 4.2283 0.400 -0.84 283 0.399 10th class 114 4.2672 0.352 Table 13 shows that t-value is not significant at P<0.05 levels of significance.
  • 34. 27 So our null hypothesis is accepted and it is concluded that there is no significant difference between 9 th, 10th class science students' attitude towards science. Ho10: There is no significant difference between 9 th, 10th class non-science students' attitude towards science. Table 14: t-test for class comparison Group N Mean Value St. D t-value df Significance 9th class 155 3.8111 0.651 -2.40 313 0.017 l0th class 160 3.9585 0.419 Table 14 shows that t-value is significant at P<0.05 levels of significance. So our null hypothesis is rejected and it is concluded that there is a significant difference between 9 th, 10th class non-science students' attitude towards science. Table 14 also shows that 10 th class non-science students have more positive attitude towards science as compared to 9 th class non-science students.
  • 35. 28 Findings on Sub-Groups The investigator divided the questionnaire in four sub-groups for more detailed and better analysis. Sub Group No.1 Self-Perceptions Ho1. There is no significant difference between science and non-science students' self-perceptions about science at secondary level. Table 15: t-test for science and non-science comparison Group N Mean Value St. D t-value df Significance Science 285 4.3587 0.437 11.94 598 0.000 Non-science 315 3.8021 0.669 Table 15 shows that t-value is significant at P<0.05 levels of significance. So our null hypothesis is rejected and it is concluded that there is a significant difference between science and non-science students' self-perceptions about science. It is also concluded that science students have more positive self-perceptions about science as compared to non-science students at secondary level. Ho2 . There is no significant difference between male and female students' self-perceptions about science at secondary level. Table 16: t-test for male and female comparison Group N Mean Value St. D t-value df Significance Male 300 4.0859 0.685 0.75 598 0.453 Female 300 4.0470 0.579 Table 16 shows that t-value is not significant at P<0.05 levels of significance. So our null hypothesis is accepted and it is concluded that there is no significant difference between male and female students' self-perceptions about science at secondary level. Ho3. There is no significant difference between 9th and 10th class students' self-perceptions about science at secondary level. Table 17: t-test for 9th and 10th class comparison Group N Mean Value St. D t-value df Significance th 9 class 316 4.0116 0.723 -2.32 598 0.021 l0th class 284 4.1318 0.503 Table 17 shows that t-value is significant at P<0.05 levels of significance. So our null hypothesis is rejected and it is concluded that there is a significant difference between 9 th and 10th class students' self-perceptions about science. Table 17 also shows that 10th class students have more positive self-perceptions about science as compared to 9th class students.
  • 36. 29 Ho4: There is no affect of school type on students' self perceptions about science at secondary level. Table 18: Analysis of Variance Source df Sum of squares Mean square F ratio F prob. Between groups 6 13.6403 2.2734 5.9323 0.0000 With in groups 593 227.2510 0.3832 Total 599 240.8913 Table 18 reveals that F prob. is significant at P< 0.05 levels of significance. So our null hypothesis is rejected and it is concluded that school type affects the students' self-perceptions about science at secondary level. Since the F prob. is significant. It was decided to run a post hoc multiple comparison tests School Name Mean GM H/S MTL Govt. Model H/S Model Town Lhr. 4.0000 GJM H/S MTL Govt. Junior Model H/S Model Town 4.2363 Lhr. H/S GTL GFDM Govt. F.D Model H/S Garden Town Lhr. 4.4183 GAG H/S GOR.1.L Govt. Apwa Girls H/S GOR.1. Lhr. 4.0329 GDNG H/S JRL Govt. Dar-ur-Niswan Girls H/S Jail Road 3.9358 Lhr.H/S FPRL GG Govt girls H/S Ferozpur Road Lhr. 4.1411 G H/S KNL Govt. H/S Kahna Nau Lhr. 3.7500 Table 1 9: Post hoc multiple comparison vs L S D test School Name Mean Difference GM H/S MTL VS GJM H/S MTL -0.2363* GM H/S MTL VS GFDM H/S GTL -0.4183* GM H/S MTL VS GAG H/S GORIL -0.0329 GM H/S MTL VS GDNG H/S JRL 0.0642 GM H/S MTL VS GG H/S FPRL -0.1411 GM H/S MTL VS G H/S KNL 0.2500* GJM H/S MTL VS GFDM H/S GTL -0.1820 GJM H/S MTL VS GAG H/S GORIL 0.2034 GJM H/S MTL VS GDNG H/S JRL 0.3005* GJM H/S MTL VS GG H/S FPRL 0.0952 GJM H/S MTL VS G H/S KNL 0.4863* GFDM H/S GTL VS GAG H/S GORIL 0.3854* GFDM H/S GTL VS GDNG H/S JRL 0.4825* GFDM H/S GTL V S GG H/S FPRL 0.2772 * GFDM H/S GTL VS G H/S KNL 0.6683*
  • 37. 30 GAG H/S GORIL V S GDNG H/S JRL 0.0971 GAG H/S GORIL VS GG H/S FPRL -0.1082 GAG H/S GORIL VS G H/S KNL 0.2829* GDNG H/S JRL VS GG H/S FPRL -0.2053* GDNG H/S JRL VS G H/S KNL 0.1858 GG H/S FPRL VS G H/S KNL. 0.3911 * *Significant at P< 0.05 level After analysis of variance post hoc test vs LSD was used to see the difference between all possible pairs. It is concluded from table 19 LSD test for: (1) GM H/S MTL VS GJM H/S MTL means score of students are statistically significant. (2) GM H/S MTL VS GFDM H/S GTL means score of students are statistically significant. (3) GM H/S MTL VS G H/S KNL means score of students are statistically significant. (4) GJM H/S MTL VS GDNG H/S JRL means score of students are statistically significant. (5) GJM H/S MTL VS G H/S KNL means score of students are statistically significant. (6) GFDM H/S GTL VS GAG H/S GORIL means score of students are statistically significant. (7) GFDM H/S GTL VS GDNG H/S JRL means score of students are statistically significant. (8) GFDM H/S GTL VS GG H/S FPRL means score of students are statistically significant. (9) GFDM H/S GTL VS G H/S KNL means score of students are statistically significant. (10) GAG H/S GORIL VS G H/S KNL means score of students are statistically significant. (11) GDNG H/S JRL VS GG H/S FPRL means score of students are statistically significant. (12) GG H/S FPRL VS G H/S KNL means score of students are statistically significant. Ho5: There is no affect of father education on students' self-perceptions about science at secondary level. Table 20: Analysis of variance Source df Sum of squares Mean square F ratio F prob. Between groups 4 7.0707 1.7677 4.4982 0.0014 With in groups 595 233.8207 0.3933 Total 599 240.8913 Table 20 shows that F prob. is significant at P< 0.05 levels of significance. So our null hypothesis is rejected and it is concluded that father education affects the students' self- perceptions about science at secondary level.
  • 38. 31 Since the F prob. is significant. It was decided to run a post hoc multiple comparison tests. Father Education Mean BA 4.1689 FA 4.2928 Matric 3.9508 Literate 4.0512 Illiterate 4.0612 Table 21: Post hoc multiple comparisons vs LSD test: Comparison Mean Difference B.A VS F.A -0.1239 B.A VS Matric 0.2181* B.A VS Literate 0.1177 B.A VS Illiterate 0.1077 FA VS Matric 0.3420* FA VS Literate 0.2416* FA VS Illiterate 0.2316* Matric VS Literate -0.1004 Matric VS Illiterate -0.1104 Literate VS Illiterate -0.0100 * Significant at P<0.05 level After Analysis of variance post hoc test vs LSD was used to see the difference between all possible pairs. It is concluded from table 21 that LSD test for: B.A vs Matric means scores of students are statistically significant. F.A vs Matric means scores of students are statistically significant. F.A vs literate means scores of students are statistically significant. F.A vs Illiterate means scores of students are statistically significant. Ho6: There is no affect of mother education on students' self-perfections about science at secondary level. Table 22: Analysis of variance Source df Sum of squares Mean square F ratio F prob. Between groups 4 3.9180 0.9795 2.4527 0.0449 With in groups 593 236.8188 0.3994 Total 597 240.7368 Table 22 shows that F prob. is significant at P< 0.05 levels of significance. So our null hypothesis is rejected and it is concluded that mother education affects the students'
  • 39. 32 self-perceptions about science at secondary level. Since the F prob. is significant. It was decided to run a post hoc multiple comparison tests. Mother Education Mean BA 4.2899 FA 4.2024 Matric 4.1497 Literate 4.0368 Illiterate 4.0009 Table 23: Post hoc multiple comparisons vs LSD test Comparison Mean Difference B.A VS F.A 0.0875 B.A VS Matric 0.1402 B.A VS Literate 0.2531 B.A VS Illiterate 0.2890* FA VS Matric 0.0527 FA VS Literate 0.1656 FA VS Illiterate 0.2015 Matric VS Literate 0.1129 Matric VS Illiterate 0.1488* Literate VS Illiterate 0.0359 * Significant at P<0.05 level After Analysis of variance post hoc test vs LSD was used to see the difference between all possible pairs. It is concluded from table 23 that LSD test for: (1) B.A vs Illiterate means scores of students are statistically significant. (2) Matric vs Illiterate means scores of students are statistically significant.
  • 40. 33 Sub Group No.2 Future Expectations Ho1. There is no significant difference between science and non-science students' future expectations from science at secondary level. Table 24: t-test for science and non science comparison Group N Mean Value St. D t-value df Significance Science 285 4.4751 0.513 9.11 598 0.000 Non-science 315 3.9975 0.738 Table 24 shows that t-value is significant at P<0.05 levels of significance. So our null hypothesis is rejected and it is concluded that there is a significant difference between science and non-science students' future expectations from science. It is also concluded that science students have more positive expectations from science as compared to non-science students at secondary level. Ho2: There is no significant difference between male and female students' future expectations about science at secondary level. Table 25: t-test for male and female comparison Group N Mean Value St. D t-value df Significance Male 300 4.1333 0.746 -3.29 598 0.001 Female 300 4.3153 0.604 Table 25 shows that t-value is significant at P<0.05 levels of significance. So our null hypothesis is rejected and it is concluded that there is a significant difference between male and female students' future expectations from science. Table 25 also shows that female students have more positive future expectations from science as compared to male students at secondary level. Ho3: There is no significant difference between 9th class and 10th class students' future expectations from science at secondary level. Table 26: t-test for 9th and 10th class comparison Comparison N Mean Value St. D t-value df Significance th 9 class 316 4.1767 0.770 -1.87 598 0.063 10th class 284 4.2810 0.560 Table 26 shows that t-value is not significant at P<0.05 levels of significance. So our null hypothesis is accepted and it is concluded that there is no significant difference between 9 th and 10th class students' future expectations from science.