How does human mind assign Gender
to any noun of any language
by Morphologically OR by Phonologically
Course title: - Rese...
1. Abstract
This study was conducted to investigate, how we assign gender to any unseen and unheard noun
of any language t...
Many languages place each noun into two or three gender classes commonly called masculine,
feminine and neuter gender. It ...
5. What are effects of education in assignment of gender to unseen and unheard nouns?
To answer these questions following ...
end in “a” most other nouns that end in “o” or a consonant are also treated as masculine and
most nouns that end in “a” ar...
while the rest tend to be masculine but there are many exceptions. Certain suffixes are quite
reliable indicators such as ...
phonological cues carried by the endings of some nouns, and morpho-syntactic cues carried by
words syntactically related t...
alignment of constituents in a sentence. sAll three nominal categories together, where number
and case are the other two h...
2. Etudiante: - /etydjɑ̃//ɑ̃t/ Used for both masculine and feminine means student. Out of
twenty one responses seventeen r...
14. Sohn: - /sohn/Masculine means son. Out of twenty one responses four recognized this
noun as a feminine while seventeen...
27. Aeropuerto: - /aeropuerto/ Masculine means airport. Out of twenty one responses six
recognized this noun as a feminine...
40. Ojo: - /ojo/ Masculine means eye. Out of twenty one responses eight recognized this
noun as a feminine while thirteen ...
 Bölte, J. &Connine, C.M. (in press). Grammatical gender in spoken wordrecognition in
German. Perception and Psychophysic...
6 la fille
7 un pont
8 la depense
9 la cle
10 uneespece
11 le Bonheur
12 le voeu
13 le dieu
German Nouns
14 Sohn
15 Der Hu...
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How does human mind Assign Gender to any noun of any language

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How does human mind Assign Gender to any noun of any language

  1. 1. How does human mind assign Gender to any noun of any language by Morphologically OR by Phonologically Course title: - Research Method II Resource person: - Dr. Mehar Saeed Akhtar Submitted by: - Maqsood Ahmad ID # 12011084006 Programme: - M. Phil (Applied Linguistics) University of Management and Technology Johar Town Lahore, Pakistan
  2. 2. 1. Abstract This study was conducted to investigate, how we assign gender to any unseen and unheard noun of any language through different skills. For this purpose a questionnaire consisted of forty items was developed. Twenty one participants were taken randomly from different institutions. Through this questionnaire, the researcher checked the participants ability that how they assign gender to any unseen and unheard noun of any language through Reading or Speaking skills (morphologically or phonologically). The researcher found that the ratio of gender assigning through speaking was more than reading. The study was delimited to noun perception only. 2. Introduction Gender is linguistically defined as a system of noun classes. It triggers specific types of inflections in associated words, such as adjectives, verbs and others. Every noun must belong to one of the classes and there are only few that belong to several classes at once. If a language distinguishes between genders, one must identify the gender of a noun because of correctly decline any noun and any modifier or other type of word affected by that noun. Linguistic notion is distinguished from biological and social notion of a natural gender. These notions interact closely in many languages and have linguistic effects in a given language. It can be a complicated category of language and language change. To clarify the issue, it is important to distinguish between the two types of gender systems, grammatical and natural conventions. In some languages, nouns are classified as belonging to a certain gender, often masculine, feminine or neuter and other parts of speech connected to the noun. Languages around the world have much more extensive and complex systems of gender. In many languages gender is often more related to the sound of the word than to its meaning. In Spanish for example, words ending in “O” are typically masculine and words ending in “a” are typically feminine. One example of a word with grammatical gender that differs from its natural gender is the German Maedchen or "maiden" which is grammatically classified as neuter rather than feminine. In some grammars, gender may refer to distinctions other than masculine and feminine. Languages of the Caucasian family often have four genders feminine, masculine, animate, and inanimate. Gender follows enough basic patterns that one can make an educated guess as to the gender of an unknown word but some degree of memorization is typically necessary. More unusual systems of gender can be found around the world. Dyirbal, an Australian Aboriginal language notoriously includes a gender category for "women, fire and dangerous things." Some languages have genders based on the physical shapes of objects and some languages have over ten noun classes.
  3. 3. Many languages place each noun into two or three gender classes commonly called masculine, feminine and neuter gender. It is important to note that the terms are used purely for linguistic classification and have no real world implications. It is possible for words pertaining to the sexes (masculine or feminine) to be inconsistent with their respective gender designation in any specific language. There is always a system at work in this process of gender assignment for even unseen and unheard words. The purpose of this study is to see how human mind assign gender to any noun of any language. For this purpose a questionnaire containing forty nouns (thirteen from French, thirteen from German and fourteen from Spanish) was developed and fired among twenty one people from different walk of life and the responses are analyzed and presented in the next pages. Statement of the Study “How do We Assign Gender to any noun of any language by Reading OR by Speaking” Objectives of the Study: This study is conducted to achieve the following objectives: (1) To measure how we assign gender to unseen and unheard nouns (2) To measure the effects of age in assignment of gender to unseen and unheard nouns (3) To measure the effects of gender in assignment of gender to unseen and unheard nouns (4) To measure the effects of mother tongue in assignment of gender to unseen and unheard nouns (5) To measure the effects of education in assignment of gender to unseen and unheard nouns (6) To measure the skill by which people assign gender to unseen and unheard words Research Questions: 1. By which skill (Reading or Speaking) we Assign Gender to any unseen or unheard noun of any language? 2. What are effects of age in assignment of gender to unseen and unheard nouns? 3. What are effects of gender in assignment of gender to unseen and unheard nouns? 4. What are effects of mother tongue in assignment of gender to unseen and unheard nouns?
  4. 4. 5. What are effects of education in assignment of gender to unseen and unheard nouns? To answer these questions following null hypothesis were formulated: Ho1. There is no effect of skills (Reading or Speaking) in assigning the gender to any unseen and unheard noun of any language. Ho2. There are no effects of age in assignment of gender to unseen and unheard nouns. Ho3. There are no effects of gender in assignment of gender to unseen and unheard nouns. Ho4. There are no effects of mother tongue in assignment of gender to unseen and unheard nouns. Ho5. There are no effects of educational status in assignment of gender to unseen and unheard nouns. 3. Literature review Gender assignmentsystems: - There are three main ways by which natural languages categorize nouns into genders according to logical or symbolic similarities in their meaning (semantic) by grouping them with other nouns that have similar form (morphological) or through an arbitrary (lexical) convention. Usually a combination of three types of criteria is used, though one is more prevalent. Semantics In Alamblak, a Sepik Hill language spoken in Papua New Guinea, the masculine gender includes males and things which are tall or long and slender or narrow such as fish, crocodiles, long snakes, arrows, spears and tall slender trees, while the feminine gender includes females and things which are short, squat or wide, such as turtles, frogs, houses, fighting shields, and trees that are typically more round and squat than others. Sometimes semantics prevails over the formal assignment of grammatical gender. In Polish, the nouns mężczyzna "man" and książę "prince" are masculine, even though words with the ending “a” are normally feminine and words that end with “ę” are usually neuter. Interestingly in Sicilian dialect the noun indicating the male sexual organ is feminine (a minchia), while the female sexual organ is masculine (u sticchiu). This is true also in Latin, for the words mentula and cunnus, as used by Catullus. Morphology In Spanish, gender is most obviously noticeable by noun morphology. Since nouns that refer to male persons usually end in “o” or a consonant and nouns that refer to female persons usually
  5. 5. end in “a” most other nouns that end in “o” or a consonant are also treated as masculine and most nouns that end in “a” are treated as feminine, whatever their meaning. Nouns that end in some other vowel are assigned a gender either according to etymology by analogy or by some other convention. Morphology, in some cases, may override meaning. The noun membro/miembro "member" is always masculine even when it refers to a woman but pessoa/persona "person" is always feminine even when it refers to a man. It would however be far more useful to consider that the gender of almost all nouns in Romance languages is determined by etymology. It is to say that on the whole gender of a word in Portuguese, Spanish, Italian or French is the same as the gender of its cognate word in Latin with very few exceptions. In German, diminutives with the endings “chen” and “lein” (cognates of English “kin” and “ling” means "little, young") are always neuter, that is why Mädchen "girl" and Fräulein "young woman" are neuter. Another ending the nominalizing suffix “ling” can be used to make countable nouns from uncountable nouns (Teig "dough", Teigling "piece of dough") or personal nouns from abstract nouns (Lehre "teaching", Strafe "punishment", Lehrling "apprentice", Sträfling "convict") or adjectives (feige "cowardly", Feigling "coward") always producing masculine nouns. In Irish, nouns ending in “óir/eoir” and “ín” are always masculine while those ending “óg/eog” or “lann” are always feminine. On the other hand, the correlation between gender and morphology is usually not perfect because problema "problem" is masculine in Spanish (for etymological reasons as it was derived from a Greek noun of the neuter gender) and radio "radio station" is feminine because it is a shortening of estación de radio, a phrase whose head is the feminine noun estación. Phonological assignment rules were elaborated extensively by Köpcke (1982) on the basis of monosyllabic nouns. He came to the conclusion that almost 2/3 of the German monosyllabic nouns are of masculine gender. Exceptions occur, when they end in “ur/ür” which normally implies that they receive feminine assignment. Lexicon In some languages, gender markers have been so eroded by time that they are no longer recognizable, even to native speakers. Most German nouns give no morphological or semantic clue as to their gender. It must simply be memorized. The conventional aspect of grammatical gender is also clear when one considers that there is nothing objective about a table which makes it feminine as French table, masculine as German Tisch, or neuter as Norwegian bord. The learner of such languages should regard gender as an integral part of each noun. A frequent recommendation is to memorize a modifier along with the noun as a unit, usually a definite article, e.g. memorizing la table, where la is the French feminine singular definite article. “derTisch” where “der” is German masculine singular nominative definite article and “bordet” where the suffix “et” indicates the definite neuter singular in Norwegian. In French the noun's ending often indicates gender. As a very broad trend nouns ending in “e” tend to be feminine
  6. 6. while the rest tend to be masculine but there are many exceptions. Certain suffixes are quite reliable indicators such as the suffix “age” which when added to a verb e.g. garer "to park" garage, nettoyer "to clean" nettoyage "cleaning", indicates a masculine noun. However when “age” is part of the root of the word, it can be feminine as in plage "beach" or image. On the other hand, nouns ending in "tion" "sion" and “aison” are all feminine. Whether a distant ancestor of French, German, Norwegian, and English had a semantic value for genders is of course a different matter. Some authors have speculated that archaic Proto-Indo-European had two noun classes with the semantic values of animate and inanimate. Gender assignmentin general: - How nouns are allotted to genders in a language then? According to Corbett (1991) semantic and formal principles build the basis for these connections. Semantic rules assign a gender to nouns with respect to their meaning. In strict semantic systems like Tamil, semantic rules often take the principle of humanity or animacy as the semantic core of gender. For example all animate male nouns receive masculine assignment, all animate females will be feminine and all other (inanimate) nouns will be of neuter gender. But this kind of language is relatively rare and most languages do not follow such a straight- forward system. In these more formal systems gender may be determined by morphological attributes of the noun, e.g. specific affixes, or phonological attributes, e.g. syllables etc. These types are often inter-connected and it is not that easy to distinguish between the two of them. Importantly, formal systems always have a semantic basis. There is no language that operates solely on formal rules but these rules intervene where semantic ones do not succeed. When these principles contradict semantics usually takes precedence over syntactic criteria but in general they show extensive overlap. Another way in which languages differ that is closely connected to the former is the type and scope of their agreement domain, the constituents that can show the gender. They might be restricted to the noun phrase itself or extend to various other elements of which the noun phrase is an argument. A noun’s gender may thus have an influence on the modification of constituents like definite/indefinite articles, numerals, demonstratives, possessives, and adjectives as well as on participles, verbs, (relative and personal) pronouns, adverbs, pre-/postpositions, and even complementizers (Corbett; 1991; for review van Berkum, 1996). The realization of gender on these elements is primarily reflected by inflectional affixes, as they do not have a gender by themselves, e.g. stylo [pen] is masculine in French and mainly the article and adjective, but other constituents, too, have to agree with the noun and carryout the agreement (gender) marking (Grosjean, Dommergues, Cornu,Guillelmon, &Besson, 1994): Le styloauquelj’écrisest vert. [The(masc.) pen with which (masc.) I write is green(masc.).] French language gender system French language, like many languages of the world, organizes all nouns into grammatical gender categories. In French, all nouns are categorized into two classes: masculine and feminine. The attribution of the nouns to the gender classes is largely arbitrary, although some principles play a role. There are semantic cues carried by the nouns that refer to male or female entities, morpho-
  7. 7. phonological cues carried by the endings of some nouns, and morpho-syntactic cues carried by words syntactically related to the noun (determiners, adjectives). German language gender system Most Indo European languages are organized around two or three genders typically labeled masculine/feminine or masculine/feminine/neuter, such as French and Italian or Russian and German. German belonging to the Indo European language family employs a three gender system, i.e. each noun is either masculine feminine or neuter. Some homonymies are of two genders in which a category shift is meant to resolve ambiguities (der Leiter[the(masc.) chief] and die Leiter[the (fem.) ladder]der Gehalt[the(masc.) concentration] and das Gehalt[the (neut.) salary]die Steuer[the(fem.) tax] and das Steuer[the (neut.) steering wheel]). Only a couple of nouns may have double gender with no difference in meaning (e.g. der/das Liter the (masc. /neut.) liter] das/der Dotter [the (neut. /masc.) yolk] (Lübke, 1999)), but typically one form is regarded to be more colloquial and the other more formal and less common. Taken word frequency into account genders are almost equally distributed with the neuter gender appearing only slightly less (26%) than feminine (35%)or masculine (39%) gender (Schiller &Caramazza, 2003).In German, a young lady has no sex, while a turnip has. Think what overwrought reverence that shows for the turnip, and what callous disrespect for the girl.(Mark Twain, 1880) Behind this arbitrariness at first glance, there emerges a complex combination of semantic, morphological, and phonological principles (Corbett, 1991; Köpcke, 1982). The most obvious semantic principle concerns natural gender: Gender reflects sex almost without exceptions. Nouns referring to males receive masculine assignment and to females feminine respectively (Köpcke & Zubin, 1996). This holds for human beings as well as for animals. But here we also find the most common and cited exception as well. The German word Mädchen takes neuter gender assignment (das Mädchen[the(neut.)girl]) because the diminutive “chen” as its morphological suffix is usually neuter. Nevertheless it may take the feminine personal pronoun sie(MeinFreund hat einkleines Mädchen, das/*die einMeerschweinchen hat. [My friend has a(neut.)girl that (neut.)/*that (fem.) has a guinea pig.] Mein Freund hat einkleines Mädchen.Es/Sie hat ein Meerschweinchen. [My friend has a (neut.) girl. It(neut)she(fem.) has guinea pig.]). In this case where a noun does neither take agreement of one consistent pattern nor belongs to more genders than one. This noun is supposed to be a hybrid noun (Corbett, 1991). Morphological rules, like the one above are often not clearly distinguishable from semantic ones because they sometimes have a meaning on their own. Other examples are the very productive suffix “heit”(status, nature) that always carries feminine assign mentor “tum” demonstrates membership to group which is always neuter (Weber,2001). In German the associated gender is not overt on the noun itself but has morpho-syntactic repercussions on constituents of the noun phrase instead which is called noun inherent gender (nomeninhärentes Genus Weber, 2001)or covert gender (van Berkum, 1996). Constituents showing gender marking can be found among almost all pronouns numerals, adjectives and articles. Only the latter will be discussed a bit further as it is meant to be the one that reflects gender primarily. Gender is not the only nominal category however that determines the inflected
  8. 8. alignment of constituents in a sentence. sAll three nominal categories together, where number and case are the other two have to be chosen in their respective context (by the speaker) and generate congruency within a sentence, and especially within a noun phrase. In German, as a relatively richly inflected language, the information about these three categories merges together in only one inflectional morpheme which is generally not unambiguous at all. For 16 possible functions in gender, number, and case gender differences only occur in the singular and disappear in the plural. There are only six different inflectional elements in the case of the German definite articles. Hence, no form is a unique combination of gender, number, and case. Spanish language gender system Spanish is completely binary. It's a two gender system with no gender neutral nouns or pronouns. We get by with a bone deep sense of distinction between grammatical gender and social or biological gender. Number and nouns are masculine or feminine, the gender cannot be changed. The exception is animals, el perro, and laperra. (laperra can mean something bad too).The adjective must conform to the noun. (la mesa corta, el perroguapo).Some nouns appear to have both genders, but their meaning changes with the gender. Cometa, for example La cometa is a kite (the toy not the bird). El cometa is a comet. You cannot change the gender of cometa without changing the meaning of the noun. It doesn't mean something bad. It's simply extremely rude to apply it to a person. (Most people would also consider it "bad" to call a woman a "cow" or a "pig".). There are at least handfuls (probably around a hundred or so) of nouns in Spanish which can take either gender without changing the meaning. These nouns are classified as being "ambiguous" (nombresambíguos en cuanto al género) with regard to gender. 4. Methodology For this purpose a questionnaire containing forty nouns (thirteen from French, thirteen from German and fourteen from Spanish) was developed and fired among twenty one people from different walk of life and they were requested to assign (Masculine or Feminine) to every noun and also tick the skill by which they are assigning gender to nouns of different languages given in the questionnaire. Their name, Age, sex, mother tongue and educational status were also demanded. The people responded the questionnaire joyfully and whole heartedly. The responses are analyzed and presented over here. The questionnaire is also given after the analysis. 5. Analysis of the responded and collected data French Nouns 1. Pluie: - /plɥi/ Feminine means rain. Out of twenty one responses thirteen recognized this noun as a feminine while eight recognized it as a masculine. More people recognized it as a feminine because of its morphology and its phonology.
  9. 9. 2. Etudiante: - /etydjɑ̃//ɑ̃t/ Used for both masculine and feminine means student. Out of twenty one responses seventeen recognized this noun as a masculine while four recognized it as a feminine. More people recognized it as a masculine because of its morphology. 3. Parole: - /paʀɔl/ Feminine means spoken word. Out of twenty one responses fifteen recognized this noun as a masculine while six recognized it as a feminine. More people recognized it as a masculine because of its morphology. 4. Trait: - /tʀɛ/ Masculine means line or feature. Out of twenty one responses eleven recognized this noun as a masculine while ten recognized it as a feminine. More people recognized it as a masculine because of its morphology. 5. Revanche: - /ʀ(ə)vɑ̃ʃ/ Feminine means revenge. Out of twenty one responses thirteen recognized this noun as a feminine while eight recognized it as a masculine. More people recognized it as a feminine because of its morphology and its phonology. 6. Fille: - /fij/ Feminine means daughter. Out of twenty one responses twelve recognized this noun as a feminine while nine recognized it as a masculine. More people recognized it as a feminine because of its morphology. 7. Pont: - /pɔ̃/ Masculine means bridge. Out of twenty one responses eighteen recognized this noun as a masculine while three recognized it as a feminine. More people recognized it as a masculine because of its morphology. 8. Depense: - /depɑ̃s/ Feminine means expenditure. Out of twenty one responses fourteen recognized this noun as a masculine while seven recognized it as a feminine. More people recognized it as a masculine because of its morphology and its phonology. 9. Cle: - /kle/ Feminine means key. Out of twenty one responses ten recognized this noun as a feminine while eleven recognized it as a masculine. More people recognized it as a masculine because of its morphology and its phonology. 10. Espece: - /ɛspɛs/ Feminine means type or species. Out of twenty one responses nine recognized this noun as a feminine while twelve recognized it as a masculine. More people recognized it as a masculine because of its morphology and its phonology. 11. Bonheur: - /bɔnœʀ/ Masculine means happiness. Out of twenty one responses nine recognized this noun as a feminine while twelve recognized it as a masculine. More people recognized it as a masculine because of its morphology. 12. Voeu: - /vø/ Masculine means desire or wish. Out of twenty one responses ten recognized this noun as a feminine while eleven recognized it as a masculine. More people recognized it as a masculine because of its morphology. 13. Dieu: - /djø/ Masculine means god. Out of twenty one responses twelve recognized this noun as a feminine while nine recognized it as a masculine. More people recognized it as a feminine because of its morphology. German Nouns
  10. 10. 14. Sohn: - /sohn/Masculine means son. Out of twenty one responses four recognized this noun as a feminine while seventeen recognized it as a masculine. More people recognized it as a masculine because of its morphology and its phonology. 15. Hund; - /hund/Masculine means dog. Out of twenty one responses six recognized this noun as a feminine while fifteen recognized it as a masculine. More people recognized it as a masculine because of its morphology and its phonology. 16. Stadt: - /stadt/Feminine means city. Out of twenty one responses fourteen recognized this noun as a masculine while seven recognized it as a feminine. More people recognized it as a masculine because of its morphology. 17. Koffer: - /koffer/ Masculine means suitcase. Out of twenty one responses four recognized this noun as a feminine while seventeen recognized it as a masculine. More people recognized it as a masculine because of its morphology and its phonology. 18. Buch: - /buch/ Neuter means book. Out of twenty one responses seven recognized this noun as a feminine while fourteen recognized it as a masculine. More people recognized it as a masculine because of its morphology and its phonology. 19. Wein: - /wein/ Masculine means wine. Out of twenty one responses sixteen recognized this noun as a feminine while five recognized it as a masculine. More people recognized it as a feminine because of its morphology and its phonology. 20. Luft: - /luft/ Feminine means air. Out of twenty one responses nine recognized this noun as a feminine while twelve recognized it as a masculine. More people recognized it as a masculine because of its morphology and its phonology. 21. Mann: -/mann/ Masculine means a man. Out of twenty one responses nine recognized this noun as a feminine while twelve recognized it as a masculine. More people recognized it as a masculine because of its morphology and its phonology. 22. Tisch: - /tisch/ Masculine means a table. Out of twenty one responses fourteen recognized this noun as a feminine while seven recognized it as a masculine. More people recognized it as a feminine because of its phonology. 23. Gestein: - /gestein/ Neuter means rock. Out of twenty one responses twelve recognized this noun as a feminine while nine recognized it as a masculine. More people recognized it as a feminine because of its morphology and its phonology. 24. Frau: - /frau/ Feminine means woman. Out of twenty one responses ten recognized this noun as a feminine while eleven recognized it as a masculine. More people recognized it as a masculine because of its morphology and its phonology. 25. Sonne: - /sonne/ Feminine means sun. Out of twenty one responses fifteen recognized this noun as a feminine while six recognized it as a masculine. More people recognized it as a feminine because of its morphology and its phonology. 26. Frage: - /frage/ Feminine means question. Out of twenty one responses nine recognized this noun as a feminine while twelve recognized it as a masculine. More people recognized it as a masculine because of its morphology and its phonology. Spanish Nouns
  11. 11. 27. Aeropuerto: - /aeropuerto/ Masculine means airport. Out of twenty one responses six recognized this noun as a feminine while fifteen recognized it as a masculine. More people recognized it as a masculine because of its morphology and its phonology. 28. Panadería: - /panadería/ Feminine means bakery. Out of twenty one responses twelve recognized this noun as a feminine while nine recognized it as a masculine. More people recognized it as a feminine because of its morphology and its phonology. 29. Playa: - /playa/ Feminine means beach. Out of twenty one responses seven recognized this noun as a feminine while fourteen recognized it as a masculine. More people recognized it as a masculine because of its morphology and its phonology. 30. Fábrica: -/fabrĭca/ Feminine means factory. Out of twenty one responses thirteen recognized this noun as a feminine while eight recognized it as a masculine. More people recognized it as a feminine because of its morphology and its phonology. 31. Gardín: - /jardín/ Masculine means garden. Out of twenty one responses five recognized this noun as a feminine while sixteen recognized it as a masculine. More people recognized it as a masculine because of its morphology and its phonology. 32. Officina: - /oficina/ Feminine means office. Out of twenty one responses twelve recognized this noun as a feminine while nine recognized it as a masculine. More people recognized it as a feminine because of its morphology and its phonology. 33. Ciudad: - /ciudad/ Feminine means city. Out of twenty one responses three recognized this noun as a feminine while eighteen recognized it as a masculine. More people recognized it as a masculine because of its morphology and its phonology. 34. Barco: - /barco/ Masculine means boat. Out of twenty one responses seven recognized this noun as a feminine while fourteen recognized it as a masculine. More people recognized it as a masculine because of its morphology and its phonology. 35. Coche: - /coche/ Masculine means car. Out of twenty one responses twelve recognized this noun as a feminine while nine recognized it as a masculine. More people recognized it as a feminine because of its morphology and its phonology. 36. Casa: - /casa/ Feminine means house. Out of twenty one responses eight recognized this noun as a feminine while thirteen recognized it as a masculine. More people recognized it as a masculine because of its morphology and its phonology. 37. Sala: - /sala/ Feminine means living room. Out of twenty one responses eight recognized this noun as a feminine while thirteen recognized it as a masculine. More people recognized it as a masculine because of its morphology and its phonology. 38. Cocina: - /cocina/ Feminine means kitchen. Out of twenty one responses seventeen recognized this noun as a feminine while four recognized it as a masculine. More people recognized it as a feminine because of its morphology and its phonology. 39. Cara: -/cara/ Feminine means face. Out of twenty one responses ten recognized this noun as a feminine while eleven recognized it as a masculine. More people recognized it as a masculine because of its morphology and its phonology.
  12. 12. 40. Ojo: - /ojo/ Masculine means eye. Out of twenty one responses eight recognized this noun as a feminine while thirteen recognized it as a masculine. More people recognized it as a masculine because of its morphology and its phonology. Conclusion It is concluded through this survey that the assignment of gender is often more related to the sound and written form of the word than to its meaning especiallyto unknown and unheard words.Another thing which was experienced during the survey that Morphology, in some cases, may override meanings and reader or listener mostly recognizes the morph first. We Urdu, Punjabi, Saraiki and Potohari speakers have a gender assignment system and nodes through which we can recognize a word and assign it a gender due to our own built in gender assignment perceptions. So in this survey it is experienced that most of the respondents, responded according to their mother tongues gender perceptions and system. Bibliography:-  Craig, Colette G. (1986). Noun classes and categorization: Proceedings of a symposium on categorization and noun classification, Eugene, Oregon, October 1983. Amsterdam: J. Benjamins.  Corbett, Greville G. (1991) Gender, Cambridge University Press. (A comprehensive study; looks at 200 languages.) Excerpts at Google books  Corbett, Greville (1994) "Gender and gender systems". In R. Asher (ed.) TheEncyclopedia of Language and Linguistics, Oxford: Pergamon Press, pp. 1347–1353.  Greenberg, J. H. (1978) "How does a language acquire gender markers?" In J. H. Greenberg et al. (eds.) Universals of Human Language, Vol. 4, pp. 47 – 82.  Hockett, Charles F. (1958) A Course in Modern Linguistics, Macmillan.  Iturrioz, J. L. (1986) "Structure, meaning and function: a functional analysis of gender and other classificatory techniques". Función 1. 1–3.  Pinker, Steven (1994) The Language Instinct, William Morrow and Company.  Roscoe, W. (ed.) (1988) Living the Spirit: A Gay American Indian Anthology. New York: St. Martin's Griffin  Allopenna, P.D., Magnuson, J.S., &Tanenhaus, M.K. (1998). Tracking theTime Course of Spoken Word Recognition Using Eye Movements:  Evidence for Continuous Mapping Models. Journal of Memory and Language,38, 419- 439.  Bates, E., Devescovi, A., Hernandez, A., &Pizzamiglio, L. (1996). Genderpriming in Italian. Perception and Psychophysics, 57, 847-862.
  13. 13.  Bölte, J. &Connine, C.M. (in press). Grammatical gender in spoken wordrecognition in German. Perception and Psychophysics.  Colé P. &Segui J. (1994). Grammatical incongruency and vocabulary types.Memory and Cognition, 22, 387-394.  Corbett, G.G. (1991). Gender. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Dahan, D., Swingley, D., Tanenhaus, M.K., & Magnuson, J.S. (2000).  Linguistic Gender and Spoken-Word Recognition in French. Journal ofMemory and Language, 42, 465-480.  Dahan, D., Magnuson, J.S., &Tanenhaus, M.K. (2001). Time Course ofFrequency Effects in Spoken-Word Recognition: Evidence from EyeMovements. Cognitive Psychology, 42, 317-367.  Eberhard, K.M., Spivey-Knowlton, M.J., Sedivy, J.C., &Tanenhaus, M.K.(1995). Eye movements as a window into real-time spoken languagecomprehension in natural contexts. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 24,409-436.  EyeLink II User Manual, Version 1.05. (2002). Mississauga: SR Research Ltd.  Friederici, A.D. & Jacobson, T. (1999). Processing Grammatical GenderduringLanguage Comprehension. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 28 (5), 467-484. Questionnaire Dear Respondent There is always a system at work in gender assignment process for even unseen and unheard words. So the researcher wants to search how we assign gender to any noun of any language. You are requested to assign (Masculine or Feminine) to every noun and also tick the skill (Reading or speaking) by which you are assigning the gender to nouns of different languages given in the questionnaire. Name (Optional) ________________________________ Age_______________ (Male/Female) Mother Tongue___________________________ Educational Status________________ I am a student of M. Phil (Applied Linguistics) in UMT Lahore. I will highly be thankful to you for your co-operation and I assure you that the data given by you will only be used for this research and never be enclosed to anyone else. No. Nouns Masculine Feminine Reading Speaking French Nouns 1 la pluie 2 uneetudiante 3 la parole 4 le trait 5 la revanche
  14. 14. 6 la fille 7 un pont 8 la depense 9 la cle 10 uneespece 11 le Bonheur 12 le voeu 13 le dieu German Nouns 14 Sohn 15 Der Hund 16 Stadt 17 Koffer 18 Bücher 19 Wein 20 Luft 21 Mann 22 Tisch 23 Stein 24 Frau 25 Sonne 26 Frage Spanish Nouns 27 el aeropuerto 28 Lapanadería 29 la playa 30 la fábrica 31 el gardín 32 la officinal 33 la ciudad 34 en barco 35 en automovíl 36 la casa 37 la sala 38 la cocina 39 la cara 40 el ojo

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