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A conceptual
framework for learners
self-directing their
learning in MOOCs
Inge de Waard (Open University, UK & EIT InnoEnergy, EU)
Agnes Kukulska-Hulme (Open University, UK)
Overview
The informal
SDL- Framework
SDL in (post) COVID19
MOOCs, microlearning,
informal learning,
AI in Education …
EdTech
Learning
Ecology
Self-Directed
Learning
capacities
across EdTech
ecologies
Increase SDL
Free AI in Ed tool: AI detects skills you have or are lacking (beta release 1 July 2020)
https://skillcharge.innoenergy.com/
Equity of
Access
• Learning resources and
impact on mainstream
education
• Major actions from
educational sector to
ameliorate social
disparities?
Ethical layer for AI (AI in Ed (predictive analysis, semi-
automated assessments…), AI driven personalisation –
commerce driven & filter bubbles, Algorithmic governance
(digital technologies produce social ordening), our own moral
compass (complex set of cultural & philosophical preferences)
Frank Pasquale (law prof) argued, “authority is
increasingly expressed algorithmically.”
Audrey Waters (fab thinker) wrote “Algorithms —
 their development and implementation — are
important expressions of power and influence.”
6
Feel free to contact me
• ingedewaard@gmail.com
• Twitter: @Ignatia
• LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/ingedewaard/
• Slideshare: https://www.slideshare.net/ignatia
• Google scholar
• Academia:
https://open.academia.edu/IgnatiaIngedeWaard

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A conceptual framework for learners self directing their learning

  • 1. A conceptual framework for learners self-directing their learning in MOOCs Inge de Waard (Open University, UK & EIT InnoEnergy, EU) Agnes Kukulska-Hulme (Open University, UK)
  • 4. SDL in (post) COVID19 MOOCs, microlearning, informal learning, AI in Education … EdTech Learning Ecology Self-Directed Learning capacities across EdTech ecologies Increase SDL Free AI in Ed tool: AI detects skills you have or are lacking (beta release 1 July 2020) https://skillcharge.innoenergy.com/
  • 5. Equity of Access • Learning resources and impact on mainstream education • Major actions from educational sector to ameliorate social disparities? Ethical layer for AI (AI in Ed (predictive analysis, semi- automated assessments…), AI driven personalisation – commerce driven & filter bubbles, Algorithmic governance (digital technologies produce social ordening), our own moral compass (complex set of cultural & philosophical preferences) Frank Pasquale (law prof) argued, “authority is increasingly expressed algorithmically.” Audrey Waters (fab thinker) wrote “Algorithms —  their development and implementation — are important expressions of power and influence.”
  • 6. 6 Feel free to contact me • ingedewaard@gmail.com • Twitter: @Ignatia • LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/ingedewaard/ • Slideshare: https://www.slideshare.net/ignatia • Google scholar • Academia: https://open.academia.edu/IgnatiaIngedeWaard

Editor's Notes

  1. Present: My name is Inge de Waard and I work as a Sr. Learning strategist for EIT InnoEnergy, a European organisation focusing on innovation within the renewable and sustainable energy sector. I currently work on a project involving Artificial Intelligence to analyse skill gaps and automatically point learners (professionals and others) to courses that will address their current skill gaps, so they or their team can reskill and upskill in order to keep up with their evolving professional field. The research I am sharing today is research investigating Self-Directed Learning. Goal: get new insights into how learners Self-Direct their learning inside FutureLearn moocs, and particularly which elements influence their self-directed learning. MOOCs must be seen here as a contemporary open learning resources, which is part of the overall current learning ecology that we are all facing. And understanding how individuals self-direct their learning when being offered learning resources (MOOCs, coaching options, microlearning etc).
  2. Research methodology Learning logs were build to allow qualitative and quantitative data to be gathered Once the data collection was happening, Charmaz’s method for constructing a grounded theory was used to analyse the data. The main focus was on gathering qualitative data, as SDL research is still scarce and specifically if it is in relation to informal self directed learning within contemporary learning solutions. Target population slide
  3. The research findings resulted in a conceptual framework, which comprises five learning components: individual characteristics, technology, individual & social learning, organising learning, and context. Each of those learning components harbour key categories that have a major impact on the learning processes within that particular component. Each of the five components is influenced by the other components. There are two major enablers/inhibitors of self-directed learning within MOOCs: motivation and learning goals, where motivation is mostly intrinsic in nature, and the learning goals mostly personal. Findings on Individual characteristics Intrinsic motivation seems to have a profound effect on learning within FutureLearn MOOCs. It makes the learner decide which course they want to follow, based upon their own interest. The usefulness of the course content in terms of their professional and/or personal interest also increases the learners’ motivation, especially in terms of completing a learning episode. Once the course is rolled out, the content and information provided in the course can also alter motivation depending on the proximity of the course to the professional or personal context of the learner. The data shows that self-directed learning within FutureLearn courses is driven or held back by intrinsic motivation, ignited by the course content and personal interpretation of the usefulness of the course for the learner’s benefit. This makes intrinsic motivation an important inhibitor or enabler of self-directed learning in FutureLearn courses. Findings on technology influencing learning Technology plays an unavoidable role in learning within the courses. Learners have to connect to the course through an internet-enabled device, and then learn to navigate through the content using the course tools as well as topic specific tools provided in the course. It is the learner who self-directs their learning and who decides which parts of the technology might be beneficial to their learning at present, as well as for the future (e.g. considering the benefits of learning new tools). Admittedly, this learners’ choice is confined to the boundaries set by the course designers as well as the technical limitations or affordances of the FutureLearn platform. Findings on individual and social learning The majority of learning within MOOCs happened individually. In order to fully understand the course material and/or to fulfil personal learning needs, the individual learner moves in and out of the course to find answers. Although not actively engaged in any discussions, or in the commenting sections of the FutureLearn courses, the individual learners engaged in lurking, or deliberately looking for answers in social spaces without engaging in these social spaces. Whether or not an individual learner decides to enter into social learning depends on the perceived time investment needed, their personal preference to be either social or not and its perceived benefit, as well as their willingness to contribute. Once social learning is part of the learning process, different social actions are undertaken to achieve additional learning success which was not (yet) attained by a learner’s individual learning. Learners look for answers in- and outside FutureLearn courses, they also share their experiences with peers in- and outside of the course. Because of the increased amount of learners inside the courses, more reflective triggers are available. Findings on organising learning Learning within FutureLearn courses is organised by scheduling time, note taking during the learning process, and selecting what is learned depending on personal learning goals. The learner plans their learning in accordance withavailable time, the relevance of the content, the social learning benefit and related time investment. Note taking is done primarily to ground what is learned, and to be able to retrieve information later on. Notes are kept by learners mostly using their preferred tools, even if alternative note taking options are provided by the course organisers. Learners shape their learning based on learning actions that are guided by their personal learning goals. Learning goals have an important impact on the self-directed learning as it makes learners select specific content, mediate whether they want to invest more or less time given the perceived results, and attaining bigger goals, for example in relation to careers. The personal learning goals of the learner also affect the action he or she takes with regard to engaging in social learning or which tools or technologies they want to use and learn. This means that personal goal setting is not limited to organising learning, but it affects other learning components as well. This makes personal learning goals important inhibitors or enablers of self-directed learning in FutureLearn courses. Findings on context relevance The learner’s perception of any contextual similarities between their own context and the context proposed in the course, or shared by course peers impacts the learning experience. This perceived similarity of context can be related to the learner’s external environment (e.g. workplace, peers that have similar interests), the internal environment (e.g. personal learning goals) and the digital environment (e.g. online tools). The familiarity with the course context has a stimulating effect on self-directed learning, as it enables the learner to bring the information within a contextual reach, linking it to the learner’s prior knowledge or experiences. Motivation and personal learning goals have a major impact on each of the five learning components. Motivation (in most cases intrinsic) keeps participants wanting to keep on learning. If the learning goal/s are not addressed by the course content, learners stop engaging with the course. If the content inspires, the learning goals (either professional or personal) are what make learners move above and beyond the barriers that each of the components might induce in them e.g.: they will solve technological problems, they will connect to others despite having a preference for individual learning, they will overcome lack of self-confidence as a learner characteristic, or they will organise their learning against any time constraints they encounter.
  4. Looking at our knowledge on how learners self-direct their learning inside of MOOCs, we can extend it to include SDL in other learning resources. Based on what we know, we can then investigate AI-driven learning solutions, like the SkillCharge project which will be launched to the public by next week. https://skillcharge.innoenergy.com/
  5. Equity of Access: Are free learning resources moving toward the mainstream? What major inputs are needed in the education sector to ameliorate social disparities? Ethical layer for AI (Google personalisation – commerce driven, Algorithmic governance (digital technologies produce social ordening),