I ndustrial attachment of apex spinning and kniting mills ltd.


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I ndustrial attachment of apex spinning and kniting mills ltd.

  2. 2. Page 2 of 55 TABLE OF CONTENT Chapter No. Topics Contents Page No. Chapter-I Project Description Name, Type, Year of establishment, Location, Address, Sponsors, Product mix, Annual production capacity, Project cost, History of the project development, Different Departments, Physical infrastructure, Remarks. 6-10 Chapter-II Man power Management Organ gram of man power- 1.Administration 2.Production 3.Maintenance Management system, Shift change, Responsibilities of production officer, Job description of the production officer, Job description of the Sr. production officer 11-20 Chapter- III Machine Description No. of the M/C, Make, Brand name, Main specification, Machinery layout plan, List of machinery, Remarks. 21-26 Chapter- IV Raw materials Types, Price, Source, Annual requirement, Remarks. 27 Chapter-V Production planning sequence & operation Production parameters, Description of the production process, Daily production report, Monthly avg. production, Production flow chart, Recipe, Monthly efficiency, Remarks. 28-31
  3. 3. Page 3 of 55 Chapter- VI Quality assurance Quality assurance procedure, List of equipments, Quality standard, Quality report, Remarks 32-38 Chapter No. Topics Contents Page No. Chapter-VII Maintenance Maintenance of machinery, Routine, Manpower set up for maintenance, Maintenance procedure, Maintenance tools/equipments & their function, Remarks, 39-43 Chapter-VIII Utility services Utility facility available, Capacity & other technical details, Source of utility, Cost of different utilities, Remarks. 44-49 Chapter-IX Store & inventory control Inventory system of raw material, Spares, Finished goods, others, Remarks. 50 Chapter-X Cost analysis Price of the product, Cost of the product, Remarks 51-52 Chapter-XI Marketing activities Consumer of the product, product level, package size & level, Local market, Importing countries, Manpower, Marketing strategy, Duties & responsibilities of marketing officer, Remarks. 53-55 Chapter-XII Conclusion 56
  4. 4. Page 4 of 55 CHAPTER-I ( PROJECT DESCRIPTION ) NAME: Apex Spinning and Knitting Mills Ltd.. TYPE: Composite knit fabrics and garments (with dyeing & finishing) mill (100% Export Oriented Composite Industry) STATUS: Private limited company YEAR OF ESTABLISHMENT: 1992 LOCATION & ADDRESS: Head Office : Apex Spinning and Knitting Mills Ltd. Biman Bhaban ( 5th floor) 100,Motijheel C/A, Dhaka-1000 Tele : 9562383, 9338867 (F) E-mail : apexfood@citechco.net Factory : Chandura Kunabari, Gazipur . LOCATION OF THE MILL: Apex Spinning and Knitting Mills Ltd.. is situated at Chandura Kunabari, Gazipur. It is located at the west Side of Gazipur Chowrasta-Thangail road and at the point of Polli Biddut bus stopageabout 45 km away from Sotheast University, Tejgaon, and Dhaka.
  5. 5. Page 5 of 55 # SITE LOCATION OF Apex Spinning and Knitting Mills Ltd: Gazipur Chowrasta Sotheast University Air Port Mymensing Road Shofeepur Bazer Polly Biddut, Chandura Apex Spinnning and Knitting Mills Ltd Gazipur Main Town
  6. 6. Page 6 of 55 SPONSOR: OWNSELF PRODUCT MIX: a) Knitted grey fabrics: Plain single jersey, Heavy jersey, polo pique,1’s Lacoste ,Double Lacoste , Rib & Interlock double jersey, Billister Fabrics, 2/3 threaded fleece (brushed & unbrushed),Lycra Single Jersey, Auto stripper, Feeder Stripper, Jacqured Design Fabrics, Collar & Cuff , Warp knitted Fabrics, Narrow fabrics etc 100% cotton, 15% viscose+ 85% cotton, 10% viscose+ 90% cotton, 30% viscose+ 70% cotton, 95% Cotton + 5% Lycra, PC , CVC, Millange , 84% Nylon + 16% Spandex etc b) Knit garments: Men polo shirt, Women polo shirt, Men T-shirt, Women T-shirt, Men sweat shirt, Women sweat shirt, Men fleece shirt, Women fleece shirt, Kids polo shirt, Babies polo shirt, Kids T-shirt, Babies T- shirt, Jogging Pants, Ladies Under garments ( Bra, Panty etc ) ANNUAL PRODUCTION CAPACITY: Knitting: 9125 tons per year Dyeing: 9125 tons per year Garments: 3 cores pieces per year PROJECT COST: 500 cores taka (approx) HISTORY OF PROJECT DEVELOPMENT: Starting with 36 knitting machines only in 1990 and dyeing capacity was only 3 tons per day. Garments section has only two floors with 6 lines.
  7. 7. Page 7 of 55 DIFFERENT DEPARTMENTS: 1. Admin Section 2. Knitting: circular knitting , Flat knitting and Warp knitting 3. Dyeing & Finishing . Lingerie Dyeing Section . Yarn dyeing . Sewing thread manufacturing section . Narrow fabric dyeing . Printing Section 4. Lab department 5. Quality Assurance 6. Garments:  Cutting  Sewing  Finishing  Inspection  Packing 7. Stores & Inventory Section 8. Technical Department (Maintenance) 9. Human & Resource and Administration 10.Account and commercial section
  8. 8. Page 8 of 55 11.Utility Department TOTAL AREA OF THE INDUSTRY: 20000 sq. meters FACTORY LANDS AREA: 8000 sq. meters FLOOR SPACE OF KNITTING: 17600 sq. feet FLOOR SPACE OF DYEING: 17600 sq. feet FLOOR SPACE OF FINISHING: 17600 sq. feet FLOOR SPACE OF GARMENTS: 9856 sq. feet PHYSICAL INFRASTRUCTURE: Physical infrastructure of APEX SPINNING AND KNITTING MILLS LTD. is R.C.C and brick wall structure. There are six big building among these one is eight floored building (1st floor for printing and finishing, 2nd is for laboratory and part of addmin3rd is for knitting and rest of all are for garments section), two is six floored building (one is Lingerie and warp knitting section and another is for dyeing , finishing ,Utility dept collar & cuff and garments section), Another two building is for yarn dyeing and head administration section. There is a big mosque and children care centre as well as medical centre. REMARKS: APEX SPINNING AND KNITTING MILLS LTD. is The biggest project I have ever seen. In this project combine many and unique department which are really rare in Bangladesh. This is also a profitable project and also greatly contributes the economy of our country.
  9. 9. Page 9 of 55 CHAPTER-II (MAN POWER MANAGEMENT) (MANAGEMENT SYSTEM): KNITTING SECTION: Four mechanical fitters for per shift .One skilled operator and one unskilled operator for per knitting machine. SHIFT CHANGE: Shift of Twelve hours but four hours daily overtime added for the workers. Shift changes after a week on Saturday and daily shift changes 8:30 am and 8:30 pm. RESPONSEBILITIES OF PRODUCTION OFFICER: From getting an order of upper level all responsibilities are on the production officers. They work with a troop of operators, helpers, fitters etc. to finish the production in due time. In the meantime Production officers bear all hazards, problems. They have to explain to the manager for any type of production hamper. So all production activities and its success depend on the production officers .Now I can explain the works of the Production Officer following way.. 1. Get order sheet and making program sheet send to operator 2. Production sample making 3. Show this production sample to authority 4. Correction of sample making parameters for correct the sample 5. Final production sample 6. Approved the sample from authority 7. M/C selection and Direction to operators for bulk production 8. Gray Inspection and Send to Dyeing Department 9. Final finished fabric as well as finished garments inspection
  10. 10. Page 10 of 55 Organ gram of ASKML:
  11. 11. Page 11 of 55 PRODUCTION CALCULATION
  12. 12. Page 12 of 55 1. Production/shift in kg at 100% efficiency: countYarn mmSLNeedleofNoFeederofNoRPM    2046.28403654.210 1260)(.. countYarn mmSLNeedleofNoFeederofNoRPM    80.3527 )(.. 2. Production/shift in meter: 100/ 1260. / .min/     cmCourse EfficiencyFeederofNoRPM cmCourse Course 3. Fabric width in meter: 100/ . 100/ .     cmWales knittingNeedlesofnoTotal cmWales walesofnoTotal (i) RAW MATERIAL USED Material (Yarn) Count Type Color Cotton (100%) 24/1 Carded Grey Cotton (100%) 26/1 Combed Purple Cotton (100%) 26/1 Carded Grey Cotton (100%) 30/1 Combed Grey Cotton (100%) 34/2 Combed Avg. Cotton (100%) 16/1 Carded Grey Cotton (100%) 34/1 Combed Grey Lycra (100%) 20D
  13. 13. Page 13 of 55 (ii) FABRIC WEIGHT (G.S.M.) SETTING M/c. Gauge Yarn count F/Dia in inch GSM (Grey state) 16 24/1 31 170 28 30/1 32 150 24 26/1 50 145 16 26/1 19 135 16 34/2 19 165 16 24/1 33.5 180 20 26/1 37 225 18 24/1 35.5 182 20 26/1 35 220 22 34/1 31.5 165 G.S.M. CONTROL: 1. Major control by quality pulley. 2. Minor control by stitch length adjustment. (b) NECESSARY INFORMATION 1. G.S.M.: It is technical term that indicates the weight of the fabric per square meter. 2. Changing of G.S.M.: The GSM of the fabric is change by altering the position of the tension pulley. If pulley move towards the positive direction then the GSM is decrease and in the reverse direction GSM will increase. 3. Points that should consider incase of g.s.m. Changing: i) Tension pulley ii) Cam position iii) Take up motion
  14. 14. Page 14 of 55 4. Factors that should be changed incase of fabric design on quality change: i) Cam setting ii) Tension pulley iii) Set of needle iv) Size of the loop shape 5. Recommendable points of a buyer: i) Dia of the fabric ii) Design of the fabric iii) GSM of the fabric iv) Total wt. of the fabric v) Yarn count vi) Types of yarn vii) Color of the fabric 6. Gauge number that are usually seen in different m/c: i) Incase of rib m/c. 16 to 18 G are normally used. But incase of improved quality yarn 20G M/cs are used in European country. ii) Single jersey m/c are normally found 20,24,28etc. Gauges. 7. Relation between yarn count and m/c gauge seen in different m/c.: We know, G2 Ne =------------- 18 Where, Ne = English Cotton Count G = M/c. gauge.
  15. 15. Page 15 of 55 8. Maximum and minimum g.s.m. Of a fabric for a particular yarn: Types of m/c Yarn count Maximum GSM Minimum GSM Single Jersey m/c 20/1 240 120 Single Jersey m/c 30/1 165 100 Rib m/c 20/1 380 190 Rib m/c 30/1 180 130 9. Chemical that used in needle, sinker or m/c cleaning: i) Needle and sinker: Petrol + Needle oil mixture. ii) Cylinder: At first wash with petrol and finally wash with needle oil. 10. Oil require per hour for each m/c: More than one liter. 11. Production per shift for each m/c: Types of fabric Yarn count Hours M/c. R.P.M. Fabric wt. (kg) Single Jersey 30 12 30 145 Single Jersey 20 12 30 200 Rib 30 12 20-25 180 Rib 20 12 20-25 250 12. Weight losses after finish the fabric: 6-7% weight losses on the basis of whole wt. 13. Weight increases per square meter after finish the fabric: 15-16% weight increases per square meter.
  16. 16. Page 16 of 55 WORKING PARTICULARS 1. Working hours: Two shift each of 12 hours. # M/c cleaning and maintenance at the time of shift running # M/c cooling at lunch hour 2. Type of fabric produced: Single Jersey, Single pique polo, lacost, honeycomb, rib, fleece and many others designed fabrics. 3. Needle breaks: 4.5 Nos./day 13 machine. Needle breakage occurs mainly due to which yarn supply. M/cs automation system can minimize the higher breakage rate. Also operator’s negligence, worn m/c set up and wrong handling may cause more needle breakage. 4. Adjusting points of the knitting machine: a) Feeder to needle (horizontal distance, 1 to 2 sinker thickness) b) Feeder to needle (vertical distance, by feeder adjustment or by dia height adjustment) c) Dial to Cylinder distance. d) Sinker groove to Cylinder groove. e) Tension and loop length. f) Yarn tension adjustment. g) Adjustable speed in motor driving shaft. h) Change pinion in take up roller to perform tension. 5. Auto stop motion in knitting machine: a) Gate open b) Needle breakage c) Motor drive fault d) Yarn input e) Yarn output f) Oil air problem g) Target h) Photo electric cell
  17. 17. Page 17 of 55 6. Wastage of the factory: a) Empty cartoon or yarn b) Yarn and fabric wastage due to packing pin marks, yarn irregularity, reckoning, knotting, recreeling of new package on the knitting m/c, threading of knitting elements. c) Drop out loops, broken needles, stripe effect, lack of supervision and worker’s negligence. 7. Maintenance: 3 to 4 months gap between two maintenance. (c) METHODS OF INCREASING PRODUCTION By the following methods the production can be increased – 1. By increasing m/c speed: Higher the m/c speed faster the movement of needle and ultimately production will be increased. 2. By increasing the number of feeder: If the number of feeder is increased in the circumference of cylinder, then the number of courses will be increased in one revolution at a time. 3. By increasing cam angle: By increasing cam angle production is increased. 4. By imposing automation in the m/c: a) Quick starting & stopping for efficient driving system. b) Automatic m/c lubrication system for smoother operation. c) Photo electric fabric fault detector. 5. By imposing other developments: a) Using creel-feeding system. b) Applying yarn supply through plastic tube that eliminates the possibilities of yarn damage. c) Using yarn feed control device. d) Using auto lint removal.
  18. 18. Page 18 of 55 CAUSES OF LOOP LENGTH VARIATION 1. Fluctuation in yarn variable: a) Due to count variation. b) Due to twist variation. c) Due to insufficient M.C. or M.R. d) Due to package hardness. e) If frictional property of yarn is not maintained. 2. Fluctuation in m/c variable: a) If temperature of the m/c is not standard. b) If m/c gauge is not accurate. c) If m/c cam setting is not properly maintained. d) If needle timing and knock over is not accurate. e) If take down tension is wrong. f) If sinker timing is not correct. g) Improper yarn tension. 3. Robbing back: Due to 15% of yarn robbed back from old loop to newly formed loop. JOB DESCRIPTION: SENIOR PRODUCTION OFFICER: In a knitting factory a senior production officer plays a great role in production and manpower management. Here we enlist the duties of senior production officers: 1. Follow up knitting production 2. Regular observation of the knitting floor. 3. Prepare knitting orders regularly 4. Maintain the quality of the product PRODUCTION OFFICER: Production officer is the right hand of senior production officer and he is directly related with production, manpower & informs senior production officer time to time. Here are his listed duties:  Follow up overall knitting production
  19. 19. Page 19 of 55  Decide every machine utilization during production  Recruit new labor  To inform the authority on the overall knitting production and make it financially profitable  Regular machine Maintenance  Maintains subcontract orders  Help knitting manager and also guide the junior officers of the section REMARKS: Production runs with the help of mechanical fitters. For any kind of mechanical fault of any machine they fix and work under knitting manager. Production officer takes account of daily production by running after the two supervisors & workers so on.
  20. 20. Page 20 of 55 CHAPTER-III ( MACHINE DESCRIPTION ) Apex Spinning and Knitting Mills Ltd.. (KNITTING SECTION) FLAT KNITTING SECTION: No of flat bed knitting m/cs : 7 : WARP KNITTING SECTION: No of warp knitting m/cs : 40 . Karl Mayer Warp knitting m/c s -5 . Rachel Warp knitting m/cs -8 . Narrow fabric woven m/cs -27 CIRCULAR KNITTING SECTION: No of circular knitting m/cs : 104 . No of single jersey m/cs- 42 . No of rib m/cs – 18 . No of Interlock m/cs -21 . No of fleece m/cs -14 . No of auto stripper m/cs -8 . No of jacquard m/cs -1 SL Gauge Width Brand Origin 1 14 152 cm SHIEMA SEIKI JAPAN 2 14 152cm SHIEMA SEIKI JAPAN 3 14 152cm SHIEMA SEIKI JAPAN 4 14 152cm SHIEMA SEIKI JAPAN 5 14 152cm SHIEMA SEIKI JAPAN 6 14 152cm SHIEMA SEIKI JAPAN 7 14 152cm SHIEMA SEIKI JAPAN
  21. 21. Page 21 of 55 1. CIRCULAR KNITTING SECTION: Sl type dia gauge feeder Needle attachement Brand name Origin 1 S/j 22 24 69 1656 Lycra Mayer & CIE Germany 2 S/j 24 24 78 1800 Lycra Mayer & CIE Germany 3 S/j 23 24 69 1728 Lycra FUKAHAMA Taiwan 4 S/j 20 24 65 1512 Lycra Mayer & CIE Germany 5 S/j 18 24 57 1368 Lycra Mayer & CIE Germany 6 S/j 24 24 72 1800 Lycra FUKAHAMA Taiwan 7 S/j 26 24 84 1944 Lycra Mayer & CIE Germany 8 S/j 30 24 96 2268 Lycra Mayer & CIE Germany 9 Rib 30 16 62 3002 Lycra Mayer & CIE Germany 10 Rib 34 16 72 3408 Lycra Mayer & CIE Germany 11 Rib 34 18 72 3960 Lycra UNITEX Singapore 12 Int 32 18 66 3720 Lycra UNITEX Singapore 13 S/j 25 24 75 1894 Lycra FUKAHAMA Taiwan 14 Rib 38 18 76 4260 Lycra FUKAHAMA Taiwan 15 S/j 18 24 54 1332 Lycra UNITEX Singapore 16 S/j 19 24 57 1440 Lycra UNITEX Singapore 17 S/j 19 24 57 1440 Lycra FUKAHAMA Taiwan 18 S/j 21 24 63 1584 Lycra FUKAHAMA Taiwan 19 S/j 20 24 60 1488 Lycra UNITEX Singapore 20 S/j 19 24 57 1440 Lycra UNITEX Singapore 21 S/j 17 24 51 1272 Lycra FUKAHAMA Taiwan 22 S/j 16 24 48 1212 Lycra FUKAHAMA Taiwan 23 Int 34 24 72 5100 Lycra UNITEX Singapore 24 Int 36 24 78 5400 Lycra UNITEX Singapore 25 Int 36 18 78 5400 Lycra UNITEX Singapore 26 Int 40 24 84 6000 Lycra UNITEX Singapore 27 S/j 34 20 102 2520 Lycra UNITEX Singapore 28 S/j 36 20 108 2688 Lycra UNITEX Singapore 29 S/j 36 20 108 2688 Lycra UNITEX Singapore 30 S/j 40 24 120 3000 Lycra UNITEX Singapore 31 Rib 40 18 84 4512 Lycra UNITEX Singapore 32 Int 40 19 84 6000 Lycra UNITEX Singapore
  22. 22. Page 22 of 55 CIRCULAR KNITTING MACHINE Circular knitting m/cs. are widely used through out the knitting industry to produce fabric. This m/c can be built in almost any reasonable diameter and the small diameter of up to five, which are used for wear. Machine for outerwear and under wear may vary from 12 inch to 60 inch in diameter according to manufactures requirement. This m/c can be used either as fabric or for making garments completely with fancy stitch. Latch needles are commonly employed in all modern circular m/c because of their simple action and also their ability to process more types of yarns. Plain circular m/c uses only one sets of needles, circular rib m/c uses two sets of needles i,e, Cylinder needle and Dial needle, the interlock circular knitting m/c also uses two sets of needles by needles are long and short respectively for both dial and cylinder, that is why multiple design and thick fabric can be produce with that m/c. That m/c is also called double Jersey m/c.  M/c. Gauge – needle/inch (varies according to diameter)  Needle Type – Latch  Needle bed type – Single cylinder, Double cylinder, Cylinder & Dial, long or short needles for cylinder and dial.  Two principle operation exist: 1. English system – Where the cams and yarns strands revolve by needle and fabric take down is stationary. 2 American system – Where the needles and fabric take down revolves by cams and yarn strands are stationary. (d) IMOPORTANT EQUIPMENT OF CIRCULAR KNITTING M/C (e) 1. START/STOP/INCH BUTTONS: Complete set of easily accessible start/stop/inch buttons at top in each leg. 2. RATCHET LEVER: Permit hand movement of the M/C
  23. 23. Page 23 of 55 3. AUTO STOP MOTION: Automatic three stages 24v yarn motion, positive feed tapes & knitting zone. Indicator lamps are on individual stop motions & on the main control panel. While the yarn is broken we can find the location which is broken as well as to repair, meanwhile the motor can brake and stop operation at once to keep the security of M/C. 4. FREE STANDING SIDE CREEL: With an active reserve package for each feed. 5. AUTO–COUNTER: Two shift revolution with display counter with predetermined stop, to settle freely the weight or yardage of fabric. 6. VARIABLE SPEED DRIVE WITH M/C BRAKE: Transistor inverter provided for free controlled, the process of “V.s. motor-drive” from slow operation to normal operation is quite & fast brake to prevent damages in case of needles or yarn breakage. 7. FABRIC TAKE UP SYSTEM: With variable speed control by a belt drive set can be adjusted the speed for different course of fabric-constant and uniform fabric tension. 8. SAFETY GUARD SWITCH: Machine cannot be started with guards open; this guards have reinforced fibreglass window for easy fabric inspection. 9. AUTO LUBRICATION: The automatic central pressurized oil sprayer can be adjusted at cycling time and quantity to make cylinder, dial, sinker ring’s cam, needles and sinkers lubricated enough, besides it has the function cooling and clearing. 10. AUTO-LINE REMOVAL SYSTEMS: Three fans on each rotating arm for clearing off any dust of creel and knitting zone.
  24. 24. Page 24 of 55 OPERATION PROCEDURE OF FLAT MACHINES: To start operation, depress a green button provided at the letf- hand side of the machine. If either of the red buttons fitted at the right and left sides of the machine is pushed, the machine will stop. For manual operaion, first push a black clutch button at the right hand lower part of the machine to disconnect the clutch. Next, push away and turn right manual operation handle. To reconnect the clutch for automatic operation, pull the manual operation handle. The clutch lever is of 2-step type. When it is set to the 1st step, changeover drum will turn lightly, When performing link fitting to the drum or reknitting, the lever should be set at this position. the clutch is connected when the clutch lever is raised to the 2nd step. Note : Before raising the clutch lever don’s fail to push the START switch ( green button). The clutch lever would not be raised unlelss motor is on operation. Forecible raising of the leer will cause machine trouble on speed change mechanism. CHANGING OF THE CARRIAGE TRAVEL WIDTH: Traveling width of the carriage can be changed in the sequence described below. This change work requires five minutes. During the change work the clutch lever should be set at the position where the over durm would not rotate, even if the manual handle is turned. 1. Place-u-shape gauge on the right end of the carriage rail. 2. Disconnect the clutch and move the carriage to the right end by means of the manual handle. 3. Loosen two carriage position change serews. 4. Shift the crand rod fulcrum of sector wheel in accordance the travel width scale. 5. Move the sector wheel to the right end disengaging position by manual handle and secure the handle with set screws (use carriage rail set screws). 6. Move the carriage rightwards until it contacts with the u-shape gauge. Then, upon making certain that the carriage is in contact with the u-shape gauge, tighten the carriage position change screws.
  25. 25. Page 25 of 55 7. Fine adjust the carriage position screws to assure reliable contact of carriage and u-shape gauge. If the left screw is loosende and the right one is tightened, the carriage can be move rightwards, and on the cantrary, if the right screw is loosened and the left one is tightened, the carriage can move leftwards. At this time, be careful not to stretch the chain too tight. The proper chain tension is such that the chain can teach the upper face of the carriage rail, of picked up at the machine center. 8. Upon cornpletion of the works in steps 1 to 7, unscrew the handle set screws, tighten the carriage rail, and upon confirming that the carriage travel width has been set as required, start operation. POSITION ADJUSTMENT OF PRECEDING CAM RELEASING DEVICE AFTER WIDTH CHANGE: After changing travel width, adjust the position of preceeding cam releasing device 3 shown in the illustration below. 1. Loosen 5 and 6 and move 3 left. 2. Travel the carring by the manual handle to the left limit position. 3. Place bearing 2 located at the right of the carriage in an indent of 1 as show in the illustration. 4. Move 3 to provide a clearance of 1mm between 3 and 1. Then fighten 6 to fix 3. 5. Pring 4 in contact with 3 and tighten 5 to secure 4. 4 serves as a mark in the event when 3 is moved not to hinder the carriage removal.
  26. 26. Page 26 of 55 Chapter-IV (Raw Materials) Types of Raw materials :  Cotton  Polyester  CVC  Lycra  Nylon  Melange  PC  Etc These above raw material’s price , source , annual requarements are as follows- Types Price per KG ( Approx ) Source Req per Year ( Approx) Cotton 2.7 dollar Square, Hanif, Purbani, Beximco Padda, and many others local spinning Mills 5475 Ton Polyester 1.8 dollar Pakistan, Taiwan, Indonesia etc 109 Ton Nylon Indonesia, Taiwan, Chine, PC 1.8 dollar Both local and Abroad 150 Ton CVC 2.6 dollar Local spinning Mills 547 Ton Melange 3 dollar Local spinning Mills 100 Ton Lycra 16 dollar Taiwan 164 Ton
  27. 27. Page 27 of 55 CHAPTER-V (Production Planning, Sequences & Operations) PRODUCTION PARAMETERS: Buyer Requirement Machine Diameter; Machine rpm (revolution per minute); No. of feeds or feeders in use; Machine Gauge; Count of yarn; Fabric GSM; Fabric Dia or Width; Required time (M/C running time); Machine running efficiency . DESCRIPTION OF PRODUCTION PROCESS: In every mill, there maintains a sequences in production processing. It is also followed in this mill where I was in industrial attachment. The process sequences are in list below: 1) Firstly, knitting manager gets a production sheet from merchandisers as accordance as consumer requirements. Then he informs or orders senior production officer about it. 2) Senior production officer informs technical in charge and knows about m/c in which the production will be running. 3) Technical in charge calls for leader of mechanical fitter troops, they two take decision about m/c for production considering m/c condition, production capacity, maintenance complexity etc. 4) Production officer with experienced mechanical fitter adjusts required stitch length and grey GSM (gram per square meter) for required final GSM. 5) Supervisor check daily production regularity and make operators conscious about finishing in due time. 6) Operators operate machine in highly attention as if there were no faults in the fabrics. If he thinks or sure about any fabric fault, then he call for mechanical fitter in duty. Mechanical fitter then fixes it if he can or he informs technical in-charge. He then comes in spot. 7) After required production and final inspection in 4-point system, they are sent in dyeing section.
  28. 28. Page 28 of 55 Process Flow Chart of ASKML:
  29. 29. Page 29 of 55 PRODUCTION DAILY REPORT: Here is a daily report of production which is kept in Apex Spinning and Knitting Mills Ltd..:- APEX SPINNING AND KNITTIG MILLS LTD. Production Daily Report PRODUCTION FLOW-CHART Of Knitting Section: Executive director takes order from Buyer | Merchandiser estimates total amount of yarn of production | Knitting manager gets production order sheet | Senior Production Officer ordered by K.M. and orders Production officer and Technical in-charge. | Production officer fixes up stitch length and GSM with mechanical fitter. | Definite operator operates machine in his full conscious and Attention. | Mechanical fitter fixes machine if there is any m/c fault. | Supervisors keep daily production report and assure m/c is OK. | Fabric roll is checked by a troop of inspectors in inspection unit and weighted. | Final product to the required amount is delivered to dyeing unit. Maximum Capacity of knitting section is 25 tons per day but actually maximum production is 22 tons but all over average production is 15-18 tons per day due to lack of orders and some other reasons because dyeing section capacity is 25 tons of various types of fabric
  30. 30. Page 30 of 55 MONTHLY EFFICIENCY: Daily production 15000 kgs. Approx. Daily production capacity 25000 kgs approx. So, monthly production 450000 kgs. Monthly production capacity 75000 kgs. So, Monthly production efficiency= 450000/750000 % = 60% REMARKS: As APEX SPINNING AND KNITTING MILLS LTD. is a big project; its production quantity is huge. Production quantity varies as according as buyers demand. It gives approximately 450 ton production per month. In Bangladesh, there are a few mills which can produce such quantity of knitted fabrics.
  31. 31. Page 31 of 55 CHAPTER-VI (Quality assurance system) QUALITY ASSURANCE SYSTEM: All rolls are kept in front of the inspection m/c time to time and are inspected over the grey inspection m/c visually in a pre-set speed against light. For any major or minor faults like thick-thin, barre marks, fall out, contamination, fly, holes, oil lines, needle lines, slubs, etc are recorded in grey inspection report to classify the fabric based on the four point system. Collar & cuff are inspected visually under light box, any major & minor faulty collar/cuff like having wrong ply, hole, needle lines, slubs, wrong design, first line problem etc properly counted and recorded. 1) CONTROL OF FABRIC QUALITY Control of the quality of the cloth being knitted is the knitter mechanic’s major responsibility. Fabric set-ups and m/c maintenance, although necessary, must be put into their proper order of importers. To set-up a fabric and run it on a well-maintained m/c, when its quality is questionable, is senseless. The mechanic must be able to diagnose a problem on a m/c and render an immediate cure. To do this, he must have a thorough knowledge of what causes a defect in fabric. When the cause is known, correction will soon follow. FABRIC DEFECTS: Defects in circular knitted cloth fall into the following major groups: vertical lines, barre, holes and snags, tuck or double stitches, these will be discussed seriatim.  Vertical lines: This defects can be caused by defective needles or defective trick walls. If the trick walls are worn or not evenly spaced, the needles will knit at different speed. This uneven movement of the needles will cause uneven stitches which is turn can cause vertical lines. If a wall is too big for the needle, the needle will have a sideward motion, which will cause formation of a wide wale in the fabric. When the trick walls are not
  32. 32. Page 32 of 55 evenly spaced, the needles will knit a certain points wide and narrow stitches in the fabric. These will also cause unsightly lines. Dirt may often get into the tricks pushing the needles outwards (cylinder) or upward (dial) causing irregular vertical stitches. Bent and worn needles will cause the fabric to have wider Wales in certain places. Needles with chipped latches, butts, hooks, cheeks, a protruding rivet or broken spoons will cause fuzzy and irregular vertical lines. Needles with bent latches will cause vertical tears or ladders in the fabric. Too much lubrication or the use of improper needle oil often causes oil or dirt strakes. 28 Dark black vertical lines may be caused by dirty tricks, which cause the needles to run high and rub against the cams. Not enough lubrication may also be the cause of black vertical lines.  Barre or uneven courses: The following may cause these faults : 1. Improper cam adjustment, 2. Uneven yarn tension, 3. Different yarn thickness or shaded yarn dyes, 4. Dial not in even relationship to cylinder and 5. Defective take down mechanism With the use of positive feeding devices, the stitch cam adjustment is Very accurate. The most important thing to remember when adjusting stitch cams is to keep the ratio of the dial stitch to the cylinder stitch the same at all the dial and cylinder feeds. It must be remember that a positive feed system (tape) will feed the same amount of yarn to all feeds regardless of stitch adjustment. This stitch adjustment controls the tension only.
  33. 33. Page 33 of 55 In the case of pique fabric or any similar kind, the odd feeds must be done at the same tension, but the even form the odd feeds so long as they are all the same. We know now that the yarn tension will control the length of stitch. It is very important that any surfaces that the yarn runs over or through mist be clean of any instruction which will cause irregular tension. A defective takes down mechanism which pulls tight and then soft will cause are as on the fabric to be loose and tight. The take down mechanism must pull evenly at all times to maintain a fabric with even courses. If dial is not in the proper relationship to the cylinder, fabric of uneven stitch length will produced. The dial and cylinder relationship should be inspective at least once a year to maintain proper running conditions. Uneven thickness of the yarn is one of major causes of barre. The mechanic is really helpless in the situation. The only thing he can do is to learn to recognize this condition and notify the throwster immediately. Badly wound yarn also will cause uneven tension. In most cases a positive feed system will eliminate this defect, but if one used the mechanic should have the yarn rewound. In the case of dyed yarn shaded the mechanic is helpless in such a situation, he must notify the throwster immediately.  Holes and Snags: Holes in most cases are caused by excessive tension of the yarn. If stitch cams are adjusted too deep and there is excessive tension in the yarn, it wills beak, causing a hole. If the dial height is too high these will also cause a tremendous strain on the yarn. Other factors that produce excessive tension on the stitch are as follows: 1. Too tight a take down pup, 2. The positive feed system operating improperly, 3. Badly wound yarn, 4. Yarn with thin or weak spots. 5. Dirty or clogged surface in which the yarn passes through or on, 6. Yarn warp around. Snags in most cases are usually caused by badly wound yarn which at
  34. 34. Page 34 of 55 a low tensions and then suddenly jerks and runs at a high tension. This high tension wills usually a line of holes from one to nine inches.  Drop Stitches: This defect occurs when the needle tails to take new yarn of when the needle fails to take new yarn or when the needle losses its loop. One of the major causes of this problem is an improperly set yarn carrier. If the yarn is not fed directly into the hook of the needle, there is a good chance that the needle will not take the new yarn. If the stitch cam is set too far back there will be too much yarn is the needle loop. Because of this loop will be so loose that it can fall causing a drop stitch. Other possible causes of droop stitches are: the take down mechanism is too loose, not enough tension on yarn, dial height too high, needles, yarn in wrong hole of the carrier, dial needle latch closing under yarn carrier and dial needle latch closing near the hole of the carrier.  Tuck Stitches or Double Stitches: This defect occurs when the needle does not cast off its old loop. In most cases this defect can be traced to an improperly set stitch cam. If the needle is not drown far enough back the old loop will remain on the needle. On the other hand, if the stitch cam is set too far back, too much yarn will be going to needle. In this case this needle will be unable to knock over such a large loop. Other possible causes of Tuck Stitches are as follows: 1. Take down mechanism set too loose, 2. Needles move too freely in their slots, 3. Dial height set too low, 4. Defective needles, 5. Needle trick walls clogged with dirt etc. QUALITY ASSURANCE PROCEDURE: Based on the sequence of grey inspection, the inspector serially numbers each roll ensuring that all rolls having the knit card with complete details of the roll.
  35. 35. Page 35 of 55 1) After production of fabric rolls of 8 to 25 kg, m/c operators cut them from the cloth or batch roller and they are carried to inspection section by the helpers. 2) Almost four inspection workers are for every shift to check the fabric rolls. For any kind of fault they are checked thoroughly. Skilled inspectors find them and indicate them by the scissors in some cases. 3) Quality is specified on the basis of 4-points system. Here is the point distribution for different kinds fault in this system:- THICK THIN DIRT, OIL SPOT, CONTAMINATION: Up to 3’’ in length: 1 Pt Up to 6’’ in length: 2 “ Up to 9’’ in length: 3 “ Up to 9’’ in length: 4 “ QUALITY Pts / per 100 square meter= (Total point * GSM)/ (Roll weight*10) Quality inspectors seal on the fabric rolls as ‘CHECK-1’, ‘OK’ & ‘REJECT’ as according as quality classification. QUALITY CLASSIFICATION 1 2 3 <20 20-30 30> OK ASK REJECT LIST OF EQUIPMENTS: In this factory ‘Apex Spinning and Knitting Mills Ltd.’ this is the list of equipments to assure quality:- 1) Inspection m/c # 1(For plain single jersey) FOUR POINT GRADING SYSTEM Size of defects Penalty 3 inches or less 1 point Over three inch but not 6 inch 2 point Over 6 inch but not 9 inch 3 point Over 9 inch 4 point
  36. 36. Page 36 of 55 2) Inspection m/c #2 (For decorative single jersey as like as Lycra, Lacoste, waffle, Fleece and all kind of double jersey as like as Rib, Interlock). 3) Scissors 4) Weight balance & Micro balance 5) GSM cutter 6) Seal (‘CHECK-1’, ‘OK’, ‘REJECT’.). Rejection criteria for body & Rib: Following table shows common body & rib faults and response by grey inspection section. Rejection criteria for collar & cuff: Following table shows common collar & cuff No. Faults Response 1. Needle marks Major needle line is rejected. 2. Stripe Major needle line is rejected. 3. Barre marks Rejected 4. Slubs 1 point 5. Wrong design Rejected 6. Pin holes 1 point 7. Fly & contamination Acceptable for color but not for white 8. Sinker marks Do 9. Uneven tension Discuss with manager 10. Missing yarn Use 4 point 11. Crease line Do 12. Uneven tension Discuss with manager 13. Oil stripe/line Do 14. Thick-thin place Rejected 15. Mixed yarn Discuss with manager
  37. 37. Page 37 of 55 Faults and response taken by grey inspection section. No. Faults Response 1. Wrong ply Reject 2. Hole Reject 3. Needle line Reject 4. Slubs Reject 5. Wrong design Reject 6. Wrong tripping Reject 7. Fly & contamination Acceptable for color but not for white 8. First round problem Reject 9. Uneven tension Discuss with manager 10. Missing yarn Reject 11. Crease line Reject 12. Rust line Reject 13. Oil stripe Reject 14. Thick-thin Reject 15. Wrong tube Reject QUALITY STANDARD: VERY HIGH QUALITY STD MAINTAINED Here is the quality standard:- 1) Fabric width 7) Broken needle /2’’ 2) Fabric length 8) Thick /thin yarn 4) Slub 9) Barre/ Stripe 3) Fabric weight 10) Dirt 5) Hole 11) Oil 6) Needle / Sinker line 12) Press off REMARKS: There is hardly any chance of any roll to pass through production on to any buyers by to by unchecked or disqualified. The inspections are too much experience and they are aware about their duties and responsibilities. The factory authority and production related personnel are happy and satisfied with their works
  38. 38. Page 38 of 55 CHAPTER-VII (Maintenance) MAINTENANCE: Maintenance of machineries is very important for any type of industries and it is a must for a knit composite mill. All machines and machines parts of knitting, dyeing and garments are maintained with extreme care. Because production quality and quantity, both depends on the maintenance with regularity. Apex Spinning and Knitting Mills Ltd. lead maintenance with a troop of skilled mechanical fitters. MAINTENANCE OF MACHINERY: In the knitting floor of Apex Spinning and Knitting Mills Ltd. all circular and flat knitting m/cs are maintained regularly and as necessity requirements. Approximately after twenty days all machines go under regular maintenance and per day three machine can be completed . Here different type of maintenance of machinery, which is taken, different time on the machineries. ROUTINE: 1) Daily Maintenance: Every machine is taken maintenance daily by the operators during production. When a production is started by the operator after handing over from previous shift operator, he takes a routine maintenance on the machine. He cleans the machine, assures yarn is fed to all needles, cleans the eye pot of feeder, memminger, signal lamp sensor etc. Before a while of a roll cut from batch or cloth roller, operator cleans needles, cylinder base plate etc. All around of the machine are kept neat and clean as if there is no dirt with yarn in the fabric. 2) Schedule/Routine Maintenance: Every machine has a schedule of maintenance of 10 or 15 days. According to date, schedule maintenance is taken on the machines. Operators are informed about the time of maintenance. After pre- estimated production, they hand over the machine to the fitters. Thus, fitters assure all machines are OK. for any time. 3) Break down maintenance: When product quality hampered and to complete production in due time break down maintenance is taken. There are many faults seen in the fabric during production due to needle, sinker, take down roller etc. Then operators inform the mechanical fitters and they fix it. 4) Restorative maintenance: Restorative maintenance is taken for design change or new design development. According to advice or order of production officer, a machine is fixed for new design and mechanical fitters rearrange cam and needle system. Planned and preventive maintenance are not taken on the machineries in this mill. MAINTENANCE OF ‘CIRCULAR KNITTING M/C’:
  39. 39. Page 39 of 55 Lubrication: Since the life of the m/c and its correct working depend to a large extend adequate and proper lubrication. It is recommended that the instructions given in the lubrication charts be followed conscientiously. The Company can not be need responsible for faults that arise from wrong or inadequate lubrication. Oiling Needles & Jacks: Too much oil is preferable to too little. Dark vertical lines in the fabric originate not from excessive oiling b but from too mach friction between needle and jacks and the trick walls on account of lack of oil. Should dark vertical lines makes their appearance is recommended that the appropriates m/c parts be flooded with oil. This will cause heavy soiling or ht fabrics but the trouble will disappear quickly correct quantity of oil then can be applied. The supply of oil should be reduced if light oil striper appears on the fabric. The Cleaning of Needle & Jacks: Thin oil is most suitable for this work, about one point heated to a temperature not exceeding 160ºF poured into the oiling position of the cylinder & dial cam races & in the heads of the needles while the m/c is running. The fabric will found to be cleaned again after few yards have been knitted. How often cleaning is necessary will depend upon what kind of yarn is being used. Synthetic yarn cleaning is taken place at lest monthly, yarn with absorbent properties being knitted at same time. General Cleaning Schedule: Long m/c life, maximum output & trouble free running depend upon proper care and maintenance. A general overhaul should take place annually when single shifts are worked & correspondingly at more frequent interval. When extra shifts are worked. The overhaul involves removal of all cam section and removal of needles and jacks from their tricks, so tat the tricks should be thoroughly the cleaned. Before parts are replaced they should be adequately lubricated.
  41. 41. Page 41 of 55 MAINTENANCE PROCEDURE: 1) For there is any mechanical fault of machine which is responsible for production hamper, operator informs mechanical fitters in duty. Mechanical fitters come and observe the problem firstly, and then they begin to fix it. 2) If mechanical fitters be unable to fix it, then they inform technical in- charge, he then comes in spot and fix it. 3) For there is any electrical problem of machine or serious founding mechanical problem, mechanical and electrical department are informed, they come and fix the problem. They commence at work after informing of knitting manager. There are two mechanical engineers in the department. 4) For restorative maintenance, senior production officer orders mechanical fitters to fit required machine for cam and needle arrangement and other necessary requirements in case of new design development. Maintenance sequence of circular knitting machine Power on/off ↓ MPF/Positive feeder current line off ↓ MPF belt out/loss ↓ Yarn cut ↓ Fabric out by handle ↓ Cleaning and Oiling ↓ Cam box out ↓ Needle & sinker out ↓ Needle & sinker cleaning by oil ↓ Cam box cleaning by air After opening & cleaning, m/c is leveled by using leveling meter and follows the reverse process to ready the m/c.
  42. 42. Page 42 of 55 MAINTENANCE TOOLS/EQUIPMENTS & THEIR FUNCTIONS: Remarks: This mill has a strong maintenance fitter’s troop to fix up all types problem. Two groups of two shifts obey their duties responsibly and sincerely. With their different tools or equipments they perform their duties skillfully. Maintenance tools/equipments Functions 1. Adjustable wrench Used for setting nut & bolts 2. Air suctioner For cleaning machine 3.Spanner Fixed Spanner for nut & bolts fitting 4.Socket spanner Handle system for nut & bolt fitting 5. hammer To apply load where required 6. Screw driver To release any screw 7. Punch Used to fit any worn out shaft 8. Lock opener To open the clip of bearing 9. Hack saw To cut any metallic thing 10. Outside calipers To measure outside dia 11. Inside calipers To measure inside dia 12. Cutting pliers To cut thin wires 13. Pulley key To loosen pulleys 14. Welding machine To join metallic parts 15. Grinding machine To make the smooth fabrics 16. Tester To test electric circuit 17. Pliers To grip anything & cut anything 18. Star driver Screw unlocking 19. Steel tape To measure length, width & height 20. L-key For loosen & tighten the screw
  43. 43. Page 43 of 55 CHAPTER-VIII ( UTILITY SERVICES ) UTILITY FACILITIES AVAILABLE: For smooth functioning of any production unit, uninterrupted and required utility services are indispensable. Success of any industry largely depends on this factor. Any irregularity or lack in the required utility services immediately results in unexpected halt of the production process. An Industry needs various utilities depending on its manufacturing process. In APEX SPINNING AND KNITTING MILLS LTD.., the major utilities are available- - Power (Electricity) - Water - Natural gas - Compressed air - Steam - ETP SOURCES OF UTILITIES: The main utility which is used by APEX SPINNING AND KNITTING MILLS LTD. is natural gas. From natural gas generator produce electricity. From natural gas and electricity in association with mechanical and electrical apparatus, APEX SPINNING AND KNITTING MILLS LTD. produces other utilities like water, steam, compressed air, ETP etc. CAPACITY AND OTHER TECHNICAL DETAILS: Power (Electricity): Generator house is the main power producing plant of APEX SPINNING AND KNITTING MILLS LTD.. There are six generators in generator house. All are gas generator . Description of six generators are given below : Generator no.: 01 Type : gas generator Brand name : Caterpillar Origin : USA Model no. : G-3412 Rated power : 437 kva
  44. 44. Page 44 of 55 Maximum current : 350 kw Frequency : 50 Hz Engine RPM : 1500 Voltage : 400 Power factor : 0.8 Water temp. : 92°C Mobil pressure : 58 PSI Gas pressure : 10 PSI Generator no. : 02 Type : gas generator Brand name : Caterpillar Origin : USA Model no. : G-3408 Rated power : 287 kva Maximum current : 230 kw Frequency : 50 Hz Engine RPM : 1500 Volt : 400 Power factor : 0.8 Water temp. : 92°C Mobil pressure : 58 PSI Gas pressure : 10 PSI Generator no. : 03 Type : Diesel generator Brand name : Perkins Origin : England Model no. : P-330E Rated power : 330 kva Maximum current : 264 kw Frequency : 50 Hz Engine RPM : 1500 Volt : 400 Power factor : 0.8 STEAM: The required steam is produced by boiler .There is one boiler in Apex Spinning And Knitting Mills Ltd.
  45. 45. Page 45 of 55 Boiler specification: Brand name: cleaver brooks Origin: America Type: Fire tube boiler Capacity: 5.5 ton / hr Model no.: CBW 200350150 Maximum pressure: 150 psi Year of built: 2000 Minimum circuit capacity: 37 amp Maximum rating of circuit protection: 120 amp Blower motor: 15 HP Air compressor motor: 3 HP Control circuit: 120 volts 1 PH 50 HZ 7 AMP Oil pump motor: 220 volts 3 PH 50 HZ 609 AMP Water supply for the boiler: Water required for steam production is supplied by deep tube well. Pretreatment of the boiler water: Boiler feed water needs special standard. Any deviation from the required standard may result in scale formation, which eventually reduces the efficiency of the boiler. This ultimately affects the cost of steam generation and makes the production cost high. To maintain the required standard of the water, there should be some means to pretreat the boiler feed water. To protect scale formation of boiler, NELCO is used as chemical in water feed tank. 200 gm NELCO is injected per 12 hrs. In APEX SPINNING AND KNITTING MILLS LTD.., there are water softeners that act before the water enters the boiler. Manufacture of the softener: The manufacturer of the softener is also cleaver brooks®, USA. No. of the softener: There are two water softener to pretreated the boiler feed water. Softener specification: Brand name: Cleaver brooks®
  46. 46. Page 46 of 55 Model no. : ACC-SMR-150-1- ½ T Serial no.: CS-0000235 Capacity: 150000 GRS / tank Unit no.: HS008891 Pipe size: 1 ½ inch Salt capacity brine marker: 575 lbs COMPRESSED AIR: The compressed air is supplied from air compressor. There are two air compressors in APEX SPINNING AND KNITTING MILLS LTD. Compressor no.: 01 Brand name: Atlas cop co Origin: Belgium Model no. : GA 22FF Serial no.: AII 254060 Maximum working pressure: 10 bar Average working pressure: 6-7.5 bar Free air delivery: 52 liter / second Nominal shaft power: 22 kw Rotational shaft speed: 3000 r / min Gross weight: 480 kg Year of construction: 2000 Compressor no.: 02 Brand name: BOGE Origin: Japan Model no. : S361694 Serial no.: 546206 Year of establishment: 2003 Volt: 400 Frequency: 50 HZ Maximum working pressure: 10 bar Average working pressure: 6-7.5 bar
  47. 47. Page 47 of 55 WATER: The water source of APEX SPINNING AND KNITTING MILLS LTD. is deep tube well. The deep tube well is about 260 ft deep. The average water consumption is 40-50 m³ / hr. Water treatment plant: There is a eater treatment plant in APEX SPINNING AND KNITTING MILLS LTD. GAS: The source of gas is government agency. Gas is required mainly for generation of electricity, boiler to produce steam, the burners of heat setting m / c. As APEX SPINNING AND KNITTING MILLS LTD. generates their own electricity, the gas consumption is quite high. The gas consumption is 350-400 m³ / hr. ETP: This is the latest utility facilities of APEX SPINNING AND KNITTING MILLS LTD. Which is running before few day. This plant is urgent for every mill to protect our environment. Steps of ETP: 1. At first Equalization tank is used for collecting raw effluent 2.Then in HRSCC tank or mixing tank raw effluent is collected by pumping Blower is used for proper mixing. 3In HRSCC tank-lime, polymer, FeSO4 are used. 4In HRSCC tank solution is drained .Then sludge is divided & placed in the sludge pump. 5. The solution is brought to PH Control tank where acid is used to control PH. 6. The solution is led to the Biological reaction tank .In this tank BACTERIA MEDIA is used to absorb the harmful insects in effluent by using Urea as food of bacteria. 7. Then water is again drained .The sludge is divided here too & placed in sludge sump & made it cake form to remove. 8. To remove color, smell & others chlorine is used in Treated Water tank Atlas the treated water is drained out in the pond.
  48. 48. Page 48 of 55 Chemical used in ETP: -Lime -FeSO4 -HCl -Polymer -Chlorine -Colfoc RD -NaOCl -Urea -Chita gur -Dewatering Polymer -cow dung COST OF DIFFERENT UTILITIES: Electricity cost : REB =3.8 TK / KW-HR Gas generator = 2.70 TK / KW-HR Diesel generator = 6.50 TK / KW-HR Gas cost : 4.94 Tk/m³ for boiler 3.66 Tk/m³ for generator 4.5 Tk/m³ for domestic purpose Steam cost: 4.30Tk per kg fabric. ETP cost: 2300.00Tk per hour . REMARKS: For smooth running of a factory main utilities like gas, electricity or steam is very essential. Sometimes gas pressure is low than required pressure. When the gas pressure is low, then diesel generator run. Government should have to ensure proper gas supply for Industrial purpose.
  49. 49. Page 49 of 55 CHAPTER-IX (STORE & INVENTORY CONTROL) INVENTORY SYSTEM OF RAW MATERIAL: It is previously speak that APEX SPINNING AND KNITTING MILLS LTD.. is a knit composite industry. The main raw material of APEX SPINNING AND KNITTING MILLS LTD.. is gray fabric . Grey fabric first produce in knitting department of this company . Knitting section of APEX SPINNING AND KNITTING MILLS LTD.. produces grey fabric as per buyers order. Dyeing section get grey fabric from knitting section . Grey fabric store officer receive the grey fabric and store the grey fabric in store room. Then he delivers the grey fabric to batch preparation section according to shipment date or according to production manager of dyeing section instruction. Other raw materials of APEX SPINNING AND KNITTING MILLS LTD. are dyes and chemicals. Dyes and chemicals store officer always keep stock report of dyes and chemicals and also know the daily or monthly requirements of each dyes or chemicals. If the stock is bellowing 45 days then he gives requisition to head office for each product. Head office indent dyes and chemicals. SPARES: Spare store officer keep the spare part in store & make a list of spare parts. If the spare parts are little in stock he gives requisition to maintenance manager. Technical manager give requisition to Head office. Head office indent spare parts or buy local market as per requirements. FINISHED GOODS INVENTORY: Finish fabrics from the compactor go to inspection team. From the inspection table the fabric weighted in weight meter & go to finish fabric store room. Here finished fabric store officer make a list of total finished products. He sends the finished fabric to APEX GARMENTS SECTION as per shipment date or requirements of production manager of APEX GARMENTS SECTION. He also keeps the delivery list. REMARKS: Inventory control system and storing system of APEX SPINNING AND KNITTING MILLS LTD. is over all good.
  50. 50. Page 50 of 55 CHAPTER -X (COST ANALYSIS) INTRODUCTION: Costing is a process by which the setting price of a product is calculated. It is a very important task for a factory which runs for business purposes. And it is also strictly followed in the APEX SPINNING AND KNITTING MILLS LTD. Costing of the products considering the raw materials expenditure, salary and wages of officers and workers, distributions and advertisement expenses etc. all direct and indirect expenses is done in this factory. It is determined by a troop of accountants with advice and consultancy of executive director. PRICE OF THE PRODUCT: Generally price of product is determined by the required profit adding to the total expenses. So, Price of products= (Direct expenses + Indirect expenses + Factory Overhead) + Required profit PRICE RANGE OF DIFFERENT PRODUCTS: T-Shirt = $0.75 - $4.50 /Pcs Polo Shirt =$2.00 - $6.50 /Pcs Kids Wear ==$0.75- $2.15 /Pcs KNITTING CHARGE OF DIFFERENT FABRICS: Fabric name Charge per kg(Tk) Single Jersey 8-9 Single Jersey with Lycra 30-35 Single locust PK 16 Double locust PK 16 Single PK 16 Double PK 16 Rib 12-17 Rib with Lycra 30 Interlock 18-22 Auto striper 80 Auto striper with Lycra 100 Fleece 22-25
  51. 51. Page 51 of 55 COSTING OF THE PRODUCT: Let price of yarn is $ 3.00/ kg. Process loss of yarn for knitting (10%) = $0.30 Knitting fabric cost = $3.30 Cost of dyes & chemicals = $2.50 Process loss for dyeing (12%) = $0.30 Dyed fabric cost = $ 6.10 Packing cost = $0.05 Production cost of fabric=$6.15 Fabric price (with 25% margin) =$7.79 Fabric consumption/ doz. = (Body length + Sleeve length +10) x Chest length x 2 x GSM x12 /10000000 Garments specification: Body length=78 cm Sleeve length=33 cm Chest length=62 cm GSM=210 Fabric consumption/ doz. = {(78+33) x62x2x210x12}/ 10000000 = 3.469 kg Fabric consumption/doze (with 10% wastage) = 3.816 kg Body fabric cost / doz. =$(7.79x 3.816) = $29.73 Cost of collar& cuff/doz.= $ 4.00 Cost of Trims=$ 2.25 Cost of Trims (with 5% Process loss) = $2.36 Production Cost of Garments/ doz=$36.09 Garments Price/doz (with 25% Profit) =$45.12 REMARKS: Costing is very important for a productive factory. Without proper costing all production curriculums will go to vain. Because a factory cannot reach to its goal without achieving good profit and good profit is not possible without skillful costing. In Apex Spinning and Knitting Mills Ltd. There are some skillful personnel to do this job.
  52. 52. Page 52 of 55 CHAPTER-XI (MARKETING ACTIVITIES) INTRODUCTION: Marketing activities are done in this mill, APEX SPINNING AND KNITTING MILLS LTD. by a skillful team of marketing officers under the Executive Director. Here are the details of marketing activities. CONSUMER OF THE PRODUCTS: The mill has a great number of renowned and international consumers. Following are some regular consumers: - Fruit of the loom - Charter house - Sinnl effers - WHG - Signum - Supersports - Primkie - Diadora - Western store - Woolworth - Sport-soccer - Gebel - Rex & holm - Ballward - ETEC - TEXEBO PRODUCT LEBEL: There are following labels used by this mill: 1) Care Label: It contains washing in hot or cold water, chemical cleaning, drying conditions etc. 2) Size Label: It contains size of garments. 3) Composition Label: It contains the fabric composition of different fiber type. 4) Decorative Label: Decoration is as buyer or consumer choice wise.
  53. 53. Page 53 of 55 PACKAGE SIZE & LEBEL: Most common sizes are S - Small M - Medium L - Large XL - Extra large XLL - Very very large LOCAL MARKET: APEX SPINNING AND KNITTING MILLS LTD. is 100% export oriented mill. So there is no local market involved in it. IMPORTING COUNTRIES: This mill relates to the countries for yarn importing, they are 1) India 2) Korea 3) Pakistan 4) Taiwan 5) Indonesia This mill also related to countries for machineries, spares and chemical importing. They are 1) USA 2) Canada 3) China 4) Japan 5) Korea 6) EUROP MANPOWER: Almost ten marketing officers and ten others workers act under the Executive Director.
  54. 54. Page 54 of 55 DUTIES & RESPONSIBILITES OF MARKETING OFFICERS: 1) Executive director takes order from the buyer and gives order the marketing officer’s troops to produce a cost sheet. 2) Marketing officers are known the amount and design of product. 3) They collect the sample from the buyers and send to knitting and dyeing section. 4) Knitting section adjusts the amount of total yarn and knitting conditions and dyeing sections adjust the amount of dyes and chemicals. They send a rough calculation to the marketing section. 5) Marketing officers adjust the amount of garments accessories with the help of their own experiences and their knowledge. They also take help of garments in charge. 6) Finally, they adjust their cost sheet after consulting with the Executive Director and copy several pieces of the cost sheet. REMARKS: Marketing activities are very important tasks for a productive factory. In this mill having highly qualified marketing officers. As a result, the mill rises up day by day.
  55. 55. Page 55 of 55 CHAPTER-XII (CONCLUSION) CONCLUSION: At a juncture of time, when the development of the country was at a stand still position due to the legacy of shattered economy and the industrialization was stagnant, the export oriented textile and RMG sector had shown the ray of hope by its all-pervasive positive impact on the national economy. At the fag end of the eighty, this sector started expanding and within a short period of its existence, this nascent industry became the largest foreign exchange earner. Standing at the verge of a new millennium, Textile and RMG sector is now the heart of our national economy. Even after all this achievements, this industry faces the major challenge of global adjustment in the coming years when it has to respond the new trading arrangement after 2004. APEX SPINNING AND KNITTING MILLS LTD. being a part of this decisive sector will have to take necessary measure to cope with the change of globalization. Modification of the technical arrangement with the advancement of technologies and good positive approach will help to survive in this ever-changing global economy. Hopefully, the confidence and foresight of the entrepreneurs and the enthusiastic teamwork of the professionals will take APEX SPINNING AND KNITTING MILLS LTD. to an even better position.