Assessment Statements Obj. E3.1 Distinguish between innate and learned behaviour. 2 Design investigations to investigate innate behaviour in invertebrates, including E3.2 3 either a taxis or kinesis. Analyse data from invertebrate behaviour experiments in terms of the effect on E3.3 chances of survival and reproduction. 3 E3.4 Discuss how the process of learning can improve the chance of survival. 3 E3.5 Outline Pavlov’s experiments into conditioning of dogs. 2 Outline the role of inheritance and learning in the development of birdsong in young E3.6 2 birds.Command terms: http://i-biology.net/ibdpbio/command-terms/ Assessment statements from: Online IB Biology Subject Guide
Behaviour The behaviour of an animal is the ways in which it reacts and relates to stimuli and the environment. Innate Behaviour Learned Behaviour Instinctive (Fixed Action Patterns) – Based on experience genetically based Not modified by the individual Modified by the individual by trial and error Generally uniform: low variation in population High variation within the population Unaffected by environment (in the individual) Highly affected by the environment Beneficial behaviours evolve through natural Capacity to learn may be product of natural selection: survival and reproduction. selection, rather than specific behaviours. Examples: Examples: Suckling instinct in newborns Acquisition of language & social skills Migration of blackcaps Domesticated behaviour in pets Hunting instincts Training dolphins to perform.
Learning for SurvivalInnate behaviours can only be modified as a result ofnatural selection, taking many generations. Learning allowsfor behaviours to be modified by the individual, inresponse to the environment, giving a survival advantage.Many behaviours have an innate component, such as birdslearning birdsong, which can then be modified by learning.Associative learning through classical conditioning pairsstimulus with response. Animals can be conditioned toaccordingly to positive stimuli (such as mate calls) andnegative stimuli (such as danger).With operant conditioning, positive behaviours arerewarded (e.g. more food for foraging in one area), wherenegative are punished (e.g. pain as a result of dangerousactions).Observation can be used as a method of learning, as can Human children learn by ‘Money See,imprinting: learning which occurs at key periods of Monkey Do’. Chimps don’t. By Carl Zimmer.development and susceptibility to learning. http://www.nytimes.com/2005/12/13/scien ce/13essa.html?_r=0
How do you learn? TOKThink of instances of learning in your own life. To Classically conditioning a human:which of the following methods of learningmight you attribute them?• Classical conditioning• Operant conditioning• Imprinting• Observation/ imitationIf we think of learning as a ‘relatively permanentchange in behaviour’, can you think of examplesof behaviours or responses you have unlearned?Why? http://vimeo.com/5371237How might the role of the following affect yourlearning in a subject?• Feedback• Grades• Demonstrations or labs• Discussion
Use operant conditioning on yourself – try the virtual skinner box above to determine what the desired behaviours are in levels 1, 2 and 3.
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