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Animal behavior notes


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HS Biology Animal Behavior Notes

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Animal behavior notes

  2. 2. -continues or enhances response away from set point *blood clotting; childbirth -stops and returns toward set point *most body responses The ability to maintain a relatively stable internal environment even though the outside world is changing Body Temperature Regulation Causes change Sun Monitors changes then sends information to the control center Skin – Touch Receptors 5 senses Taste Smell Sight/Light Touch/Feel Hear/Sound Determines levels to be maintained SET POINT (98.6o F), analyzes the information, and determines an appropriate response Brain Causes a response to change conditions Sweat Glands A result of a stimulus to correct the changes Sweat - cooling HOMEOSTASIS REVIEW
  3. 3. WHAT IS BEHAVIOR? A response to a stimulus  Stimulus – a signal
  4. 4. WHY BEHAVE? Behavior is adaptive, because it helps an organism survive and reproduce. Behavior maintains homeostasis, which helps the organisms support the conditions it needs to live.
  5. 5. TYPES OF STIMULI  Internal Stimuli  Examples:  Hunger signals a need for more energy and causes an animal to search for food  Thirst signals a loss of internal fluid and causes an animal to look for water  Pain warns an animal that some part of its body may be subject to injury and causes it to take some action to avoid injury  External Stimuli  Examples:  The sound of a predator can cause an animal to hide or run away to avoid being caught  The sight of potential mate can trigger courtship behaviors  Changes in day length can trigger reproductive behaviors or migration
  6. 6. SPECIALIZED CELLS (A.K.A. RECEPTORS) Sensory cells detect:  Light  Sound  Chemicals Activate the animal’s nervous system.  May cause adrenaline release  “Fight-or-Flight” Nervous System  Muscles activated
  7. 7. FUNCTION OF BEHAVIOR - MOVEMENT KINESIS  Increase in random movement  Lasts until a favorable environment is reached TAXIS  Movement in a specific direction  Either toward or away from a specific stimulus
  8. 8. BEHAVIOR IN CYCLES Circadian Rhythm – daily pattern of activity  Example: Sleep – daily activity over 24-hours Biological Clock – internal mechanism of activity patterns  Example: Melatonin secretion by the brain that can detect light changes
  9. 9. BEHAVIOR IN CYCLES Hibernation – avoidance of cold winter temperatures  Animals have:  Decreased body temperature  Decreased heart rate  Decreased breathing rate  Prepare by eating large amounts of fat for:  Food source  Insulation  Light and temperature determine when an animal enters and exits hibernation
  10. 10. BEHAVIOR IN CYCLES Migration  Set in motion by a variety of internal and external stimuli:  Example: Birds Day length  controls hunger  gain weight  increased fat storage  fuels long distance migration
  11. 11. TYPES OF BEHAVIORS Innate Behavior  A behavior with which the organism is born Learned Behavior  A change in behavior due to experience
  12. 12. INNATE VS LEARNED BEHAVIOR Innate Behaviors Learned Behaviors Inborn behavior Genetically Based Based on Experience Not modified by the individual Modified by the individual by trial and error Generally uniform Low variation in population High variation in population Unaffected by the environment Highly affected by the environment Beneficial behavior Survival and reproduction Capacity to learn may be product of natural selection
  13. 13. INNATE VS LEARNED BEHAVIOR Innate Behavior Learned Behaviors Examples: • Suckling in newborns • Migration • Hunting instincts Examples: • Language acquisition • Social Skills • Domesticated behavior in pets • Trained dolphins
  14. 14. INNATE OR LEARNED?  Science Today: Facial Expressions | California Academy of Sciences
  15. 15. INNATE OR LEARNED?  Chimpanzee Tool Use
  16. 16. INNATE OR LEARNED?  Conversation with Koko
  17. 17. TYPES OF LEARNED BEHAVIOR 1. Habituation 2. Observational Learning 3. Conditioning 4. Play 5. Insight
  18. 18. HABITUATION Forming a habit Learning to get used to something after being exposed to it for a while  Example: The habit of seeing a scarecrow in the exact same place in the garden every day causes birds to get used to, and basically ignore, the stimulus
  19. 19. OBSERVATIONAL LEARNING learning by watching and copying the behavior of someone else
  20. 20. CONDITIONING A way to modify (train) an animal’s behavior in response to a certain stimuli  Reward or punishment  2 types 1. Classical Conditioning 2. Operant Conditioning
  21. 21. CLASSICAL CONDITIONING A process in which an animal learns to associate a previously neutral stimulus with a behavior once triggered by a different stimulus  Pavlov’s Dog
  23. 23. OPERANT CONDITIONING A process in which the likelihood of a specific behavior is increased by reinforcement
  24. 24. OPERANT CONDITIONING  Rat Basketball at Wofford College
  25. 25. OPERANT CONDTIONING  Big Bang Theory
  26. 26. LEARN BY PLAY Young mammals, including humans, like to play Play is one way they learn the skills that they will need as adults
  27. 27. INSIGHT LEARNING learning from past experiences and reasoning Most complicated learning Dog Insight Learning Octopus Tool Use