Animal behaviour


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A lecturer on the basics of animal behaviour

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  • Any ideas or examples, on white board.
  • How have sociologists in the past gone about testing nature nuture?TwinsTransgender- sex changes
  • Fixed action pattern or FAP can be improved through learning eg courtship behaviourBalloon popping.Sitting close- personal space amygdala- region of the brain that recognises fear and therefore controls sense of personal space.
  • Observed that bee used dance to communicate where food was and that honey bees had colour vision.
  • Imprinting- think about potential issues in conservation biologyEthics involved.....??
  • These basic desires, which Denton terms the "primordial emotions", include thirst, hunger, pain, hunger for salt and other minerals, the hunger for air and sexual desire, among others. They are triggered by sensors in the brain that detect when the animal's internal state is out of balance, a potentially life-threatening situation.
  • Why is social behaviour important?- team game timePredatoravoidenceReproductionParental behaviourComminicationCoperative behaviour
  • See house sparrows.
  • Animal behaviour

    1. 1. Animal
    2. 2. What is it?Definition Animal Behaviour: anything an animaldoes involving action and response from stimulusDefinition Behaviour: Any evolved, adaptiveaction or activity of an organism that interactswith its environment; not simply a by product orside effect of an activity. Can be learnt orinherited
    3. 3. EthologyThe study of how animals behave in their natural environmentSociobiology-Connects evolutionary theory to human culture.
    4. 4. When looking at animal behaviour we have toconsiderWhy do behaviours evolve?Is it adaptive?Does it contribute to reproductive success?This is known as Ultimate causes
    5. 5. Nature vs NurtureBehaviors are: Behaviors are:• Innate • Learned• Hard-wired • Flexible• Instinctual • Not genetically determined• Genetically determined
    6. 6. Innate behaviours Fixed Action Kinesis Reflex Taxis Pattern• change the • movement of a • a directed • stereotyped speed of body part in movement and often random response to toward or complex series movement in stimulus". away from a of movements, response to stimulus; responses to a environmental positive and specific stimulus“ negative taxes stimulus
    7. 7. Characteristics of Innate Behaviors - especially FAPs:1. The behavior is performed correctly the 1st time without prior experience (no opportunity to learn)2. Triggered by some external stimulus3. Once started, run to completion with no further input4. Breeding crosses produce hybrid behaviors
    8. 8. • Ethology is the study of how animals behave in their natural habitat. – Karl von Frisch: bee communication – Niko Tinbergen: herring gull experiment; digger wasps – Konrad Lorenz: imprint in geese
    9. 9. Karl Von Frisch- communication in bees
    10. 10. Herring gull experiment by NikoTinbergenReleaser Stimuli- stimuli that release FAPE.g., Chick and red dot on gull parents beak triggers feedingresponse- parent regurgitates food Laysan albatross feeding chick
    11. 11. Niko Tinbergen Hypothesis: digger wasps use visual landmarksMove pine cones to keep track of her nests Visual cue is arrangement pattern rather than objects themselves
    12. 12. Learned behaviours Imprinting: a strong association learned during a specific developmental period Habituation: decline in response to a harmless, repeated stimulus Trial and error: observed learning Insight reasoning: manipulating concepts in mind before arriving at behavior. Conditioning: where a behavior is performed either to avoid punishment or receive reward- lab basedBaby Albert click:
    13. 13. CognitionThe ability of an animals nervous system to perceive, store , process and useinformation gathered by sensory receptors.Consciousness-Are animals aware of themselves?
    14. 14. Animals use various cognitive mechanisms duringmovement through space• Kinesis and taxis. ▫ These are the simplest mechanisms of movement.  Kinesis is a change in activity rate in response to a stimulus.  For example, sowbugs are more active in dry areas and less active in humid areas.  Taxis is an automatic, oriented movement to or away from a stimulus.  For example, phototaxis, chemotaxis, and geotaxis. Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
    15. 15. • Use of landmarks within a familiar area. ▫ Some organisms move in response to a recognized object or environmental cue, the object is the landmark.• Cognitive maps. ▫ Some animals form cognitive maps (internal codes of spatial relationships of objects in the environment).Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
    16. 16. Whale Migration Routes• Migration Behavior ▫ Migration is the regular movement of animals over relatively long distances. ▫ Piloting: an animal moves from one familiar landmark to another until it reaches its destination.
    17. 17. • Orientation: animals can detect directions and travel in particular paths until reaching destination. ▫ Navigation is the most complex, and involves determining one’s present location relative to other locations in addition to detecting compass directions. ▫ Cues for these behaviors include the earth’s magnetic field, the sun, and the stars.
    18. 18. Social behavior:any kind of interaction between two or more animals, usually of the same species.Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
    19. 19. Teams please
    20. 20. Social Behavior in Vertebrates Predator Avoidance Behavior -mimicry - schooling Reproductive Behavior -competition -territoriality -Displays Parental Behavior Communication Cooperative Behavior -warning alarms
    21. 21. Competitive social behaviors often represent contests forresources • Sometimes cooperation occurs. Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
    22. 22. • Agonistic behavior is a contest involving threats. ▫ Submissive behavior. ▫ Ritual: the use of symbolic activity. ▫ Generally, no harm is done.Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
    23. 23.  Reconciliation behavior often happens between conflicting individuals.Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
    24. 24. • Dominance hierarchies involve a ranking of individuals in a group (a “pecking order”). ▫ Alpha, beta rankings exist.  The alpha organisms control the behavior of others.Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
    25. 25. • Territoriality is behavior where an individual defends a particular area, called the territory. ▫ Territories are typically used for feeding, mating, and rearing young and are fixed in location.
    26. 26. ▫ Drawbacks are that territoriality uses a great deal of an individual’s energy.  In addition, an individual might be defending a territory and die or miss a reproductive opportunity. ▫ Spraying behavior is where an individual marks its territory.Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
    27. 27. Natural selection favors matingbehavior that maximizes the quantityor quality of mating partners• Courtship behavior consists of patterns that lead to copulation and consists of a series of displays and movements by the male or female. Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
    28. 28. Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
    29. 29. • Parental investment refers to the time and resources expended for raising of offspring. ▫ It is generally lower in males ▫ Females usually invest more time into parenting (fecundity, egg size, care of offspring) ▫ Females are usually more discriminating in terms of the males with whom they choose to mate.  Females look for more fit males (i.e., better genes), the ultimate cause of the choice.Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
    30. 30. • Mating systems differ among species. ▫ Promiscuous: no strong bond pairs between males and females. ▫ Monogamous: one male mating with one female. ▫ Polygamous: an individual of one sex mating with several of the other sex.  Polygyny is a specific example of polygamy, where a single male mates with many females.  Polyandry occurs in some species where one female mates with several females.Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
    31. 31. Social interactions depend on diversemodes of communication• Defining animal signals and communication. ▫ A signal is a behavior that causes a change in the behavior of another animal. ▫ The transmission of, reception of, and response to signals make up communication. ▫ Examples include the following:  Displays such as singing, and howling.  Information can be transmitted in other ways, such as chemical, tactile, electrical. Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
    32. 32. ▫ Pheromones are chemicals released by an individual that bring about mating and other behaviors.  Examples include bees and ants.Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
    33. 33. The concept of inclusive fitness can account for mostaltruistic behavior• Most social behaviors are selfish, so how do we account for behaviors that help others? ▫ Altruism is defined as behavior that might decrease individual fitness, but increase the fitness of others.Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
    34. 34. Homework- Ethogram• 10 minute observation of an animal-• Define behaviour• Give it a code• Note if social or solitary• Time duration of each behaviour