How have sociologists in the past gone about testing nature nuture?TwinsTransgender- sex changes
Fixed action pattern or FAP can be improved through learning eg courtship behaviourBalloon popping.Sitting close- personal space amygdala- region of the brain that recognises fear and therefore controls sense of personal space.
Observed that bee used dance to communicate where food was and that honey bees had colour vision.
Imprinting- think about potential issues in conservation biologyEthics involved.....??
These basic desires, which Denton terms the "primordial emotions", include thirst, hunger, pain, hunger for salt and other minerals, the hunger for air and sexual desire, among others. They are triggered by sensors in the brain that detect when the animal's internal state is out of balance, a potentially life-threatening situation.
Why is social behaviour important?- team game timePredatoravoidenceReproductionParental behaviourComminicationCoperative behaviour
See house sparrows.
What is it?Definition Animal Behaviour: anything an animaldoes involving action and response from stimulusDefinition Behaviour: Any evolved, adaptiveaction or activity of an organism that interactswith its environment; not simply a by product orside effect of an activity. Can be learnt orinherited
EthologyThe study of how animals behave in their natural environmentSociobiology-Connects evolutionary theory to human culture.
When looking at animal behaviour we have toconsiderWhy do behaviours evolve?Is it adaptive?Does it contribute to reproductive success?This is known as Ultimate causes
Nature vs NurtureBehaviors are: Behaviors are:• Innate • Learned• Hard-wired • Flexible• Instinctual • Not genetically determined• Genetically determined
Innate behaviours Fixed Action Kinesis Reflex Taxis Pattern• change the • movement of a • a directed • stereotyped speed of body part in movement and often random response to toward or complex series movement in stimulus". away from a of movements, response to stimulus; responses to a environmental positive and specific stimulus“ negative taxes stimulus
Characteristics of Innate Behaviors - especially FAPs:1. The behavior is performed correctly the 1st time without prior experience (no opportunity to learn)2. Triggered by some external stimulus3. Once started, run to completion with no further input4. Breeding crosses produce hybrid behaviors
• Ethology is the study of how animals behave in their natural habitat. – Karl von Frisch: bee communication – Niko Tinbergen: herring gull experiment; digger wasps – Konrad Lorenz: imprint in geese
Herring gull experiment by NikoTinbergenReleaser Stimuli- stimuli that release FAPE.g., Chick and red dot on gull parents beak triggers feedingresponse- parent regurgitates food Laysan albatross feeding chick
Niko Tinbergen Hypothesis: digger wasps use visual landmarksMove pine cones to keep track of her nests Visual cue is arrangement pattern rather than objects themselves
Learned behaviours Imprinting: a strong association learned during a specific developmental period Habituation: decline in response to a harmless, repeated stimulus Trial and error: observed learning Insight reasoning: manipulating concepts in mind before arriving at behavior. Conditioning: where a behavior is performed either to avoid punishment or receive reward- lab basedBaby Albert http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0FKZAYt77ZMSquirrel: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sMYuIK5YWVE&feature=relmfuElephant click: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TFQigZxsnO0&feature=relatedCrow: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EZSk7oCNaHg&feature=related
CognitionThe ability of an animals nervous system to perceive, store , process and useinformation gathered by sensory receptors.Consciousness-Are animals aware of themselves?
Whale Migration Routes• Migration Behavior ▫ Migration is the regular movement of animals over relatively long distances. ▫ Piloting: an animal moves from one familiar landmark to another until it reaches its destination.
• Orientation: animals can detect directions and travel in particular paths until reaching destination. ▫ Navigation is the most complex, and involves determining one’s present location relative to other locations in addition to detecting compass directions. ▫ Cues for these behaviors include the earth’s magnetic field, the sun, and the stars.