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Sustainable architecture without architects presentation

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Assess how sun, wind, water, and thermal mass have been used to transform a harsh natural environment into a comfortable residential environment

Evaluate innovative uses of local material in building

Weigh the benefits and drawbacks of using only local materials to create buildings

Published in: Environment

Sustainable architecture without architects presentation

  1. 1. Sustainable Architecture without Architects How the people of a small town on the cross road to silk road in Persia used micro-climate and their local materials to create energy-efficient homes
  2. 2. Sustainable Architecture without Architects This presentation is protected by US and International Copyright laws. Reproduction, distribution, display and use of the presentation without written permission of the speaker is prohibited.
  3. 3. Learning Objectives Passive solar design Assess how they have used sun, wind, water, and thermal mass to transform a harsh natural environment into a comfortable residential space Evaluate innovative uses of local material in building Weigh the benefits and drawbacks of using only local materials to create buildings Observe the use of these techniques in modern architecture
  4. 4. What is a Green Building? Based on USGBC Location, location Building design Indoors-environmental quality Windows and doors Water efficiency Energy efficiency Green building materials Insulations Renewable energy Landscaping
  5. 5. Energy Saving
  6. 6. Passive Solar Design Principles Heating and cooling without mechanical system Orientation (south facing windows) Glazing Shading Thermal mass Insulation Ventilation Landscaping (Planting for wind diversion, shade, natural air conditioner, water feature)
  7. 7. San Diego Micro Climate Coastal Inland Mountain Desert
  8. 8. Orientation Sun path during summer and winter Winter Summer Maximize south facing windows
  9. 9. Glazing and Day lighting Locate windows in South and north facing walls Good day lighting creates a pleasant atmosphere and elevates mood and reduce depression Reduces electric lighting usage during the day
  10. 10. Shading Outside Southern wall: overhangs Reduces intense light and glare East and West windows
  11. 11. Thermal mass Winter time: Absorbs and stores the heat during the day then radiates the heat at night with a delayed effect and moderately. Summer time: Absorbs nighttime coolness and release it slowly during the hot days. Tile or stained concrete floor. Masonry or tile Fire place surround. Concrete or tile countertops. Concrete mass walls. Pond roof . Light color painted wall to reflect on the floor. No throw rugs on the floor. Fade?
  12. 12. Ventilation Controlled movement of air through a building not a leak Evaporative cooling Cross Ventilation Stack ventilation
  13. 13. Landscaping Wind break Natural air conditioner Creating shade
  14. 14. Do we follow 2000 year old design rules?
  15. 15. Desert Micro Climate!
  16. 16. Desert Micro Climate Hostile environment Very little vegetation Almost no rainfall Sand storms Loss of life Not popular with travellers Vast area with few roads Marco Polo in 13th Century • Lack of water, heat and vicious sand, Summer temperature up to 120°F Winter temperature dips below -4 °F Temperatures soar in the sun, but drop rapidly at dusk
  17. 17. Comfort Zone Chart for Tabas Building bio-climatic chart by Milne and Givoni July 12th Tabas Temp: Max: 106’° Min: 68° F F Humidity : 9% Wind: 14 mph NNE
  18. 18. Materials Earth 1/3 of population, half in developing counties Architect Gernot Minke Straw White plaster Wood
  19. 19. Other problems Cultural: Privacy, attack, protection Economic Status: Animals, distance, food storage Structural System: Only adobe
  20. 20. ELEMENTS OF DESTINY
  21. 21. Tabas, an oasis in the desert A city which used to exist! •“Pearl of Persian cities” •“Bride of Persian cities”
  22. 22. Tabas Compare with Yazd a designated historic city
  23. 23. Why Tabas became important? • Connection to silk road • Motels or “Karevan Sara” • Source of water • Coal mines
  24. 24. Tabas, in the middle of the desert • Trade center • Source of water
  25. 25. Tabas, how it became an oasis? • Existence of water • Love of planting trees • Need for shade • Distance • Farms irrigation
  26. 26. Tree Preservation
  27. 27. These are the spaces they formed! • Summer living area • E`ivan (covered patio or veranda) • Courtyards (with water feature and planters) • Baudgeers (wind scoops or wind catchers) • Kitchen and storage • Hoaz-khane (living room) • Winter living area • Sardab (basement) • Hashti (eight sided vestibule)
  28. 28. Typical Floor Plan • Season Baudgeer • Compact • Summer, winter area • Courtyard • Architectural elements • Four seasons • Cross ventilation
  29. 29. Summer Living Area • Location • Elaborate • Windows • Height Low High
  30. 30. E’ivan (covered porch or veranda) • Location • Main element • Stand alone • Shade • Usage time • Day to day work Clay jugs
  31. 31. Courtyard • Location • Steps • Materials • Water • Well of cold air • Reservoir of coolness
  32. 32. Courtyard • Water Features • Citrus fruit trees • Palm trees • Walls, wind break • US Department of Energy, up to 25°F cooler under a tree
  33. 33. Baudgeer (wind catcher, ventilation shaft, wind scoop) • Unique, important • 4000 B.C. • One sided, three sided • Breath • Cool winds • Exhaust • Wet straw • 8’ – 20’
  34. 34. Baudgeer (wind catcher, ventilation shaft, wind scoop) • Location Low income • Basement • Divisions, Venturi effect
  35. 35. Baudgeer (wind catcher, ventilation shaft, wind scoop) Temperature change produce air pressures Sensible cooling hot air rising by convection Creates Stack effect Like a chimney Air movement: Venturi Ventilation Up draft • Pressure difference effect pathways • Suction • The Venturi effect • Convection • Hot air rises Hot day in the afternoon no wind Stack effect Down draft Temperature Low change produce air pressures, High difference in air pressure generates air flow
  36. 36. Baudgeer (wind catcher, ventilation shaft) • Enclosure • Sand settlement • Protection
  37. 37. Houz-khaneh (living room) • Favorite • Water feature • Height • Cross ventilation • Baudgeer, centered • Thermal mass Plan Section Elevation
  38. 38. Houz-khaneh (living room) Air movement by convection: Stack effect: as hot air rises, it leaves an area of lower air pressure beneath it, which will suck in air through any low placed openings. Increasing the height between the hot air outlet and cool air inlet enhances the stack effect. The higher the hot air rise= more suction= stronger air flow. Great idea for area with no summer breeze. Low pressure
  39. 39. Houz-khaneh (living room) • Econ. Status • Decoration • Opening • Fountain • Evaporative cooling Low pressure
  40. 40. Houz-khaneh • Palm tree • Clerestory • Latticed opening
  41. 41. Houz-khaneh • Flower • Reflection
  42. 42. Sardab (basement) • Location • Temperature • 12 to 4 • Ventilation • Damp walls
  43. 43. Winter Living Area and Kitchen • Room Location • Length of the season • Kitchen location • Windows • Size • Height • Braziers
  44. 44. Kitchen • Vent • Suction • Light and air • Bread oven Prevailing wind
  45. 45. Sleeping Area • Roof, courtyard • Privacy, breeze
  46. 46. Cultural Elements • Privacy, Entry • Door knob, door height • Family size • Central courtyard • Clustered
  47. 47. Economic Status • Storage • Stable for animals
  48. 48. Economic Status • Handcrafting • Weaving loom • Dyeing wool
  49. 49. Economic Status, Amir Garden • Judge and his business • Public and private spaces Floor plan Section
  50. 50. Privacy issue in other small towns
  51. 51. Materials • Sun dried adobe, salt • high heat storage capacity and low heat conductivity: Thermal lag • Kahgel or plaster of clay and straw • White plaster to reflect heat • Wood
  52. 52. Structural System • Bearing wall, thermal mass • Barrel roof • Dome roof, distributes heat
  53. 53. Alleys • Shade • Breeze • Maze • Roof • Source of cool air
  54. 54. Baghe Golshan • Main park (Persian garden) • Four gardens • Two stream • Water feature • Water fountain • Water fall Section Arial Photo Site Plan
  55. 55. Baghe Golshan (main park) • Vanishing edge pool • Stream passes through park entry and moves toward the city
  56. 56. Benefits & drawbacks of using only local materials
  57. 57. Tabas After Earth Quake, 1978 • 7.9 magnitude earthquake • Shear strength in adobe • 22,000 died
  58. 58. We are building a new civilization Cheap energy Spoiled by HVAC Changing our behaviors, thanks to H.E.C of last year. Experiment and start from scratch Historical examples This was only one example
  59. 59. Innovative uses of the same strategy in new buildings Natural resources; wind, sun, water and trees Orientation, orientation, orientation South facing windows July 12 San Diego Ventilation Temp: Max: 75° Min: 52° F F Humidity : 75% Cross Wind:14 mph W July 12th Tabas Stack Temp: Max: 106’° Min: 68° F F Humidity : 9% Shade Wind: 14 mph NNE Thermal mass Natural day-light Landscape Passive solar San Diego weather pattern in the chart
  60. 60. Value of architects and designers Architect role
  61. 61. Mission Style Spanish Architecture
  62. 62. Rob Quigley Architect Children Museum, San Diego Baudgeer concept (as cooling chimney) Exhaust ventilation
  63. 63. CII-Godrej GBC J.W. Marriott, Palm Desert Courtyard Water feature Water falls CII-Godrej GBC India Wind tower HVAC load
  64. 64. Gerber architect Germany Burj al-Taqa, Dubai High-tech baudgeer Wind driven ventilation Central atrium Dbl layered façade for shade w/s.p.
  65. 65. Twirling Tower Orchid Plaza By David Fisher in Dubai Bahrain Wind powered Electricity generating wind tower
  66. 66. Louis Kahn architect Salk Institute, La Jolla Persian gardens and water feature
  67. 67. AS +GG Architect of Chicago Masdar Headquarters, Abu Dhabi Baudgeer concept, exhaust ventilation
  68. 68. MSA & Assoc. Inc. Coyne Residence, La Jolla 1990 New Existing building West facing windows Strategic location of windows Cross ventilation Existing
  69. 69. MSA & Assoc. Inc. Coyne Residence, La Jolla 1990 Strategic location of windows Overhang Shade Daylight Cross ventilation
  70. 70. MSA & Assoc. Inc. Vajda Residence, Rancho Santa Fe Covenant South facing windows West facing windows Cross ventilation HVAC usage? Before After
  71. 71. MSA & Assoc. Inc. Vajda Residence, Rancho Santa Fe Covenant South facing windows Shade HVAC usage? After After Before
  72. 72. Assoc. MSA & Assoc. Inc. Vista Mar Residence, Pacific Beach 2000 West facing lot Great view No buyer for 2 years Small flat area
  73. 73. MSA & Assoc. Inc. Assoc. Vista Mar Residence, Pacific Beach 2000 South facing windows West facing windows? Overhangs Cross ventilation HVAC?
  74. 74. MSA & Assoc. Inc. Soledad Home, P.B. South facing windows Shade Cross ventilation Stack ventilation Fan
  75. 75. MSA & Assoc. Inc. Chalcedony, Pacific Beach South facing windows Shade Cross ventilation Exhaust ventilation
  76. 76. MSA & Assoc. Inc. La Jolla Residence, La Jolla South facing windows Cross ventilation Daylight Courtyard Before After
  77. 77. MSA & Assoc. Inc. La Jolla Residence, La Jolla Courtyard After North facing windows Before Before After
  78. 78. MSA & Assoc. Inc. La Jolla Residence, La Jolla South facing windows Use of shade Water Courtyard Daylight Umbrellas After Before
  79. 79. MSA & Assoc. Inc. Ten in rows, Linda Vista South facing windows Use of shade Cross ventilation Exhaust ventilation Daylight
  80. 80. Green Building Design Natural resources; wind, sun, water and trees Orientation, orientation, orientation South facing windows Ventilation Cross Stack Shade Thermal mass Natural day-light Landscape Passive solar
  81. 81. Resources • Master Theses research by Simi Razavian, Lila Khalvati and Fereshteh Asefi. • Gardens of Tabas by Yaghoob Danesh-doost • Monuments of Tabas by Yaghoob Danesh-doost • Urban structure and architecture in the hot arid zone of Iran by Mahmoud Tavassoli • http://www.technovelgy.com/ct/Science-Fiction-News.asp?NewsNum=1040 • http://www.gulfweeklyworldwide.com/article.asp?Sn=5536&Article=19304 • http://www.inhabitat.com/2007/05/16/david-fishers-twirling-wind-power-tower/ • http://www.lightningcanyon.com/pages/passive-solar/introduction_passive_solar.html •Viability of wind towers in achieving summer comfort in the hot arid regeions of the middle east By Mehdi N. Bahadori Professor of Mechanical Engineering Sharif University of Technology Tehran, Iran • Three dimensional numerical investigation of air flow over domed roofs by Ahmadreza K.Faghih and,MehdiN.Bahadori School ofMechanicalEngineering,SharifUniversityofTechnology,Tehran,Iran
  82. 82. Speaker Simi Razavian Architect, LEED AP, CGBP Master of Science in Architecture and Urban Design with Emphasis on Passive Solar Design and Vernacular Architecture of Tabas, Iran Co- founder of MSA & Assoc. Inc. in 1987 Licensed Architect in the State of California Certified Green Building Professional Speaker at : AIA Convention 2009 Notre Dame University Apr 2010 UCSD July 2010 Contact Information Simi Razavian simi@msahome.com www.msahome.com

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