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Industrial attachment of jinnat apparels ltd.

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Industrial attachment of jinnat apparels ltd.

  1. 1. 1 INDUSTRIAL TRAINING Course Code: Tex -4036 INDUSTRIAL ATTACHMENT Jinnat Apparels Ltd.
  2. 2. 2 CONTENT CHAPTERS ------------------------------------------------------------PAGE NO. CHAPTER – I (INTRODUCTION & PROJECT DESCRIPTION) ----- 04 CHAPTER – II (MANPOWER MANAGEMENT) -------------------------- 08 CHAPTER – III (MACHINE DESCRIPTION) ------------------------------ 11 CHAPTER – IV (RAW MATERIALS) ---------------------------------------- 17 CHAPTER – V (PRODUCTION PLANNING, SEQUENCES & OPERATIONS) ---------------------------------------------- 19 CHAPTER – VI (QUALITY ASSURANCE SYSTEM) -------------------- 33 CHAPTER – VII (MAINTENANCE) ------------------------------------------- 38 CHAPTER – VIII (UTILITY SERVICES) ------------------------------------ 42 CHAPTER – IX (STORE & INVENTORY CONTROL) ------------------ 44 CHAPTER – X (COST ANALYSIS) ------------------------------------------- 45 CHAPTER – XI (MARKETING ACTIVITIES) ---------------------------- 47 CHAPTER – XII (CONCLUSION) --------------------------------------------- 49
  3. 3. 3 CHAPTER – I (PROJECT DESCRIPTION)
  4. 4. 4 1.1 INTRODUCTION Industrial attachment is an essential part of 4-years B.Sc. in Textile Technology course of College of Textile Technology under University of Dhaka. I had the opportunity to perform the industrial attachment with Jinnat Apparels Ltd. (a sister concern of DBL Group). During 45 days long attachment, I studied the man, machines, material aspects of the circular knitting section, quality control section, planning section, grey fabric inspection section and finished fabric inspection section of the mill. I also had a short visit in the garments & dyeing section of the factory. According to my studies there I have prepared the following report and would like to present. 1.2 SISTER CONCERNS OF DBL GROUP: Serial No. Name Type Address 1 Dulal Brothers Ltd. Garments Farmgate, Dhaka. 2 Fashion Concern Ltd. Garments Farmgate, Dhaka. 3 Jinnat Apparels Ltd. Knitting & garments Kashimpur, Gazipur. 4 Flammingo Fashion Ltd. Garments Kashimpur, Gazipur. 5 Jinnat Fashion Ltd. Garments Kashimpur, Gazipur. 6 Parkway Packaging & Printing Printing Kashimpur, Gazipur. 7 Mymun Textile Ltd. Dyeing Kashimpur, Gazipur. 8 Hamza Textile Ltd. Dyeing Kashimpur, Gazipur. 9 Matin Spinning Mills Ltd. Spinning Kashimpur, Gazipur. 1.3 PROJECT DESCRIPTION Jinnat Apparels Ltd., where we completed our Industrial Attachment is a sister concern of DBL (Dulal Brothers Ltd.) GROUP. DBL Group is a rapidly developing group of Industries of Textile sector of Bangladesh. It has a bunch of organizations under its ownership. a. NAME OF THE PROJECT:Jinnat Apparels Ltd. (JAL), a sister concern of DBL (Dulal Brothers Ltd.) Group. b. TYPE: Knitting & Garments. c. YEAR OF ESTABLISHMENT: 2000 d. PROJECT COST: 400,00,00,000 TK. e. ADDRESS: Sardaganj, Kashimpur, Gazipur. f. LOCATION: Jinnat Apparels Ltd. is situated at Sardaganj, Kashimpur, Gazipur. It is located at the East Side of Nabinagar-Kaliakair road and about 45 km away from College of Textile Technology, Tejgaon, Dhaka.
  5. 5. 5 Chondrar More Fig: Location diagram of Jinnat Apparels Ltd.(JAL). g. DIFFERENT DEPARTMENT: 1. Knitting Department. 2. Garments Departments. 3. Merchandising Department. h. ANNUAL PRODUCTION CAPACITY: 2600 tons per year. Sripur Bustand Kashimpur Bazar E.P.Z Abdullahpur Nabinagar Ashulia N W E S JAL
  6. 6. 6 1.4 LAY OUT PLAN OF FACTORY PREMISES: 1.5 PRODUCT MIX: Jinnat Apparels Ltd. is equipped with circular knitting and finishing. It produces fine quality and blended knit fabrics in a variety of styles. Jerseys, Rib, piques, Interlock and other knit textures are all available. Current production in tubular and open width exceeds 10 tons per day. Fabric weight from 150 to 260 GSM in styles which include jersey, pique, interlock and fabric with Lycra.
  7. 7. 7 Our mill produces the following products: a) Knitted grey fabrics : Plain single jersey, Heavy Jersey, Polo Pique, Lacoste, Rib & Interlock double jersey , Drop needle, 2/3 Thread fleece(Brushed/ Un- brushed), Collar & cuff etc. b) Knit Garments : T-shirt, Polo shirt, Short/Trouser, Fashion dress & Children wears etc. 1.6 JINNAT APPARELS LTD. (JAL) AT A GLANCE 1. Name of the project : JINNAT APPARELS LTD. (JAL) 2. Project proponent : DBL Group of industries. 3. Location : Sardaganj, Kashimpur, Gazipur. 4. Communication : The project is easily accessible by road. 5. Product name : Knitted goods. 6. Plant capacity : 2600 tons per year. 7. Amount land : 60 Bigha 8. No. of employees : About 2250 1.14 REMARK: Jinnat Apparels Ltd.is a member concern of Padma Group of Companies, a leading house of Industries & Commerce in Bangladesh, having Printing & packaging Industry, paper manufacturing unit, country wide network of color film processing laboratory units, representing world famous Fuji Color Film products, personal, hygiene products manufacturing & real estate development etc.
  8. 8. 8 CHAPTER – II (MANPOWER MANAGEMENT)
  9. 9. 9 Jinnat Apparels Ltd. is well equipped with highly efficient team of management, which is very essential for smooth running of a factory. 2.1 ORGANOGRAM OF JAL: Chairman Managing Director Finance Director Production Director General Manager Garments Manager Manager Production Officer Production Manager Knitting Master Q.C. Manager Chief Fitter Supervisor Supervisor/Fitter Line chief Operators Line Quality Controller Operators Helpers Workers 2.2 MANAGEMENT SYSTEM: KNITTING SECTION: Four Mechanical Fitters for per shift. One skilled operator and one unskilled operator for per knitting machine. 2.3 SHIFT CHANGE: Shift of twelve hours. Shift changes after a week on Saturday. Knitting
  10. 10. 10 2.4 STAFF OF KNITTING SECTION (Circular & Flat): Serial No. Designation No. of Employees 01 Asst. Manager 01 02 Production Officer 02 03 Knitting Master 01 04 Knitting Supervisor 08 05 Field Supervisor 02 06 Operator 53 07 Helper 11 08 Senior Fitter 01 09 Asst. Fitter 06 10 Quality Supervisor 04 11 Quality Inspector 03 12 Quality Helper 04 13 Store Officer 01 14 Store Keeper 06 15 Asst. Store Keeper 02 16 Junior Supervisor 02 17 Work Study Officer 01 18 Time Keeper 02 19 Driver 06 20 Office Boy 07 21 Car Helper 02 22 Cleaner 05 FLAT KNITTING 01 In-charge 03 02 Operator 20 03 Helper 15 2.5 JOB DESCRIPTION: a. SENIOR PRODUCTION OFFICER: In a knitting factory a senior production officer plays a great role in production and man power management who are production related. Here we enlist the duties of senior production officer: 1) Follow up knitting production, 2) Regular observation of knitting floor, 3) Prepare knitting order status regularly, 4) Maintain the quality of the product, 5) To help the senior prod. officer & co-operate with others for fulfilling the required destination.
  11. 11. 11 b. PRODUCTION OFFICER: Production officer is the right hand of senior production officer and he is directly related with production manpower and inform senior prod. officer time to time. Here are his listed duties:- 1) Follow up overall knitting production, 2) Decide every m/c utilization during production, 3) Recruit new labor, 4) To inform the authority on the overall knitting prod. and make it financial profitable, 5) Regular m/c maintenance, 6) Maintain sub-contract orders, 7) Help knitting manager & also guide the junior officers of the section, etc. 2.6 RESPONSIBILITIES OF PRODUCTION OFFICER: From getting an order of upper level all responsibilities are on the production officers. They work with a team of operators, helpers, fitters etc. to finish the production in due time. In the meantime production officers bear all hazards, problems. They have to explain to the manager for any type of production hamper. So, all production activities and its success depend on the production officers. 2.7 REMARK: Production runs with the help of mechanical fitters. For any kind of mechanical fault of any machine they fix and work under technical in-charge. Production officers’ takes account of daily production by running after the two supervisors and workers so on.
  12. 12. 12 CHAPTER – III (MACHINE DESCRIPTION)
  13. 13. 13 3.1 CIRCULAR KNITTING MACHINE: Circular knitting m/cs. Are widely used through out the knitting industry to produce fabric. This m/c can be built in almost any reasonable diameter and the small diameter of upto five, which are used for wear. Machine for outerwear and under wear may vary from 12 inch to 60 inch in diameter according to manufactures requirement. This m/c can be used either as fabric or for making garments completely with fancy stitch. Latch needles are commonly employed in all modern circular m/c because of their simple action and also their ability to process more types of yarns. Plain circular m/c uses only one sets of needles, circular rib m/c uses two sets of needles i, e, Cylinder needle and Dial needle, the interlock circular knitting m/c also uses two sets of needles by needles are long and short respectively for both dial and cylinder, that is why multiple design and thick fabric can be produce with that m/c. That m/c is also called double Jersey m/c.  M/c. Gauge – needle/inch (varies according to diameter)  Needle Type – Latch  Needle bed type – Single cylinder, Double cylinder, Cylinder & Dial, long or short needles for cylinder and dial.  Two principle operation exist: 1. English system – Where the cams and yarns strands revolve by needle and fabric take down is stationary. 2 American system – Where the needles and fabric take down revolves by cams and yarn strands are stationary. 3.2 IMPORTANT PARTS PER MACHINE: Name of parts Number per machine MPF Magnet 90 Knot catcher 90 Eye pot 90 Hose pipe 02 Needle fault detector 15 Oil nozzle 21 Oil pipe 21 Air flashing nozzle 30 Air flashing pipe 30 Fabric detector 02 Main switch 01 Fabric light 01 Take down light 02 Oil & air pressure 02
  14. 14. 14 3.3 IMOPORTANT EQUIPMENT OF CIRCULAR KNITTING M/C: a. Start/Stop/Inching Buttons: Complete set of easily accessible start/stop/inch buttons at top in each leg. b. Ratchet Lever: Permit hand movement of the M/C. c. Auto Stop Motion: Automatic three stages 24v yarn motion, positive feed tapes & knitting zone. Indicator lamps are on individual stop motions & on the main control panel. While the yarn is broken we can find the location which is broken as well as to repair, meanwhile the motor can brake and stop operation at once to keep the security of M/C. d. Free Standing Side Creel: With an active reserve package for each feed. e. Auto Counter: Two shift revolution with display counter with predetermined stop, to settle freely the weight or yardage of fabric. f. Variable Speed Drive with M/C Brake: Transistor inverter provided for free controlled, the process of “V.s. motor- drive” from slow operation to normal operation is quite & fast brake to prevent damages in case of needles or yarn breakage. g. Fabric Take-up System: With variable speed control by a belt drive set can be adjusted the speed for different course of fabric-constant and uniform fabric tension. h. Safety Guard Switch: Machine cannot be started with guards open; this guards have reinforced fiberglass window for easy fabric inspection. i. Auto Lubrication: The automatic central pressurized oil sprayer can be adjusted at cycling time and quantity to make cylinder, dial, sinker ring’s cam, needles and sinkers lubricated enough, besides it has the function cooling and clearing. j. Auto-line Removal System: Three fans on each rotating arm for clearing off any dust of creel and knitting zone.
  15. 15. 15 3.4 SPECIFICATION OF CIRCULAR KNITTING M/C: M/c No. M/c. Name M/c. Type Dia. (inch) Gauge No. of Needles No. of Feeder 01 Mayer &Cie(Germeny) Single Jersey 30 24 2260 96 02 Mayer &Cie(Germeny) Single Jersey 36 24 2712 114 03 Mayer &Cie(Germeny) Single Jersey 36 24 2712 114 04 Fukuhara(Japan) Single Jersey 30 24 2260 98 05 Fukuhara(Japan) Single Jersey 36 24 2712 118 07 Mayer &Cie(Germeny) RIB 36 18 22016 74 08 Mayer &Cie(Germeny) RIB 36 18 22016 74 10 Mayer &Cie(Germeny) Fleece 30 20 1872 96 12 Terrot(Germeny) RIB 36 16 21800 64 13 Terrot(Germeny) RIB 36 16 21800 64 14 Mayer &Cie(Germeny) RIB 34 18 21920 72 15 Mayer &Cie(Germeny) RIB 34 18 21920 72 16 Mayer &Cie(Germeny) RIB 34 18 21920 72 17 Mayer &Cie(Germeny) Fleece 30 20 1872 96 18 Mayer &Cie(Germeny) Fleece 30 20 1872 96 20 Mayer &Cie(Germeny) Fleece 30 20 1872 96 21 Mayer &Cie(Germeny) Interlock 30 22 22064 96 22 Mayer &Cie(Germeny) Interlock 34 22 22340 108 23 Mayer &Cie(Germeny) Interlick 34 22 22340 108 24 Mayer &Cie(Germeny) RIB 30 16 21512 63 25 Mayer &Cie(Germeny) Fleece 30 20 1872 96 26 Mayer &Cie(Germeny) Fleece 30 20 1872 96 27 Mayer &Cie(Germeny) Fleece 30 20 1872 96 28 Mayer &Cie(Germeny) RIB 30 16 21512 63 29 Mayer &Cie(Germeny) RIB 34 16 21704 72 30 Mayer &Cie(Germeny) RIB 34 16 21704 72 31 Mayer &Cie(Germeny) RIB 34 16 21704 72 32 Mayer &Cie(Germeny) RIB 34 16 21704 72 3.5 TOTAL NO. OF CIRCULAR KNITTING M/C AT A GLANCE: M/C Type M/C No. Total No of M/C Ground Total Single Jersey 01, 02, 03, 04, 05,33,34 07 30RIB 07, 08, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 24, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32 13 Interlock 21, 22, 23 03 Fleece 10, 17, 18, 20, 25, 26, 27 07
  16. 16. 16 3.6 LAY OUT PLAN OF CIRCULAR KNITTING SECTION OF J.A.L. Compressor room 05 04 28 01 02 03 Toilet Office Store 32 29 27 07 08 31 30 26 13 12 10 25 14 15 16 17 N W E 24 21 20 18 Door S 23 22 Fig: Lay out plan of circular knitting section of J.A.L. I N S P E C T I O N
  17. 17. 17 3.7 SPECIFICATION OF FLAT KNITTING M/C: Serial No M/C Name Maximum Width(cm) M/C Type M/C Gauge No. of Feeder No. of Needle 01 SHIMA SEIKI(JAPAN) 152 V-Bed 14 8 840X2 02 SHIMA SEIKI(JAPAN) 152 V-Bed 14 8 840X2 03 SHIMA SEIKI(JAPAN) 152 V-Bed 14 8 840X2 04 SHIMA SEIKI(JAPAN) 152 V-Bed 14 8 840X2 05 SHIMA SEIKI(JAPAN) 152 V-Bed 14 8 840X2 06 SHIMA SEIKI(JAPAN) 152 V-Bed 14 8 840X2 07 SHIMA SEIKI(JAPAN) 152 V-Bed 14 8 840X2 08 SHIMA SEIKI(JAPAN) 152 V-Bed 14 8 840X2 09 SHIMA SEIKI(JAPAN) 152 V-Bed 14 8 840X2 10 SHIMA SEIKI(JAPAN) 152 V-Bed 14 8 840X2 11 SHIMA SEIKI(JAPAN) 152 V-Bed 14 8 840X2 12 SHIMA SEIKI(JAPAN) 152 V-Bed 14 8 840X2 3.8 LAY OUT PLAN OF FLAT KNITTING SECTION OF J. A. L. Fig: Lay out plan of flat knitting section of J.A.L.
  18. 18. 18 3.9 COMPARISION BETWEEN THE PROPERTIES OF PLAIN FABRIC & MACHINE AND RIB FABRIC & MACHINE: Plain fabric and m/c Rib fabric and m/c 1. Face side and Back side of fabric are different 1. Face side and Backside of fabric are same. 2. Less expensive 2. Expensive 3. Lighter fabric 3. Heavier fabric. 4. Produce by S/J m/c. 4. Produce by Double Jersey m/c. 5. The m/c. contains no Dial. 5. The m/c. contains Dial. 6. The m/c. contains Sinker 6. The m/c. contains no Sinker 7. The m/c. contains one set of needle 7. The m/c. contains two set of needle 8. Extensibility: a) Length wise – 10 to 20% b) Width wise – 30 to 40% 8. Extensibility: c) Length wise – 50 to 80% (for 11 rib) d) Width wise – 30 to 45% (for 11 rib) 9. Thickness & Warmth: Thicker and wormier than plain woven made from same yarn. 9. Thickness & Warmth: Much thicker and wormier than plain woven made from same yarn. 10. Curling: Tendency to curl 10. Curling: No tendency to curl 11. End use: Ladies stocking, fine cardigan, men and ladies dresses, sweater etc. 11. End use: Socks, cuffs, warm outerwear, under wear etc. 3.10 REMARK:  Ventilation system is very poor . The room Height of knitting section is inadequate . There is no exhaust fan to clean and maintain the temperature of this section.  The temperature of this section is more than the natural room temperature because it absorb heat from dyeing and finishing section.  There is only one toilet which is not sufficient.  Grey fabric inspection section should be air conditioned.  At least six circular m/c can be easily setup on the basis of present floor condition.  Cone storage facilities are not bad.  The floor plaster of some place of this section is damaged , so it is necessary to repair it as soon as possible.  Creel of camber m/c is not suitable because it has required more floor space and also difficult to change package.
  19. 19. 19 CHAPTER – IV (RAW MATERIALS)
  20. 20. 20 4.1 INTRODUCTION: Jinnat Apparels Ltd. takes yarn as its raw materials for its initial production of knitted fabric to make garments. It has no spinning section of its own. So, it depends on different of spinning mills of home and abroad to collect yarn as it requires. Here are the details: 4.2 TYPES: Natural and synthetic, Cellulosic and non-cellulosic all kind of yarn are used as raw materials in this mill. Generally, Cotton, Polyester, Viscose and Nylon are mostly used in knitting departments. 4.3 RAW MATERIALS USED: Material (Yarn) Count Type Cotton (100%) 20/1 Carded Cotton (100%) 24/1 Carded Cotton (100%) 26/1 Carded/ Combed Cotton (100%) 28/1 Carded/ Combed Cotton (100%) 30/1 Carded/ Combed Cotton (100%) 34/1 Carded/ Combed Cotton (100%) 40/1 Carded/ Combed Lycra (100%) 20D/40D CVC (Chief Value Cotton) Cotton + Viscose Polyester Milance Carded/ Combed Note: Use of colored yarn varies according to buyer’s requirements. 4.4 PRICE: Price of yarn varies from mill to mill and as different count. 4.5 SOURCE: The main source of yarn for this mill is the country and neighboring country, India. Here is the list of its source spinning mills: 1. Hanif Spinning Mills Ltd. 2. Prime Spinning Mills Ltd. 3. Padma Spinning ( Beximco Ltd. ) 4. JK Spinning Mills Ltd. 5. Keya Spinning Mills Ltd. 6. UTAH Spinning Mills Ltd. 7. Square Textiles Mills Ltd. 8.Rahmat spinning ltd. 9.Amber spinning ltd. 10.Gulshan spinning ltd.
  21. 21. 21 4.6 ANNUAL REQUIREMENTS: Cotton ----- 2624300 kg/year approx. Polyester --- 1100 kg/year approx. Lycra ----- 600 kg/year approx. 4.7 REMARKS: Maximum portion of the raw materials are purchased from our local market and the rest are from India & Korea. This raw materials are tested first before going for production.
  22. 22. 22 CHAPTER – V (PRODUCTION PLANNING, SEQUENCES & OPERATIONS)
  23. 23. 23 5.1 PRODUCTION PARAMETERS: Machine Diameter; Machine rpm (revolution per minute); No. of feeds or feeders in use; Machine Gauge; Count of yarn; Required time (M/C running time); Machine running efficiency. 5.2 DESCRIPTION OF PRODUCTION PROCESS: In every mill, there maintains a sequences in production processing. It is also followed in this mill where I was in industrial attachment. The process sequences are in list below: 1) Firstly, knitting manager gets a production sheet from merchandisers as accordance as consumer requirements. Then he informs or orders senior production officer about it. 2) Senior production officer informs technical in charge and knows about m/c in which the production will be running. 3) Technical in charge calls for leader of mechanical fitter troops, they two take decision about m/c for production considering m/c condition, production capacity, maintenance complexity etc. 4) Production officer with experienced mechanical fitter adjusts required stitch length and grey GSM (gram per square meter) for required final GSM. 5) Supervisor check daily production regularity and make operators conscious about finishing in due time. 6) Operators operate machine in highly attention as if there were no faults in the fabrics. If he thinks or sure about any fabric fault, then he call for mechanical fitter in duty. Mechanical fitter then fixes it if he can or he informs technical in-charge. He then comes in spot. 7) After required production and final inspection in 4-point system, they are sent in dyeing section.
  24. 24. 24 5.3 PROCESS FLOW CHART OF KNITTING: Yarn in cone form Feeding the yarn cone in the creel Feeding the yarn in the feeder via trip-tape positive feeding arrangement and tension device Knitting Withdraw the rolled fabric and weighting Numbering Inspection 5.4 COUNT OF YARN REQUIRED FOR GSM SETTING: YARN COUNT FINISHED GSM Single Jersey(Plain) 1x1 Rib Plain Interlock 20/1 200-220 260-280 -- 24/1 180-200 240-260 -- 26/1 160-180 220-230 270-280 28/1 140-160 210-220 255-270 30/1 130-140 180-200 240-255 34/1 120-130 -- 220-240 40/1 110-120 -- 190-200
  25. 25. 25 5.5 RELATION OF GSM WITH OTHER PARAMETERS: 5.5.1 SINGLE JERSEY: Fabric Type M/c Dia x Gauge Gray Dia (Inch) Finished Dia (Inch) Yarn Count (Ne) Gray GSM Finished GSM Stitch Length (mm) Color Plain 30x24 38-43 30-33 24/1 138-140 180 2.85-2.90 Dark 30x24 38-43 30-33 24/1 142-145 180 2.85-2.90 Light 30x24 38-43 30-33 24/1 152-155 200 2.68-2.75 Light 30x24 38-43 30-33 24/1 147-150 200 2.85-2.88 Dark 36x24 50-52 37- 38/72(op) 24/1 138-140 180 2.85-2.88 Dark 36x24 50-52 37- 38/72(op) 24/1 142-144 190 2.75-2.80 Dark 36x24 50-52 37- 38/72(op) 24/1 142-144 180 2.85-2.88 Light 36x24 50-52 37- 38/72(op) 24/1 148-150 200 2.68-2.75 Dark 36x24 50-52 37- 38/72(op) 24/1 152-155 200 2.65-2.68 Light 30x24 42 31 28/1 118-120 160 2.80 Medium 30x24 42 29-31 30/1 1202 160 2.58-2.60 Dark 30x24 42 29-31 30/1 1232 160 2.55-2.58 Light 30x24 42 29-31 34/1 1102 150 2.52 Dark Plain (Lycra) 30x24 37-40 20-22 34/1 + 20D 1402 180 2.70 Medium 30x24 42 29-31 34/1 + 20D 1504 200 2.68-2.70 Medium 30x24 42 29-31 30/1 + 40D 1454 200 3.00 Medium 36x24 38-42 33-35 34/1+20D 1402 180 2.90 Medium 36x24 42 29-31 34/1 + 20D 1432 190 2.85 Medium 36x24 42 29-31 34/1 + 20D 1482 200 2.90 Medium 36x24 42 29-31 30/1 + 20D 1502 200 2.70 Medium Lacoste 30x24 46 42-43 26/1 1602 220 2.58-2.60 Medium 30x24 46 42-43 28/1 1552 210 2.62 Medium 30x24 46 42-43 30/1 1502 180 2.40 Medium 36x24 53-55 49-50 26/1 1652 225 2.55-2.56 Medium 36x24 53-55 49-50 30/1 1352 180 2.70 Medium 36x24 53-55 49-50 34/1 1252 160 2.55-2.58 Medium Pique 36x24 52 50 26/1 1352 190 2.90 Medium 36x24 53-55 49-50 34/1 1252 160 2.60 Medium 5.5.2 INTERLOCK: Fabric Type M/c Gauge Yarn Count (Ne) Grey GSM Finished GSM Stitch Length(mm) Color Plain Interlock 22 30/1 190-192 260 1.62-1.63 Dark 30/1 175-180 240 1.68 Light 30/1 180-185 250 1.65 Dark 34/1 158-160 220 1.62 Light
  26. 26. 26 5.5.3 RIB: Fabric Type M/c Dia x Gauge Grey Dia (Inch) Finished Dia(Inch) Yarn Count (Ne) Grey GSM Finished GSM Stitch Length(mm) Color 1x1 Rib 30x16 37-39 30-31 20/1 195-200 260-265 3.15-3.17 Dark 30x16 37-39 30-31 20/1 190-195 260-265 3.17-3.20 Medium 30x16 37-39 30-31 20/1 186-192 260-265 3.20-3.25 Light 34x16 41 35.5-36.5 20/1 200 260-265 3.20 Dark 34x16 41 35.5-36.5 20/1 200 260-265 3.25 Light 34x16 41 35.5-36.5 24/1 155-160 230-240 2.80 Light 34x16 41 35.5-36.5 24/1 170-175 240 2.75-2.77 Medium 34x16 41 35.5-36.5 24/1 190 250 2.60 Medium 34x16 41 35.5-36.5 26/1 150-155 220-230 2.80-2.85 Medium 34x16 41 35.5-36.5 26/1 155-160 230-240 2.75-2.80 Light 34x18 41-42 34-35 26/1 155-160 220-230 2.80-2.83 Dark 34x18 41-42 34-35 28/1 155-160 220 2.65-2.70 Medium 36x16 42-45 31-34 26/1 156-160 230-240 2.70 Medium 36x16 41 31-34 28/1 155 220 2.65 Medium 36x16 41 31-34 30/1 140-145 200 2.65 Medium 36x18 41-43 35-37 26/1 170-172 240 2.85 Medium 36x18 41-43 35-37 28/1 168-170 220 2.50 Medium 36x18 41-43 35-37 30/1 145-150 190-200 2.50-2.60 Medium Rib Lycra 34x16 38-40 32-35 26/1+ 40D 190 270 2.80 Medium 36x16 38 31.5 30/1+ 40D 190 260 2.70 Medium 36x18 40 35 30/1+ 40D 180 240 2.75 Medium 2x1 Rib 36x18 45 37 26/1 170-172 240 2.85 Medium 5.6 RELATION OF YARN COUNT WITH STICH LENGTH IN FLAT KNITTING: Yarn count No. of ply Stitch length Body Tube 30/1 4 27-30 35-38 30/1 5 33-35 39-45 28/1 4 28-30 36-41 26/1 4 31-33 38-42 24/1 4 33-36 39-45 20/1 3 31-33 38-42
  27. 27. 27 5.7 LENGTHWISE ALLOWANCE TABLE: Name of product Allowance length (in cm.) Collar 1 Cuff 1-1.5 Bottom 2-3 5.8 G.S.M. CONTROL: 1. Major control by quality pulley. 2. Minor control by stitch length adjustment. 5.8.1 NECESSARY INFORMATION a. G.S.M.: It is technical term that indicates the weight of the fabric per square meter. b. Changing of G.S.M.: The GSM of the fabric is change by altering the position of the tension pulley. If pulley move towards the positive direction then the GSM is decrease and in the reverse direction GSM will increase. c. Points that should consider in case of g.s.m. changing: i) VDQ (Variable Dia. Quality Control) pulley diameter. ii) Yarn count. iii) M/C gauge. iv) Cam position v) Take up motion d. Factors that should be considered for changing of fabric design on: i) Cam arrangement changing. ii) Needle butt setting & needle dropping. iii) Using of different colors in selected feeder. iv) Using of jacquard mechanism. v) Size of the loop shape e. Recommendable points of a buyer: i) Dia of the fabric ii) Design of the fabric iii) GSM of the fabric iv) Total wt. of the fabric v) Yarn count vi) Types of yarn
  28. 28. 28 vii) Color of the fabric viii) Finishing of fabric. ix) Handling & fastness property. f. Gauge number that are usually seen in different m/c: i) Incase of rib m/c. 16 to 18 G are normally used. But incase of improved quality yarn 20G M/cs are used in European country. ii) Single jersey m/c are normally found 20,24,28etc. Gauges. g. Relation between yarn count and m/c gauge seen in different m/c.: We know, G2 Ne =------------- 18 Where, Ne = English Cotton Count G = M/c. gauge. h. Maximum and minimum g.s.m. Of a fabric for a particular yarn: Types of m/c Yarn count Maximum GSM Minimum GSM Single Jersey m/c 20/1 240 120 Single Jersey m/c 30/1 165 100 Rib m/c 20/1 380 190 Rib m/c 30/1 180 130 i. Chemical that used in needle, sinker or m/c cleaning: i) Needle and sinker: Petrol + Needle oil mixture. ii) Cylinder: At first wash with petrol and finally wash with needle oil. j. Oil require per hour for each m/c: More than one liter. k. Production per shift for each m/c: Types of fabric Yarn count Hours M/c. R.P.M. Fabric wt. (kg) Single Jersey 30 12 30 145 Single Jersey 20 12 30 200 Rib 30 12 20-25 180 Rib 20 12 20-25 250 l. Weight losses after finish the fabric: 6-7% weight losses on the basis of whole wt. m. Weight increases per square meter after finish the fabric: 15-16% weight increases per square meter.
  29. 29. 29 5.9 PRODUCTION CALCULATION 1. Production/shift in kg at 100% efficiency: countYarn mmSLNeedleofNoFeederofNoRPM    2046.28403654.210 1260)(.. countYarn mmSLNeedleofNoFeederofNoRPM    80.3527 )(.. 2. Production/shift in meter: 100/ 1260. / .min/     cmCourse EfficiencyFeederofNoRPM cmCourse Course 3. Fabric width in meter: 100/ . 100/ .     cmWales knittingNeedlesofnoTotal cmWales walesofnoTotal 5.10 WORKING PARTICULARS a. Working hours: Two shift each of 12 hours. # M/c cleaning and maintenance at the time of shift running # M/c stoppage & cooling during shift changing for half an hour. b. Type of fabric produced: Single Jersey, Single polo pique, lacoste, honeycomb, rib,waffle,mesh, fleece and many others designed fabrics. c. Needle breaks: 5 Nos. /day 13 machine. Causes: a. Irregularities in yarn (Thick place, neps & slubs) b. Faulty needle latch. c. Dirty machine condition. d. Needle trick jamming. e. Worn out needle trick. f. High yarn tension. g. Improper lubrication h. Complexity of design i. Use of more yarn in a feeder
  30. 30. 30 j. Negligence of operator k. Wrong selection of machine gauge Remedies: a. Proper lubrication & cleaning of machine b. Involvement of automation system c. Application of schedule maintenance d. Proper yarn & tension setting e. Using of fault free yarn (high quality combed yarn) f. Extra care during producing of complex design g. Skill ness & awareness of operator h. Correct selection of machine gauge for a specific fabric d. Adjusting points of the knitting machine: a) Feeder to needle (horizontal distance, 1 to 2 sinker thickness) b) Feeder to needle (vertical distance, by feeder adjustment) c) Dial to Cylinder distance. d) Sinker groove to Cylinder groove. e) Tension and loop length.(VDQ pulley dia. Adjustment) f) Yarn tension adjustment (Tension control knob on cam box) g) Adjustable speed in motor driving shaft. h) Change pinion in take up roller to perform tension. e. Auto stop motion in knitting machine: a) Gate open b) Needle breakage c) Motor drive fault d) Yarn breakage both e) Fabric cut & fall down. f) Oil & pressure air problem. g) Completion of selected target. h) Photo electric cell i) Take up problem. f. Wastage of the factory: a) Empty cartoon & other packing wastage. b) Yarn and fabric wastage due to packing pin marks, yarn irregularity, reconing, knotting, replacement of new package in the knitting m/c, threading of knitting elements. c) Wastage due to major defective fabric, lack of supervision and worker’s negligence. d. Wastage due to sample making & testing g. Maintenance: a) Break down maintenance during design changing & m/c break down. b) Scheduled maintenance one time per two month.
  31. 31. 31 5.11 METHODS OF INCREASING PRODUCTION: By the following methods the production can be increased – 1. By increasing m/c speed: Higher the m/c speed faster the movement of needle and ultimately production will be increased. 2. By increasing the number of feeder: If the number of feeder is increased in the circumference of cylinder, then the number of courses will be increased in one revolution at a time. 3. By using machine of higher gauge: The more the machine gauge, the more the production is. So by using machine of higher gauge production can be increased. 4. By imposing automation in the m/c: a) Quick starting & stopping for efficient driving system. b) Automatic m/c lubrication system for smoother operation. c) Photo electric fabric fault detector. 5. By imposing other developments: a) Using creel-feeding system. b) Applying yarn supply through plastic tube that eliminates the possibilities of yarn damage. c) Using yarn feed control device. d) Using auto lint removal. 5.12 CAUSES OF LOOP LENGTH VARIATION: 1. Fluctuation in yarn variable: a) Due to count variation. b) Due to twist variation. c) Due to insufficient M.C. or M.R. d) Due to package hardness. e) If frictional property of yarn is not maintained. 2. Fluctuation in m/c variable: a) If temperature of the m/c is not standard. b) If m/c gauge is not accurate. c) If m/c cam setting is not properly maintained. d) If needle timing and knock over is not accurate. e) If take down tension is wrong. f) If sinker timing is not correct. g) Improper yarn tension. 3. Robbing back: Due to 15% of yarn robbed back from old loop to newly formed loop.
  32. 32. 32 S5.13 STITCH NOTATION, CAM ARRANGEMENT & NEEDLE REPEAT OF SOME KNITTED FABRIC: FABRIC NAME: SINGLE LACOST 1. Stitch Notation:                     Fig. Looping diagram 2. Cam arrangement & Needle arrangement: i) Using two track cam: ▲ ▲ ▲ T ▲ ▲ T ▲ ▲ ▲ ii) Using three truck cam: ii) Using four truck cam: ▲ ▲ ▲ T ▲ ▲ T ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ T ▲ ▲ T ▲ ▲ ▲ Fig.- Cam arrangement Fig.- Needle arrangement ▲ ▲ ▲ T ▲ ▲ T ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ T ▲ 1 2 1 2 3 1 2 3 4  = Knit stitch  = Tuck stitch K = Knit cam T = Tuck cam 1 = 1 Butt Needle 2 = 2 Butt Needle 3 = 3 Butt Needle 4 = 4 Butt Needle
  33. 33. 33 FABRIC NAME: DOUBLE LACOST 1. Stitch Notation:                         Fig. Looping diagram 2. Cam arrangement & Needle arrangement: i) Using two track cam: ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ T T ▲ T T ▲ ▲ ▲ ii) Using three truck cam: ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ T T ▲ T T ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ T T ii) Using four truck cam: ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ T T ▲ T T ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ T T ▲ T T ▲ ▲ ▲ Fig.- Cam arrangement Fig.- Needle arrangement  = Knit stitch  = Tuck stitch K = Knit cam T = Tuck cam 1 = 1 Butt Needle 2 = 2 Butt Needle 3 = 3 Butt Needle 4 = 4 Butt Needle 1 2 1 2 3 1 2 3 4
  34. 34. 34 FABRIC NAME: SINGLE JERSEY 1. Stitch Notation:                     Fig. Looping diagram 2. Cam arrangement & Needle arrangement: i) Using two track cam: ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ii) Using three truck cam: ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ii) Using four truck cam: ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ Fig.- Cam arrangement Fig.- Needle arrangement 1 2 1 2 3 1 2 3 4  = Knit stitch K = Knit cam 1 = 1 Butt Needle 2 = 2 Butt Needle 3 = 3 Butt Needle 4 = 4 Butt Needle
  35. 35. 35 5.14 FABRIC PRODUCED IN J.A.L.: Fabrics name SAMPLE Face Back Single Jersey (Plain) Single Jersey (Lycra) Single Lacoste Double Lacoste Polo Pique 11 Rib 21 Rib Rib (Needle dropped) Flat by Rib Plain Interlock
  36. 36. 36 Stripped Interlock Mesh Interlock Lacoste Fleece (2 Thread) Fleece (3 Thread) 5.15 REMARK: As Jinnat Apparels Ltd. is a big project; its production quantity is huge. Production quantity varies as according as buyers demand. It gives approximately 200- 210 tons production per month. In Bangladesh, there are a few mills which can produce such quantity of knitted fabrics.
  37. 37. 37 CHAPTER – VI (QUALITY ASSURANCE SYSTEM)
  38. 38. 38 6.1 CONTROL OF FABRIC QUALITY: Control of the quality of the cloth being knitted is the knitting mechanic’s major responsibility. Fabric set-ups and m/c maintenance, although necessary, must be put into their proper order of importers. To set-up a fabric and run it on a well-maintained m/c, when its quality is questionable, is senseless. The mechanic must be able to diagnose a problem on a m/c and render an immediate cure. To do this, he must have a thorough knowledge of what causes a defect in fabric. When the cause is known, correction will soon follow. 6.2 LIST OF EQUIPMENTS: The list of equipments to assure quality:- 1) Inspection m/c 2) Scissors 3) Weight balance & Micro balance 4) GSM cutter 5) Seal. 6) Marker 6.3 FABRIC DEFECTS: Defects in circular knitted cloth fall into the following major groups: vertical lines, barre, holes and snags, tuck or double stitches, these will be discussed seriatim. a. Vertical lines: This defects can be caused by defective needles or defective trick walls. If the trick walls are worn or not evenly spaced, the needles will knit at different speed. This uneven movement of the needles will cause uneven stitches which is turn can cause vertical lines. If a wall is too big for the needle, the needle will have a sideward motion, which will cause formation of a wide wale in the fabric. When the trick walls are not evenly spaced, the needles will knit a certain points wide and narrow stitches in the fabric. These will also cause unsightly lines. Dirt may often get into the tricks pushing the needles outwards (cylinder) or upward (dial) causing irregular vertical stitches. Bent and worn needles will cause the fabric to have wider Wales in certain places. Needles with chipped latches, butts, hooks, cheeks, a protruding rivet or broken spoons will cause fuzzy and irregular vertical lines. Needles with bent latches will cause vertical tears or ladders in the fabric. Too much lubrication or the use of improper needle oil often causes oil or dirt strakes. Dark black vertical lines may be caused by dirty tricks, which cause the needles to run high and rub against the cams. Not enough lubrication may also be the cause of black vertical lines.
  39. 39. 39 b. Barre or uneven courses: The following may cause these faults: 1. Improper cam adjustment, 2. Uneven yarn tension, 3. Different yarn thickness or shaded yarn dyes, 4. Dial not in even relationship to cylinder and 5. Defective take down mechanism With the use of positive feeding devices, the stitch cam adjustment is Very accurate. The most important thing to remember when adjusting stitch cams is to keep the ratio of the dial stitch to the cylinder stitch the same at all the dial and cylinder feeds. It must be remember that a positive feed system (tape) will feed the same amount of yarn to all feeds regardless of stitch adjustment. This stitch adjustment controls the tension only. In the case of pique fabric or any similar kind, the odd feeds must be done at the same tension, but the even form the odd feeds so long as they are all the same. We know now that the yarn tension will control the length of stitch. It is very important that any surfaces that the yarn runs over or through mist be clean of any instruction which will caused irregular tension. A defective takes down mechanism which pulls tight and then soft will cause are as on the fabric to be loose and tight. The take down mechanism must pull evenly at all times to maintain a fabric with even courses. If dial is not in the proper relationship to the cylinder, fabric of uneven stitch length will produced. The dial and cylinder relationship should be inspective at least once a year to maintain proper running conditions. Uneven thickness of the yarn is one of major causes of barre. The mechanic is really helpless in the situation. The only thing he can do is to learn to recognize this condition and notify the throwster immediately. Badly wound yarn also will cause uneven tension. In most cases a positive feed system will eliminate this defect, but if one used the mechanic should have the yarn rewound. In the case of dyed yarn shaded the mechanic is helpless in such a situation, he must notify the throwster immediately. c. Holes and Snags: Holes in most cases are caused by excessive tension of the yarn. If stitch cams are adjusted too deep and there is excessive tension in the yarn, it wills beak, causing a hole. If the dial height is too high these will also cause a tremendous strain on the yarn. Other factors that produce excessive tension on the stitch are as follows: 1. Too tight a take down pup,
  40. 40. 40 2. The positive feed system operating improperly, 3. Badly wound yarn, 4. Yarn with thin or weak spots. 5. Dirty or clogged surface in which the yarn passes through or on, 6. Yarn warp around. Snags in most cases are usually caused by badly wound yarn which at a low tensions and then suddenly jerks and runs at a high tension. This high tension wills usually a line of holes from one to nine inches. d. Drop Stitches: This defect occurs when the needle tails to take new yarn of when the needle fails to take new yarn or when the needle losses its loop. One of the major causes of this problem is an improperly set yarn carrier. If the yarn is not fed directly into the hook of the needle, there is a good chance that the needle will not take the new yarn. If the stitch cam is set too far back there will be too much yarn is the needle loop. Because of this loop will be so loose that it can fall causing a drop stitch. Other possible causes of droop stitches are: the take down mechanism is too loose, not enough tension on yarn, dial height too high, needles, yarn in wrong hole of the carrier, dial needle latch closing under yarn carrier and dial needle latch closing near the hole of the carrier. e. Tuck Stitches or Double Stitches: This defect occurs when the needle does not cast off its old loop. In most cases this defect can be traced to an improperly set stitch cam. If the needle is not drown far enough back the old loop will remain on the needle. On the other hand, if the stitch cam is set too far back, too much yarn will be going to needle. In this case this needle will be unable to knock over such a large loop. Other possible causes of Tuck Stitches are as follows: 1. Take down mechanism set too loose, 2. Needles move too freely in their slots, 3. Dial height set too low, 4. Defective needles, 5. Needle trick walls clogged with dirt etc.
  41. 41. 41 6.4 QUALITY ASSURANCE PROCEDURE: At first gray fabric is inspected thoroughly with the help of the inspection machine if any defect is present there. The faults that are identified in quality control section are: H=Hole S=Slubs OS=Oil Stain SM=Sinker Mark RS=Rust Stain FL=Fly Yarn GS=Grease Stain PH=Pin Hole MSM=M/C Stoppage Mark YC=Yarn Contamination DS=Drop Stitch BE=Birds Eye D=Dirt BR=Barrie NL=Needle Line WD=Wrong Design UT=Uneven Tension TT=Thick & Thin place OL=Oil Line Points given for different faults: Fault Length in inch Penalty Points 0-3 1 3-6 2 Any Hole 4 6-9 3 Upto-9 4 Fabric Grading: Point Range Fabric Class Upto 20 Points / 100 m. A Upto 20 – 30 Points / 100 m. B Upto 30 – 40 Points / 100 m. C More than 40 Points / 100 m. Rejected In quality control section gather knowledge about different faults and their removal process and suggestion for the fabric to finishing department.
  42. 42. 42 6.5 QUALITY REPORT GREY FABRIC INSPECTION REPORT NAME OF THE INSPECTORS: SHIFT:A SHIFT:B 6.6 REMARKS: There is hardly any chance of any roll to be passed through production or to any buyers by to by unchecked or disqualified. The inspectors are too much experienced and they are aware of their duties and responsibilities. Factory authority and the production officers are happy and satisfied with their works. DATE: M/C NO#: M/C GAUGE: BUYER: ORDER NO: FABRIC TYPE: GREY GSM: FINISH GSM: FINISH WIDTH: SHIFT: A SHIFT: B TYPE OF DEFECT ROLL-1 ROLL-2 ROLL-3 ROLL-1 ROLL-2 ROLL-3 SLUB HOLE NEEDLE/SINKER LINE STAIN THICK & THIN YARN CONTAMINATION BARRIE/STRIPE DIRT OIL MARK PIN HOLE DROP STITCH M/C STOPAGE OTHER SPECIFY TOTAL POINT(P) GREY WIDTH: ROLL WT(W) REJECT QTY.(KG) LENGTH(MTR)
  43. 43. 43 CHAPTER – VII (MAINTENANCE)
  44. 44. 44 7.1 MAINTENANCE OF MACHINERY: Maintenance of machineries is very important for any type of industries and it is a must for a knit composite mill. All machines and machines parts of knitting, dyeing and garments are maintained with extreme care. Because production quality and quantity, both depends on the maintenance with regularity. Jinnnat Apparels Ltd. lead maintenance with a troop of skilled mechanical fitters. Two types of maintenance are carried out. They are - a. Break down maintenance b. Schedule maintenance a. BREAK DOWN MAINTENANCE: This type of maintenance is carried out only when machine remains stop due to- a. Break down for mechanical fault b. Break down for design changing b. SCHEDULE MAINTENANCE: Every machine has a definite maintenance schedule which is performed after a certain periodic interval to ensure – a. Smooth production process b. Sound running of machine c. Longer useful life of machine d. Better quality of product e. Lower rejection of machine parts f. Lower load on operator 7.2 FUNCTION OF MAINTENANCE: a. Inspection: Faulty parts are identified &their present condition are checked. And also availability of stand by equipments are also checked. b. Lubrication: Before starting maintenance all moving & frictional parts are lubricated so to facilitate &draw off the parts. c. Record & analysis: Previous records & history of the maintenance are checked and analyzed. Before maintenance the following records should be checked: i. Operating manual of the m/c ii. Maintenance manual iii. History card iv. Inspection card v. Log book d. Planning & scheduling: Taking of proper plan & making of specific schedule how the maintenance should be performed properly. e. Operation: The maintenance operation is performed as stated below. f. Replacement of faulty parts The faulty parts which are identified replaced by new parts.
  45. 45. 45 g. Storage & record The faulty parts which are rejected stored properly & keep top to bottom record of this operation. 7.3 ROUTINE: 1) Daily Maintenance: Every machine is taken maintenance daily by the operators during production. When a production is started by the operator after handing over from previous shift operator, he takes a routine maintenance on the machine. He cleans the machine, assures yarn is fed to all needles, cleans the eye pot of feeder, memminger, signal lamp sensor etc. Before a while of a roll cut from batch or cloth roller, operator cleans needles, cylinder base plate etc. All around of the machine are kept neat and clean as if there is no dirt with yarn in the fabric. 2) Schedule/Routine Maintenance: Every machine has a schedule of maintenance of 10 or 15 days. According to date, schedule maintenance is taken on the machines. Operators are informed about the time of maintenance. After pre-estimated production, they hand over the machine to the fitters. Thus, fitters assure all machines are OK. for any time. 3) Break down maintenance: When product quality hampered and to complete production in due time break down maintenance is taken. There are many faults seen in the fabric during production due to needle, sinker, take down roller etc. Then operators inform the mechanical fitters and they fix it. 4) Restorative maintenance: Restorative maintenance is taken for design change or new design development. According to advice or order of production officer, a machine is fixed for new design and mechanical fitters rearrange cam and needle system. Planned and preventive maintenance are not taken on the machineries in this mill. 7.4 MANPOWER SET UP FOR MAINTENANCE: There are two shifts in this mill. Two groups of mechanical fitters for four persons work for two shifts. Each group having a leader, a needle man and two assistant fitters. Fitters work under the technical in charge for knitting section only. They all are very efficient and hard working. They can fix any type of mechanical problem of machines. No necessity happens to hire others from outside to fix machine maintenance. There are electro-mechanical groups to work for electrical problem of machineries. They work for overall factory. Manpower set for different m/c maintenance: # For single jersey m/c: 3-4 person/ hrs. # for double jersey m/c : 7-8 person/ hrs 7.5 MAINTENANCE PROCEDURE:
  46. 46. 46 1) For there is any mechanical fault of machine which is responsible for production hamper, operator informs mechanical fitters in duty. Mechanical fitters come and observe the problem firstly, and then they begin to fix it. 2) If mechanical fitters be unable to fix it, then they inform technical in-charge, he then comes in spot and fix it. 3) For there is any electrical problem of machine or serious founding mechanical problem, mechanical and electrical department are informed, they come and fix the problem. They commence at work after informing of knitting manager. There are two mechanical engineers in the department. 4) For restorative maintenance, senior production officer orders mechanical fitters to fit required machine for cam and needle arrangement and other necessary requirements in case of new design development. Maintenance sequence of circular knitting machine: Power on/off ↓ MPF/Positive feeder current line off ↓ MPF belt out/loss ↓ Yarn cut ↓ Fabric out by handle ↓ Cleaning and Oiling ↓ Cam box out ↓ Needle & sinker out ↓ Needle & sinker cleaning by oil ↓ Cam box cleaning by air After opening & cleaning ,m/c is leveled by using leveling meter and follow the reverse process to ready the m/c. 7.6 MAINTENANCE TOOLS & THEIR FUNCTIONS:
  47. 47. 47 S L No. Name of Tools Functions of maintenance Tools 01. L-Key Loosen and Tighten the screws. 02. Air Suctioner Cleans machine by suctioning. 03. Screw Driver To loosen and tighten the screws. 04. Dhali (Spanner) Loosen and Tighten nut and bolt etc. 7.7 REMARK: This mill has a strong maintenance fitter’s troop to fix up all types problem. Two groups of two shifts obey their duties responsibly and sincerely. With their different tools or equipments they perform their duties skillfully.
  48. 48. 48 CHAPTER – VIII (UTILITY SERVICES)
  49. 49. 49 8.1 UTILITY FACILITIES AVAILABLE: UTILITY FACILITIES SOURCE Electricity REB & Generator Water Pump Air Compressor 8.2 POWER HOUSE: Total Generator: 4 pcs. Parameters Generator-1 Generator-2 & 3 Generator-4 Model 450 400 Manufacturer Caterpillar Caterpillar KOHLAR. Country USA USA USA Rated power prime 410 kva ;328kw 365 kva ;292kw 200BR Rated voltage 400/230v 400/230v 115/200/230/400v Rated Frequency 50 Hz 50 Hz Rated Current 591.8 A 526.8A 1004/577/502/289A Rated rpm 1500 1500 1500 Phase 3 3 3 Fuel Diesel Diesel Diesel 8.3 COMPRESSOR ROOM: Total Compressor: 2 pcs. Model: SF 100 Manufacturer: BOGE KOMPRESSOREN Filter type: A/F/V 120 Filter element type: 1/120 A Maximum operating pressure: 16 BAR Maximum operating temperature: 60°C 8.4 PUMPS: Water Pumps No. of machine Capacity 10 H.P. Pedrollo Pump Flow rate- 600 1 Unit 600.00L/Min
  50. 50. 50 L/Min 5.5 H.P. Pedrollo Pump Flow rate -350 L/Min 1 Unit 350.00 L/Min Spare Pump Motor Pedrollo 20 H.P. 1 Unit 1,000 L/Min 8.5 COST OF DIFFERENT UTILITIES: Electricity cost: REB =3.8 TK / KW-HR Diesel generator = 6.50 TK / KW-HR 8.6 REMARKS: As Jinnnat Apparels Ltd. is a large project, it has vast utility systems. There is a skill manpower group of engineers and other technical staffs to look after these utility services. They have to remain aware of solution on a great sense of responsibility for any type of problem due to utility supply.
  51. 51. 51 CHAPTER – IX (STORE & INVENTORY CONTROL)
  52. 52. 52 There are two bonded wire house & two store room for storing and inventory control. 9.1 INVENTORY SYSTEM FOR RAW MATERIAL: The main raw material of knitting is yarn, which is stored in two stages such as- a. Long time storage b. Storage before production Long time storage: Amount of yarn which are required for the production of several months as prerequisite .This yarns are stored as production requirement in the bonded wire house. Storage before production: The amounts of yarn which are loaded in the store room concern with the production section for continuous speed of production from bonded wire house. Those yarn lots are selected to store which will be used for current production. 9.2 INVENTORY SYSTEM OF SPARES: The main spare of a knitting factory is needle which is needed to replace continuously when production runs. The others spares are cylinder, cam, sinker, change pinion, positive feeder, toothed belt etc .If a machine is innovated its slightly effected parts will be stored as spare after repairing needed. And these parts are used in conjunction with new parts. 9.3 INVENTORY CONTROL OF FINISHED GOODS: The gray fabric produced are stored firstly in the store concerned with the inspection room and after completion of a shift this fabrics are sent to fabric section of bonded wire house with final inspection report. Then theses goods are sent to the finishing section or to thee buyers as required. After dyeing & other finishing presses this fabrics are stored in finished fabric section & wastages are stored in wastage section of bonded wire house. These wastages can be used for various purpose of a factory. 9.4 OTHER INVENTORIES: Other inventories like empty packages or packages with few yarns & cartoons are stored in wastage room. From this packages with few yarns are used for sample production. Mechanical equipments for maintenance are stored in mechanical room, lubricants are stored in lubricant room & a drum is kept in the shed as stand by requirement. 9.5 REMARK: Proper inventory control of raw materials, semi-finished goods, finished goods and other miscellaneous goods lead smooth production. As Jinnnat Apparels Ltd. follow the correct way of inventory control system, it can have a good and huge production as it demands.
  53. 53. 53 CHAPTER – X (COST ANALYSIS)
  54. 54. 54 10.1 INTRODUCTION: The process by which the setting price of a product is calculated is called Costing. Here, Setting Price = Sum. of the cost + Profit margin. Cost elements are as below: 1.Production Cost a. Material cost b. Labor cost c. Making cost 2. Marketing & Selling cost a. Transportation cost b. Advertising cost c. Commission of sales executives 10.2 PRICE OF THE PRODUCT: Generally price of product is determined by the required profit adding to the total expenses. So, Price of products= (Direct expenses + Indirect expenses + Factory Overhead) + Required profit 10.3 COSTING OF THE PRODUCT: Let, Count of yarn = 30/1 Ne Price of yarn per kg. = 2.80 $ Particulars Cost (Tk.) Total Cost (Tk.) Cost of raw material / kg. 184.80 Knit charge / kg. 10.00 Process loss (5%) 9.25 Price of Gray Knitted Fabric (S/J) per kg. 204.05 Dyeing cost (Avg. color) 120.00 Process loss (10%) 32.40 Dyed fabric cost 356.45 Packing cost 3.30 Total cost of dyed fabric 359.75 Fabric price (with 25% margin) 449.69 Fabric consumption/ doz. = (Body length + Sleeve length) x Chest length x 2 x GSM x12 /10000000 Garments specification: Body length=78 cm Sleeve length=33 cm Chest length=62 cm
  55. 55. 55 GSM=210 Fabric consumption/ doz. = {(78+33) x62x2x210x12}/ 10000000 = 3.469 kg Fabric consumption/doze (with 10% wastage) = 3.816 kg Body fabric cost / doz. =(449.70x 3.8) =Tk.1708.86 Cost of collar& cuff/doz =Tk.198 Cost of Trims=Tk.148 Cost of Trims (with 5% Process loss) =Tk.155.40 Production Cost of Garments/ doz=Tk.2062.10 Garments Price/doz (with 25% Profit) =Tk.2577.60=$39.05 10.4 PRICE RANGE OF DIFFERENT PRODUCTS: T-Shirt = $0.75 - $4.50 /Pcs Polo Shirt =$2.00 - $6.50 /Pcs Kids Wear ==$0.75- $2.15 /Pcs 10.5 KNITTING CHARGE OF DIFFERENT FABRICS: Fabric name Charge per kg(Tk) Single Jersey 08-10 Single Jersey with Lycra 30-32 Single locoste 15-18 Double lacoste 16-20 Single Pique 15-18 Double Pique 16-20 Rib 18-20 Rib with Lycra 32-35 Interlock 28-32 Fleece 25-28 10.6 REMARKS Costing is as important as production for a productive factory. Without proper costing all production curriculums will go to in vain. Cause, a factory cannot reach to its goal without achieving good profit and good profit is not possible without skillful costing. Seeing the improvement of Jinnat Apparels Ltd. day by day, we can assume that it follows the right and proper way of costing with skillful technical persons.
  56. 56. 56 CHAPTER – XI (MARKETING ACTIVITIES)
  57. 57. 57 11.1 INTRODUCTION: Marketing activities are done in this mill, Jinnat Apparels Limited by a skillful team of marketing officers under the Executive Director. Here are the details of marketing activities. 11.2 BUYERS OF THE PRODUCTS: The mill has a great number of renowned and international buyers. Following are some regular buyers: 1) Wal-Mart 2) H&M 3) Carre-Four 4) Texebo 5) Well-Lord 6) VF-Asia 7) Echo 8)Tescho 11.3 PRODUCT LEBEL: There are following lebels used by this mill: 1) Care Lebel: It contains washing in hot or cold water, chemical cleaning, drying conditions etc. 2) Size Lebel: It contains size of garments. 3) Composition Lebel: It contains the fabric composition of different fibre type. 4) Decorative Lebel: Decoration is as buyer or consumer choice wise. 11.4 PACKAGE SIZE & LEBEL: Most common sizes are S - Small M - Medium L - Large XL - Extra large XLL - Very very large 11.5 LOCAL MARKET: Jinnat Apparels Limited is 100% export oriented mill. So there is no local market involved in it. But the knitting section takes some sub-contact for knitting an amount of fabrics from their given yarn. 11.6 IMPORTING COUNTRIES: This mill relates to the countries for yarn importing, they are 1) India 2) Korea 3) China 11.7 MANPOWER: Almost ten marketing officers and ten others workers act under the Executive Director.
  58. 58. 58 11.8 DUTIES & RESPONSIBILITES OF MARKETING OFFICERS: 1) Executive director takes order from the buyer and gives order the marketing officer’s troops to produce a cost sheet. 2) Marketing officers are known the amount and design of product. 3) They collect the sample from the buyers and send to knitting and dyeing section. 4) Knitting section adjusts the amount of total yarn and knitting conditions and dyeing sections adjust the amount of dyes and chemicals. They send a rough calculation to the marketing section. 5) Marketing officers adjust the amount of garments accessories with the help of their own experiences and their knowledge. They also take help of garments in charge. 6) Finally, they adjust their cost sheet after consulting with the Executive Director and copy several pieces of the cost sheet. 11.9 REMARKS: Marketing activities are very important tasks for a productive factory. In this mill, there having highly qualified marketing officers. As a result, the mill rises up day by day.
  59. 59. 59 CHAPTER – XII (CONCLUSION)
  60. 60. 60 College of Textile Technology has given me the field to perform the industrial attachment with Jinnat Apparels Ltd. This attachment seems to me as a bridge to minimize the gap between theoretical and practical knowledge. Undoubtedly, this attachment paved the way to learn more about Textile Technology, industrial practices, and industrial management and production process. Besides, this attachment gave us the first opportunity to work in an Industry and acquainted us with the internal sight and sound of Textile Industries. I believe with all these, the experience of the industrial attachment will help our future life as a Textile Technologist. ---0---

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