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Handbook of garments manufacturing technology

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Handbook of garments manufacturing technology

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Handbook of garments manufacturing technology

  1. 1. Prepared By: Md. Kamrul Hasan MBA (Malaysia) B.Sc. in Textile Engineering Batch: 15th Southeast University Dhaka, Bangladesh Handbook of Garments Manufacturing Technology - II
  2. 2. Southeast University Department of Textile Engineering Special Thanks to - Adnan Zaber Mahmud Lecturer, Department of Textile Engineering Southeast University And Md. Hanif Hossain 15th Batch (SEU) Prepared By: Md. Kamrul Hasan MBA (Malaysia) B.Sc. in Textile Engineering Major: Garments Manufacturing Technology Batch: 15th (Session: 2010 to 2014) Southeast University Dhaka, Bangladesh Email: hasanbd015@gmail.com It is a collection of class lectures of our respectable teacher Adnan Zaber Mahmud and collection from other sources.
  3. 3. Published on 26 March, 2015 1st Edition: 1st October, 2017 Dedicated to my respectable & beloved Parents
  4. 4. SL No Topics Page No 01 General Discussion on Garments 01 02 Buying House 02 03 Name of some important buyer of Bangladesh 02 04 How buyers place an order? 03 05 Some major garments manufacturer countries 03 06 GSP 04 07 Steps of Garments Export Procedure 06 08 Line Balancing, In-line Inspection, On-line Inspection, Tech. Pack, BOM Sheet, ICD 12 09 Lead Time, Stock Lot, FOB, C & F ,CIF, CM, CMT 13 10 What are Quality, Quality Control, Quality Assurance, Quality Policy, Quality Management, Quality System, Quality Plan, Inspection & Testing ? 14 11 Garments L/C, Delivery & Payment Process Chart 15 12 Different types of Agents in Garments Sector 16 13 Documents required for Export 18 14 Documents required for Import 19 15 Different types of Payment methods in Garments Trade 20 16 Documents required for Payment 21 17 Garments common item export from Bangladesh 22 18 Garments Accessories/Trims 28 19 What are Motif & Applique? 38 20 Stitch and Seam 39 21 Basting(40), Saddle stitch(41), Hemming(43), Neatening(48) 40,41,43,48 22 Sewing Threads 49 23 Thread Count and Ticket Number 53 24 Garment Defects 54 25 Different types of sewing faults & their definitions 57 26 Application of Sewing Machines in Garments Manufacturing 58 27 Some Garments Industrial Sewing Machine Figure 60 28 Parts of the Sewing Machine and Uses 63 29 Construction of a sewing needle 67 INDEX
  5. 5. 30 Pressing 69 31 Packing into Carton 70 32 Acceptable Quality Level (AQL) 71 33 Fabric (Which are used in Garments) 74 34 What are Check & Plaid fabric, Feeder & Engineering Stripe 76 35 Machine Lay-out of Garment 78 36 Sewing Flow Chart of T-Shirt Manufacturing 80 37 Sewing Flow Chart of Polo-Shirt Manufacturing 81 38 Different Types of Care Instructions for Garments 83 39 Some Important Terms (Penton Number, DTM, Lap dip, Yarn dip, Strike off, Art work, Hand Loom, Swatch, Swatch card, Trim card) 88 40 Compliance & ISO 89 41 About BEPZA & EPZ 91 42 Common Abbreviations for Textiles & Garments Technology 93 43 Common Shipping Terms Abbreviations for International Trade 96
  6. 6. 1 Prepared by: Hasan (15th –Batch; SEU) | Email: hasanbd015@gmail.com General Discussion on Garments Some factors related to buying side:  Customer: Those who buy a product & use the product.  Wholesaler: Those who sell product to the retailers and they buy in large quantity from suppliers.  Retailer: Those who sell product to the customer through outlets and they buy from wholesalers/buyers.  Importer: Those who buy product from overseas countries and sell to wholesaler/retailer/customer.  Buyer: Those who buy product from seller/suppliers and sell further to another buyer or customer. Some factors related to selling side:  Seller: Those who sell product to the buyers. They may/may not manufacture the product.  Supplier: They are a kind of seller.  Manufacturer: Those who manufacture the product.  Exporter: Those who sell product to the buyers in the overseas countries.  Trader: Those who mediates between buyer and manufacturer. Trader is two types such as local and foreign.
  7. 7. 2 Prepared by: Hasan (15th –Batch; SEU) | Email: hasanbd015@gmail.com Buying House: 1. Buyer liaison office (Buyer will directly open a branch). 2. Traders are of two types- i). Foreign Trader & ii). Local Trade *** 80% Trader (Baridhara, Uttara) and 20% Liaison office (Gulsion, Dhaka). List of Traders: Multinational trader: 1. Li & Fung (Hongkong) 2. Comptextile (Shrilanka) 3. Texebo 4. Asmara (India) 5. Mondial (Europe) 6. Lin mark (Europe) 7. ZXY Apparel Buying Solution (Europe) 8. Synergies Local Trader: 1. Centrotex (BD) 2. Team sourcing (Uttara; BD) 3. Norwest (BD) Name of some important buyer of Bangladesh: Generally buyers of USA, Europe, Japan, Australia, India, and Canada are the main buyers of garments and Textile product of Bangladesh. Name of some important buyers of these countries are given below- USA buyer Europe buyer Others buyer 1. Wal-mart 2. Levi’s 3. Academy 4. Banana 5. Gap 6. PVH (Phillips Von Heuson) 7. Peri Ellis 8. Jcpenny 9. Old Navy 10.American Eagle 11.Target 1. Zara 2. H & M 3. M & S (Marks & Spencer) 4. C & A 5. Nike 6. Adidas 7. Armani 8. Next 9. Mango 10.Tesco 11.Tema 12.NKD 13.Jd Williams 14.Adler 15.European Eagle 16.Jack & Jones 17.Carrefour 18.Sains Burry 19.Abercrombie & Fitch Japanese buyer: 1. Uniqlo Australian buyer: 1. Kmart Indian buyer: 1. Black Berry 2. Mahendra 3. ITC 4. Ramond Canadian buyer: 1. Hudson Bay 2. Boss Hugo 3. Hugger Canada
  8. 8. 3 Prepared by: Hasan (15th –Batch; SEU) | Email: hasanbd015@gmail.com Question: How buyers place an order? Which are used according to confirmation of order is given by below- Seasons of Export in USA:  Spring  Summer  Fall Seasons of Export in Europe: a) i) Spring ii) Summer b) i) Autumn ii) Winter Some major garments manufacturer countries: 1. China 2. Bangladesh 3. India 4. Shrilanka 5. Vietnam 6. Combodia 7. Mianmar 8. Thailand 9. Turkey 10.Indonesia 11.Pakistan Turkey: This country is suitable for highly decorative and fancy garments. China: Buyers select China for decorative garments and short time shipment. India: Buyers select India for decorative garments. Vietnam: Buyers select Vietnam for plain printed T-Shirt. Combodia: Buyers select Combodia for plain printed T-Shirt. Bangladesh: Bangladesh is a Lower Developing Country with GSP facility. Buyers import various types of garments from Bangladesh. January to Jun July to December
  9. 9. 4 Prepared by: Hasan (15th –Batch; SEU) | Email: hasanbd015@gmail.com GSP: The EU's "Generalized System of Preferences" (GSP) allows developing countries to pay less or no customs duties on their exports to the European Union (EU). This gives them vital access to EU markets and contributes to their economic growth. The GSP scheme is specifically designed to benefit certain developing countries and integrate them into the world economy. Today Bangladesh offers a very flexible and feasible production base for its customers in EU, America and Australia. The EU market is quota free for apparels and goods are eligible for the GSP facilities. As an LDC member Bangladesh also obtain special Tariff benefit from Canada (18% import Tax free). Importance of GSP Status: Bangladesh has an excellent opportunity to boost exports of garments to the USA and EU countries where demand for  Low price  Good quality  Capacity So, GSP status is very important for us.  With the GSP status, Bangladeshi garment products can enter the market tax free/duty free. On the other hand, its absence, it has to pay 12 percent import duties for most products. This status helps decrease the cost per unit of garments, causing the demand to rise.  This not only helps the garment industry but also the entire economy.  Increased trade means higher export earnings which help promote further industrialization, leading to higher economic growth.  Now let us look at a more concrete example. Bangladesh’s apparel exports to the EU made a leap since January 2011 when it allowed GSP for Bangladeshi garments made from imported fabrics. Previously, Bangladesh used to enjoy the GSP benefit only for those garments made from local fabrics.
  10. 10. 5 Prepared by: Hasan (15th –Batch; SEU) | Email: hasanbd015@gmail.com  There is a 46 percent rise in apparel exports between a year without and with GSP, indicating the importance of this status in the country’s apparel industry. Bangladesh Export to the EU (Graph of GSP)  Without it, the price per unit of garment will rise and this may lead to many European buyers turning their backs on our products.
  11. 11. 6 Prepared by: Hasan (15th –Batch; SEU) | Email: hasanbd015@gmail.com Steps of Garments Export Procedure: 1. Inquiry of a product: First of all, supplier collects the product from the buyer and enquiry the product. 2. Space Availability/Timely delivery: Space availability is the availability of production floor for the production of garments. Within the time, garments must be delivery. 3. Costing/Price Quotation: Costing means the way of calculating the cost of production of garments. Costing is done considering- i) Fabric cost ii) Accessories cost & iii)CM (Cost of Making) cost Way of Costing: Costing can be done by- i) Original Sample ii) Specification 4. Order Confirmation: An order confirmation is a written document which is issued by buyer to the manufacturer which contains Tech-pack. It serves as tool to avoid confusion and mistakes. 5. PO (Purchase Order): After confirmation of an order buyer provides seller a written document which mention the order details such as- - Order quantity - Delivery date - Port of destination (POD) - Item description - Item unit price etc. 6. Master L/C: When a L/C is opened to import goods directly from the manufacturer is called Master L/C. This L/C is issued by the buyer (Buyer’s bank) to manufacturer. Master L/C has higher financial value than back to back L/C.
  12. 12. 7 Prepared by: Hasan (15th –Batch; SEU) | Email: hasanbd015@gmail.com 7. T & A Calendar Made by the factory: T & A or “Time and Action” calendar is made by the manufacturer to complete the production within a specific period of time. 8. Fabric & Accessories Booking by the factory: After making of T & A calendar, fabric & accessories booking is necessary. Without fabric all materials used in garments is called “Accessories” or “Trimmings”. Accessories include- Sewing Thread, Button, Interlining, Lining, Zipper, Label, Hager, Rib, Plastic Clip, Price tag, Poly bag, Carton, etc. 9. BB (Back to Back) L/C opened by the factory: When a L/C is prepared by the manufacturer to collect raw materials from the raw materials supplier for the production is called Back to Back L/C. Back to Back L/C has 70-80% financial value of Master L/C. Difference between Master L/C and Back to Back L/C: SL No. Subject Master L/C Back to Back L/C 01 Definition Master L/C is prepared by the buyer to import goods from the manufacturer. BB L/C is prepared by the manufacturer to collect raw materials from raw materials supplier for the production. 02 Issued Bank Issued by the buyer’s bank. Issued by the manufacturer’s bank. 03 Types of L/C It is a basic L/C. It depends on master L/C. 04 Purpose To import goods from the manufacturer. To collect raw materials from the raw material suppliers. 05 Financial Value It has higher financial value than Back to Back L/C. It has lower financial value than master L/C.
  13. 13. 8 Prepared by: Hasan (15th –Batch; SEU) | Email: hasanbd015@gmail.com 10. Sampling: In garments industry, the sample which is come from buyer and it is followed for bulk production is called sample. The process of collecting or making sample is called “Sampling”. Types of Garments Sample: a. Proto Sample: Features:  This sample is made by available fabric and accessories.  This sample is made before or after order confirmation. Purpose: Here buyer checks whether supplier can make the garments. b. Fit Sample: Features:  This sample is made by available fabric and accessories.  This sample is made after order confirmation. Purpose: Here buyer checks the fitness or measurement of the garments. c. P.P (Pre-Production) Sample: Features:  This sample is made by actual fabric and accessories.  This sample is made after order confirmation.  These samples must be approved by the buyer before production. Purpose: Bulk production is done following P.P sample. d. Size Set Sample: Features:  These samples are made in all sizes.  These samples are made in the production floor.  These samples are not sent to the buyer. Purpose: These samples are only used for PP meeting.
  14. 14. 9 Prepared by: Hasan (15th –Batch; SEU) | Email: hasanbd015@gmail.com e. Production Sample: Features:  These samples are collected from the production floor while bulk production is running.  These samples are sent to the buyer. Purpose: Here buyer compares Production Sample with the PP Sample. f. Garments Test Sample: Features:  These samples are collected from the production floor while bulk production is running.  These samples are sent to the testing house. Purpose: Here Testing House tests different aspects of the garments and send “test report” to the buyer and factory. Common Tests of Garments: Common tests of garments are below-  Dimensional Stability Tests  Seam Strength Tests  Button Attaching Tests  Spirality Tests  Color Fastness Tests  Abrasion Tests  Radiation of Materials Tests Name of Some Testing Houses/Companies: i) SGS ii) ITS iii)TUV SUD iv) Burean Veritas Functions of Testing Houses:  Garment test  Fabric test  Accessories test  Inline-inspection  Pre-final inspection  Final inspection  Garments factory auditing for compliance. Multinational
  15. 15. 10 Prepared by: Hasan (15th –Batch; SEU) | Email: hasanbd015@gmail.com g. Shipment Samples: Features:  These samples are not so mandatory.  These samples are sent to the buyer after shipment of the garments. Purpose: Here buyer compares Shipment Sample with Production Sample. h. Salesman Samples: The sample which is made for market appraisal or marketing purpose then it is called salesman sample. It is made at the final stage of order confirmation and actual materials are used for marketing the sample. 11. Fabric & Trims in House: Here confirms all fabrics and accessories in manufacturer storehouse in time. Otherwise the schedule will be hampered. 12. Inspection of Inventory& Report Making: Check the quality & quantity of fabrics and accessories in house. After checking a report is made with the test data. 13. PP (Pre-production) Meeting: This meeting is held just before going to the bulk production. This meeting is conducted by following persons-  Buying House QC  Factory QC  Buying House Merchandiser  Factory Merchandiser  Pattern Master  Cutting Master  Production Manager  Sample man 14. Pattern and Marker Making for Bulk Production:  Pattern is a hard paper which is made by following all the specifications of each and individual components for a particular style of garment.  Marker is a thin paper which contains all the necessary pattern pieces for all sizes for a particular style of garments. 15. Trial or Pilot Cutting: Little amount (for 200-300 pieces of garments) of fabrics are cut for checking the efficiency and production cost of the garments.
  16. 16. 11 Prepared by: Hasan (15th –Batch; SEU) | Email: hasanbd015@gmail.com 16. Bulk Cutting: Here, total fabrics are cut for bulk production. 17. Numbering, Sorting & Bundling: After cutting, fabrics have to do numbering, sorting and bundling to avoid shade variation in the garments. Then cut pieces are sent to the sewing section. 18. Production Line Set-up: Here, production team sets a perfect production line for completing smooth garments production. Production line is 4 types – 19. Sewing: Here, all the cutting fabrics are sewn to make the complete garments according to the approved sample. Different types of sewing machines are used in production line. 20. Finishing: All the required finishing procedures are done here by following the buyer’s instruction. 21. Pre-Final Inspection: This inspection is done after complete of 70% production by factory QC. 22. Final Inspection: This inspection is done after complete of 100% production. Final inspection is conducted by the – i) Buyer ii) Buyer QC iii) Trader QC iv) Self-Inspection: Conducted by the factory QC. v) Third Party Inspection: Conducted by the testing houses. 23. Delivery: If everything is ok, then manufacturer sent the goods to the buyer. Foreign Local
  17. 17. 12 Prepared by: Hasan (15th –Batch; SEU) | Email: hasanbd015@gmail.com Line Balancing: Line balancing is the allocation of sewing machines according to style and design of garment. It depends on, what type of garments we have to produce. It is done for increasing production quantity & quality. In-line Inspection: During production, buyer QC will come and check the product quality and suggest to over-come any type of problem. This type of inspection is called In- line Inspection. On-line Inspection: This inspection is done at the end of the production line during production is called On-line Inspection. This inspection is conducted by the factory QC. Tech. Pack (Technical Package): The file which contains the specification of product is called “Tech-pack” or “Specification File” or “PDM” (Product Development Manual) or “Order Sheet” or “Product Package”. Technical Package is issued by the buyer and collected by the manufacturer. A technical package which mention- i) Design or Sketch of garments ii) Fabric details:  Composition  Color  Construction  GSM or oz/yd2  Any other instruction iii)Accessories details iv) Garments Size ( called “Measurement Chart” or “Size Chart” ) v) Any Kind of Instruction BOM Sheet: The pages of specification file which contains fabric and accessories detail is called BOM (Bill of Materials) Sheet. ICD: ICD means Inland Container Depot. The goods which are not suitable to transport in carton because of introducing crease marks. So goods are transport by hanging in ICD. These goods are suit, blazer, dress pant, dress shirt etc.
  18. 18. 13 Prepared by: Hasan (15th –Batch; SEU) | Email: hasanbd015@gmail.com Lead Time: The time between order confirmation to the delivery is called lead time. Stock Lot: When goods are made for buyer but not possible to send the goods to buyer due to failure of commitment with buyer as a result goods stay in store. These goods are called stock lot. FOB (Free on Board): It is the value of the product which is claimed or fixed without transportation cost of the goods. C & F (Cost and Freight): It is the value of the product which is claimed or fixed including transportation cost of the goods. CIF (Cost, Insurance and Freight): It is the value of the product which is claimed or fixed including transportation cost and insurance cost. CM (Cost of Making): Buyer will provide all the fabric and accessories. Manufacturer has to make only garment and he will get the making charge only. CMT (Cost of Making with Trimming): Buyer will provide all fabric. Manufacturer will get the making charge and at the same time will get the trimming cost.
  19. 19. 14 Prepared by: Hasan (15th –Batch; SEU) | Email: hasanbd015@gmail.com What is Quality? Quality is the fulfillment of customer requirement of a product or service. What is Quality Control? The operational techniques and the activities used to fulfill requirements of quality. What is Quality Assurance? All those planned or systematic actions necessary to provide adequate confidence that a product or service will satisfy given requirements for quality. What is Quality Policy? The overall intentions and directions of an organization as regards quality as formally expressed by top management. What is Quality Management? The aspect of the overall management function that determines and implements the quality policy. What is Quality System? The organizational structure, responsibilities, procedures, processes and resources for implementing quality management. What is Quality Plan? A document setting out the specific quality practices, resources and activities relevant to a particular product, service, contract or project. What is Inspection? Activities, such measuring, examining, testing, gauging, one or more characteristics of a product or service and comparing these with specified requirements to determine conformity. What is Testing? A means of determining the capability of an item to meet specified requirements by subjecting the item to a set of physical, chemical, environmental, or operating actions and conditions.
  20. 20. 15 Prepared by: Hasan (15th –Batch; SEU) | Email: hasanbd015@gmail.com Garments L/C, Delivery & Payment Process Chart:
  21. 21. 16 Prepared by: Hasan (15th –Batch; SEU) | Email: hasanbd015@gmail.com Different types of Agents in Garments Sector: 1. Currier Companies: Sample or any other important documents necessary for export are sent by the currier. Name of Some Currier: 1. DHL 2. Aramex 3. TNT 4. Fedex 5. UPS 6. Sky net 7. DPEX 8. Dragon 2. C& F (Clearing & Forwarding) Agent: They are only handle all kinds of customs related documents are called C & F Agent. They work for exporter. Exporter pays the C & F Agents. Name of Some C & F Agent: 1. Continental 2. Chitra 3. Epsheeta 3. Logistic Firms or Freight Forwarding Agent or Forwarder: The firms or agents which take the responsibility to receive the goods from factory to Chittagong port and send to the buyer destination or buyer agent are called “Logistic Firms”. Buyer pays the logistic firms. Names of Some Logistic Firms: i) Maersk ii) APL iii)MGH iv) NYK v) Kuhen & Negel vi) Expolonca vii) Damco viii) NMC Corporation Ltd. ix) HTL Logistic x) Crown Logistic
  22. 22. 17 Prepared by: Hasan (15th –Batch; SEU) | Email: hasanbd015@gmail.com 4. Bank: They take care our payment and all financial matters. 5. Testing Companies: Functions of testing company:  Garment test  Fabric test  Accessories test  Inline-inspection  Pre-final inspection  Final inspection  Garments factory auditing for compliance. 6. Transportation Companies: Any kind of textile material transport by transportation companies.
  23. 23. 18 Prepared by: Hasan (15th –Batch; SEU) | Email: hasanbd015@gmail.com Documents required for Export: 1. Trade License: This license is used for business permission. It is issued by City Corporation or Poroshova. 2. Bank current account: This account will be any scheduled commercial bank. 3. TIN (Tax Identification Number) certificate: It is issued by NBR (National Board of Revenue). 4. Membership of BGMEA or BKMEA or DCCI or BGBA: This membership which protect from any kind of accident such as conflict between any industry. Note: BGMEA = Bangladesh Garment Manufacturers & Exporters Association. BKMEA = Bangladesh Knitwear Manufacturers & Exporters Association. DCCI = Dhaka Chamber of Commerce & Industry. BGBA = Bangladesh Garment Buying House Association. 5. ERC (Export Registration Certificate): It is issued by office of the controller of export & import. 6. VRC (Vat Registration Certificate): It is issued by customs. It does not need to renew. 7. EXP (Export Permission): It is issued by any scheduled commercial bank. For each order this EXP is issued separately. 8. Memorandum of association: It is a document that is issued by RJSC (Registered of Joint Stock Companies and Firms) which indicates the partnership specially share percentage, profit percentage and any kind of partnership details in case of limited company. 9. Certification of incorporation: It is issued by RJSC (Registered of Joint Stock Companies and Firms) include member details. Note: 1-5 and 7 all points are renew every year.
  24. 24. 19 Prepared by: Hasan (15th –Batch; SEU) | Email: hasanbd015@gmail.com Documents required for Import: 1. Trade License: This license is used for business permission. It is issued by City Corporation or Poroshova. 2. Bank current account: This account will be any scheduled commercial bank. 3. TIN (Tax Identification Number) certificate: It is issued by NBR (National Board of Revenue). 4. Membership of BGMEA or BKMEA or DCCI or BGBA: This membership which protect from any kind of accident such as conflict between any industry. Note: BGMEA = Bangladesh Garment Manufacturers & Exporters Association. BKMEA = Bangladesh Knitwear Manufacturers & Exporters Association. DCCI = Dhaka Chamber of Commerce & Industry. BGBA = Bangladesh Garment Buying House Association. 5. IRC (Import Registration Certificate): It is issued by office of the controller of export & import. 6. VRC (Vat Registration Certificate): It is issued by customs. It does not need to renew. 7. IMP (Import Permission): It is issued by any scheduled commercial bank. For each order this EXP is issued separately. 8. Memorandum of association: It is a document that is issued by RJSC (Registered of Joint Stock Companies and Firms) which indicates the partnership specially share percentage, profit percentage and any kind of partnership details in case of limited company. 9. Certification of incorporation: It is issued by RJSC (Registered Joint Stock Company) include member details. Note: 1-5 and 7 all points are renew every year.
  25. 25. 20 Prepared by: Hasan (15th –Batch; SEU) | Email: hasanbd015@gmail.com Different types of Payment methods in Garments Trade: 1. L/C (Letter of Credit): A guarantee letter of payment. This letter ensures that seller will get his payment after delivery of the goods. Types of L/C- a) L/C at sight: In case of L/C at sight after delivery of the goods and documents seller will get his payment instantly. b) Deferred at sight: In case of deferred at sight after delivery of the goods and documents seller will not get his payment instantly. Such as-  L/C at 30 days sight  L/C at 45 days sight  L/C at 60 days sight  L/C at 90 days sight  L/C at 120 days sight  L/C at 180 days sight 2. T/T (Telegraphic Transfer): T/T means Cash Taka. When order quantity is very small and need urgent delivery, in that case, buyer gives purchase contract instead of L/C and sends money to seller bank by T/T. After getting money, the seller sends the goods to buyer. Now it is not use. Types of T/T- a) Open T/T: Buyer will pay open either 100% or 70% or 50% or 30%. b) Conditional T/T: Buyer will pay advance but can not money without showing documents. 3. D/P (Documents against payment): Buyer gives order by sales contract instead of L/C but it is risky method. After delivery of the goods and documents seller will not get his payment guaranteed.
  26. 26. 21 Prepared by: Hasan (15th –Batch; SEU) | Email: hasanbd015@gmail.com 4. D/A (Documents against acceptance): This is the most risky method. After delivery of the good send documents buyer will delay the payment. Such as-  D/A at 30 days sight  D/A at 45 days sight  D/A at 60 days sight  D/A at 90 days sight  D/A at 120 days sight  D/A at 180 days sight 5. Western Union: This union is used for very small quantity of the garments. For example: 300pcs of garments. Documents required for Payment: 1. Commercial invoice: It is a very important document in readymade garments business which is sent with the goods to the buyer. The invoice includes name & address of importer and exporter, description of goods, price, number of carton, number of goods in every carton, details of shipment etc. A shipment is not allowed without a commercial invoice. 2. Packing List: This is a document that indicates the contents of each individual carton/ package in the container. The packing list includes the cubic measurement of the cartons/package, the weight, the number of cartons/packages, the breakdown of the goods by size/color/quantity. This document is prepared by the seller or the ship owner, and the buyer can specify which information should be included. 3. Bill of Landing or Air Way Bill: Bill of Landing is a document which is issued by the shipping company acknowledging that the goods have been shipped on board or air and undertaking that the goods as received will be delivered to the consignee (Buyer). When the export contract is CIF, then the exporter makes payment of the freight and gets “freight paid” Bill of Landing. On the other hand, if the contract is FOB, the freight has to be paid by the importer. In that case, the shipping company will issue a “freight collect” Bill of Landing.
  27. 27. 22 Prepared by: Hasan (15th –Batch; SEU) | Email: hasanbd015@gmail.com Garments common item export from Bangladesh There are three categories of garments that we export-  Woven Garments  Knit Garments &  Heavy Knit Garments Woven Garments: 1. Shirt: Men top garments. Shirt is of two types- a) Basic/Formal/Dress/Official shirt b) Casual/Pilot shirt 2. Pants/Trouser: Men bottom garments. Pants may be of two types- a) Formal/Dress/Chino pants b) Casual pants. e.g. Jeans pants, Cargo pants. 3. Half Pants or Shorts: Men bottom garments above the knee. e.g. Cargo shorts. 4. 3/4 of Pants or Bermuda: Men bottom garments below the knee & above the ankle. e.g. Three quarter. 5. Skirt: Ladies bottom garments. 6. Blouse: Ladies top garments. e.g. Ladies shirt or ladies fotua. 7. Dress: Ladies top garments. e.g. Ladies kamiz. 8. Capri’s: Ladies pant below the knee & above the ankle but not ¾ of pants. Fig: Shirt Fig: Pant Fig: Half pant Fig:Three quarter Fig: Skirt Fig: Ladies shirt Fig: Capris
  28. 28. 23 Prepared by: Hasan (15th –Batch; SEU) | Email: hasanbd015@gmail.com 9. Jacket/Blazer/Coat: Men top garments containing “Lapel” and Taffeta. 10. Padded Jacket: Jacket that contains “Quilting”. 11. Trench Coat: Long coat with waist belt. 12. Gilet: Sleeveless thick jacket that is mainly used in Europe. 13. Parka: It is another type of jacket but in has a hairy look in the collar part. 14. Vest/over coat/waist coat: Sleeveless coat with button at front that is basically used as dress. e.g. Mujib coat. 15. Pajamas/Night wear/Sleep wear: Night dress- both top & bottom. 16. Cover all: One type of work wear that covers full body. 17. Overall: One type of sleeveless work wear that covers full body. 18. Short all: One type of sleeveless work wear that covers half of the body. 19. Head Wear: Different types of cap, hat etc. Fig: Pant Fig: Blazer Fig: Gilet Fig: Parka Fig: Vest Fig: Cap
  29. 29. 24 Prepared by: Hasan (15th –Batch; SEU) | Email: hasanbd015@gmail.com Knit or Light Knit Garments: 1. T-Shirt: Top garments that must not contain placket. It may contain half collar or not. Collar of T-Shirt is made by circular rib machine. Generally single jersey fabric of GSM 120-220 is used to make T-Shirt. 2. Polo Shirt: Top garments that must have placket and collar. The collar of Polo Shirt is made by flat bed knitting machine. Double jersey fabrics are used to make Polo Shirt. 3. Tank Top: Sleeveless top garments for men containing strap. E.g. Santo ganji. 4. Sweat Shirt: Long sleeve T-Shirt made by fleece fabric. 5. Swim wear: Clothing specially made for swimming purposes. These garments are skin tight, made of hydrophobic fibre and water proof. 6. Sports Wear: Garments used in any type of sports. 7. Socks: An item of clothing that is worn on feet. Fig: T-shirt Fig: Polo-shirt Fig: Swim wear Fig: Sports wear Fig: Socks Fig: Santo ganji
  30. 30. 25 Prepared by: Hasan (15th –Batch; SEU) | Email: hasanbd015@gmail.com 8. Hoody: Long sleeve top garments with hood. Generally made of fleece fabric. 9. Knit dress 10. Knit Pajamas: Night dress- both top & bottom. 11. Knit Trousers: Basically knitted pants which are very much comfortable to wear. 12. Briefs: Men’s under wear (short). 13. Lingerie: Only ladies under garments. 14. Singlet: Sleeveless ladies top garments with strap. 15. Tights/Hose/Leggings: Tight fit ladies garments. Used in Bottom. 16. Gloves: Gloves have individual finger coverings, offering more mobility but less overall warmth than mittens. 17. Mitten: A covering for the hand that encases the thumb separately and the four fingers together. 18. Boxer Shorts: Long size men underwear above the knee. Fig: Hoody Fig: Briefs Fig: Lingerie Fig: Singlet Fig: Tights Fig: Mitten Fig: Gloves Fig: Boxer shorts
  31. 31. 26 Prepared by: Hasan (15th –Batch; SEU) | Email: hasanbd015@gmail.com Heavy Knit or Sweater: 1. Pullover: Long sleeve sweater without button at front. 2. Slipover: Sleeveless sweater without button at front. 3. Vest/Waist Coat/Over Coat: Sleeveless sweater with button at front. 4. Cardigan: Long sleeve sweater with button at front. 5. Zip-up: Long sleeve sweater with zipper at front. 6. Half-zip: Long sleeve sweater with half-zipper at front. Fig: Pullover Fig: Slipover Fig: Vest Fig: Cardigan Fig: Zip-up Fig: Half-zip
  32. 32. 27 Prepared by: Hasan (15th –Batch; SEU) | Email: hasanbd015@gmail.com Types of Fleece: Generally there are two types of fleece. i. Terry fleece: Here one side single jersey and other side is brushed. ii. Polar fleece: Here both sides are brushed. Types of Stripe: Generally there are two types of stripe. 1. Feeder Stripe: If the repeat length of the stripe is below 4cm then it is called feeder stripe. 2. Engineering Stripe: If the repeat length of the stripe is above 4cm then it is called engineering stripe. Outer Wear: Garments that protection from bad weather are called outer wear. e.g. Rain Coat, Trench Coat, Gilet, Wind Breaker. Fig: Terry fleece Fig: Polar fleece
  33. 33. 28 Prepared by: Hasan (15th –Batch; SEU) | Email: hasanbd015@gmail.com Garments Accessories/Trims Without fabric all materials used in garments is called accessories or Trimmings. It includes thread, button, interlining, zipper, label etc. Accessories can be divided into 2 groups-  Sewing accessories  Finishing accessories Sewing accessories: 1. Sewing thread: The physical appearance and quality of seam is directly related to sewing thread. It is one of the main elements to production garment. Sewing thread play an important factor to join two parts of fabric. Sewing threads are produced from ply of yarn which is used for sewing. 2. Interlining: Interlining is one kind of accessories which is used between two layers of fabrics in the garments. It is joined by sewing and heating. The main purpose of these fabrics is used to hold up, support, control area of garments and to keep real shape. Interlining fabric is made of cotton, nylon, polyester, viscose and wool are used in interlining. It can be used canvas, flannel and non-woven fabrics. Generally two types of interlining are used in garment processing which are fusible interlining and non-fusible interlining. Uses: Interlining is normally used in cuffs, collar, waist band, belt loop & the front part of jacket & coats. 3. Lining: Lining is a piece of fabric which is used to cover the inner surfaces of garments especially when inner face employs different materials from the outer surface. It is joined by sewing. The main purpose of these fabrics is used to feel comfort and to prevent wear on a side. Generally smooth and lustrous fabrics made of silk or cotton is used in lining. It can be used lustrous wool alpaca fabric or silk filling. Uses: Lining is mostly applied in jackets and coats. Fig: Sewing thread Fig: Interlining Fig: Lining
  34. 34. 29 Prepared by: Hasan (15th –Batch; SEU) | Email: hasanbd015@gmail.com 4. Label: A label is a part of garments which indicates various instructions about garments. Label is attached with garments by sewing. It is 2 types- woven label and printed label. Normally 3 types of labels are used in apparel industry-  Main label: It contains brand name or trade name, country name of buyer which is registered by the buyer e.g. Levi’s, Polo, Adidas, GAP, Lewis Philippe, etc.  Size label: It indicates the size of the garment i.e. S, M, L, XL, XXL, or collar length of shirt 15, 16, 17, 18, etc.  Care label: It contains fabric composition and care instructions and also the name of the country or origin. 5. Zipper: This is one kind of trimming which is used open and close of two parts of garments. But it’s also used for decorative purpose.  It has mainly 4 parts- stopper, slider, tape and teeth.  Zipper length is measured from stopper to stopper.  Tape is normally made of nylon or polyester to avoid shrinkage.  Zipper teeth are normally made of metal, aluminum, black oxidized, molded plastic. Types of Zipper:  Metal zipper (golden brass, antique brass, antique silver, gunmetal, silver etc.)  Aluminum zipper  Black Oxidized zipper  Molded Plastic zipper Types of Zippers based on Functionality:  OE Zipper = Open end zipper using in jackets.  CE Zipper = Closed end zipper using in trousers. Fig: Main label Fig: Size label Fig: Care label
  35. 35. 30 Prepared by: Hasan (15th –Batch; SEU) | Email: hasanbd015@gmail.com 6. Elastic:  It is made of elastomeric fibres.  Elastic tapes are mentioned by their width, such as ½″, ¾″, 1″, 1.5″, 2″, 5″ etc.  It may be of different colors and it is found with different stretch ability. Uses: For kids (up to 0-11) trousers and shorts, button hole elastic must be used. Also used for the bottom waist band of a jacket, vest or pull-over shirt. Also for pants, shorts and skirts. 7. Twill tap: Herringbone type tape used in polo-shirt, binding in T-shirt, Cargo pant etc. 8. Canvas tap: Plain weave type tape used in polo-shirt, binding in T-shirt etc. 9. Shoulder pad: Shoulder pads are shaped pad which is used at the shoulder areas of a garment to give a raised shape or an extended shoulder line to the finished garment. It is made from foam. Normally used in blazer and jacket. 10. Premade waist band: Pre-made waist band is used inside the waist band for extra decoration. Fig: Elastic Fig: Twill tape Fig: Canvas tape Fig: Shoulder pad Fig: Pre-made waist band
  36. 36. 31 Prepared by: Hasan (15th –Batch; SEU) | Email: hasanbd015@gmail.com 11. Rib: Rib is a double jersey fabric. Rib is used as-  Collar of T-shirt: This is made by circular knitting machine.  Collar of Polo-shirt: This is made by flat-bed knitting machine.  Collar of sweater & hoody.  Cuff of T-shirt & Polo-shirt  Cuff of sweater & hoody. 12: Button: A button is a small disc, typically round, object usually attached to an article of clothing in order to secure an opening, or for ornamentation. Button is made of plastic or metal. Example, 12L, 16L, 18L, 24L, 26L, 28L, 32L, 36L etc. Normally size of button is measured by “Ligne”. We know that, 1 Ligne = 0.025inch or 0.635 mm Types of Button: According to number of holes button can be classified as-  2 hole button &  4 hole button Ligne no: It is the measuring unit of the button. It indicates the diameter of button. If diameter increases, ligne no also increases. Where, 1 Ligne = 0.025inch or 0.635 mm How to measure of button size? Formula: Button Ligne (L) = Button dia in mm / 0.635 Example: If the button diameter is 15mm then what will be the size of button? Solution: So, L = 15/0.635 = 23.62 = 24 L Fig: Rib Fig: Button 28L 17.8mm
  37. 37. 32 Prepared by: Hasan (15th –Batch; SEU) | Email: hasanbd015@gmail.com 13. Hook & loop or Hook & Bar or Velcro: This item consists of two woven polyamide tapes; one is covered with very fine hooks and the other with very fine loops. When pressed together they adhere (stick) securely to each other. This fastener is also used instead of buttons or zippers. A Swiss inventor made this product and he offered the trade name ‘Velcro’ for it. Velcro is available in roll form in the market which has most common width of 5/8 to 3/4 inch. Uses: Normally used in kids wear, jacket, cargo pants, medical textiles, shoes, belts, bags etc. Fig: Hook & Loop
  38. 38. 33 Prepared by: Hasan (15th –Batch; SEU) | Email: hasanbd015@gmail.com Finishing accessories: Accessories that used in finishing are called finishing accessories. Finishing accessories generally used in garments are described below- 1. Shank Button: Shank Button is a fastening device. It contains two parts which are attached by pressing. It is used in casual garments. The button hole of shank button is called “Eyelet’’. This button is attached by snap attaching machine. 2. Rivet: The uses of rivet are mostly seen at jeans pant and heavy garments. Rivet is a small metal bolt which is used two parts of tension place in garments. It is a fastening device contains two parts. Widely used for decorative and reinforcement purpose of denim or jeans garments. 3. Snap: Snap is a fastening device that contains four parts. 4. Buckle: Metal buckle used in waist band of trench coat. 5. Patch: To attach back side of waist belt of jeans which contain brand name. Made of leather or rexgine. It is used for decorative purpose. Fig: PatchFig: Buckle Fig: Shank button Fig: Rivet Fig: Snap
  39. 39. 34 Prepared by: Hasan (15th –Batch; SEU) | Email: hasanbd015@gmail.com 6. Pocket Flasher: Pocket flasher is normally used in trouser’s pocket. It is a hard paper. 7. Butterfly: The uses of butterfly are mostly seen in the front part of collar of shirts where button is attached. Generally made of plastic or paper. 8. Collar Stay: Normally collar stay is used in collar points of a shirt which is invisible. 9. Collar Stand: Generally made of plastic or paper to keep the shape of the collar. 10. Neck Board: Generally found at the back & below the collar of a shirt. Made of paper or plastic. 11. Back Board/Card Board: Backboard is a hardboard/hard paper is placed inside shirt for keeping its shape unchanged after packing. 12. Clip: A clip is a device which holds the fold portion of the garment together by means of pressure. Note: Point (7-12) accessories of shirt. Fig: Pocket flasher Fig: Butterfly Fig: Collar stay Fig: Collar stand Fig: Back board Fig: Clip
  40. 40. 35 Prepared by: Hasan (15th –Batch; SEU) | Email: hasanbd015@gmail.com 16. Poly Bag: A poly bag is a plastic bag used for packing garments. The garment is first folded as per direction of the order sheet then is packed. There are two types of poly bag used in garments packing; one is single poly bag in that a single garment is packed and the other is blister poly bag in that more than one garment are packed. For packing the garments into blister poly bag, packing instructions must be followed. 17. Carton: It is used in packing garments ready for shipment. Carton box is made by using ply board. The dimensions of the cartons depend on buyer instructions and the number of pieces of garments in each carton is given in the order sheet. Sometimes a carton is also called a box. Number of ply indicates the quality of a carton. Generally 3, 5, 7, 9 ply cartons are available. Ply Carton strength Cost Fig: Draw cord Fig: Stopper Fig: Pant (Trouser) Fig: PolybagFig: Carton
  41. 41. 36 Prepared by: Hasan (15th –Batch; SEU) | Email: hasanbd015@gmail.com 18. Hook & Eye: Hooks and eyes are small but comparatively strong fasteners which contains 4 parts. Though they are mostly applied at single point of a garment opening, such as waistband or neckline, they can also be used to fasten an entire opening. Normally used in formal pants, kids garments etc. 19. Price tag: Price tag/ticket also known as UPC (Unit price code) ticket in the apparel industry. It is paper-made tag which normally mentions price and bar code. Barcode sticker may be attached separately on it. 20. Hang tag: Hangtags are designed to draw attention to the garments and are hung on the side of the garments and sometimes in front of button line so that the customers can see them easily. Hang tag usually show the brand name, style no, etc. 21. Tag pin: Help to hang the price ticket & others tag. 22. Hanger: Hanger is used for hanging the garments. It is important for hang shirt, coat and also different kinds of garments. Fig: Hook & eye Fig: Price tag Fig: Hang tag Fig: Tag pin Fig: Hanger
  42. 42. 37 Prepared by: Hasan (15th –Batch; SEU) | Email: hasanbd015@gmail.com 23. Size clip or Sizer: Sizer is a part of hanger which contains garments size. 24. Size Strip: Trim that used at front of pants. It contains the size of the pants. 25. Belt: 26. Tissue Paper: Thin & soft paper, normally used for wrapping or protecting fragile or delicate articles. 27. Photo-in-lay: Photo-in-lay is used for packing Santo ganji. 28. Gum Tape: Gum tapes are used for closing the carton. Name of Some Accessories Company in Bangladesh: 1. Montrims. (Anser Academy, Sofipur, Gazipur) Largest accessories manufacturing company in Bangladesh. 2. KDS Fig: Size clip Fig: Size strip Fig: Belt Fig: Tissue paper Fig: Photo-in-lay Fig: Gum tape D- ring
  43. 43. 38 Prepared by: Hasan (15th –Batch; SEU) | Email: hasanbd015@gmail.com What is Motif? The special component which is attached outside of the garment for decorative purpose is called motif. Generally motif contains a Company Name, Brand Name, Trade Mark and some kinds of symbols of garments. What is Applique? Additional fabric added in the face side of the garments for increasing the beauty of the dress which is called applique. It is made by Laser cutting machine and attached by sewing in embroidery section. Fig: Applique
  44. 44. 39 Prepared by: Hasan (15th –Batch; SEU) | Email: hasanbd015@gmail.com Stitch and Seam: Stitch: Stitch is a loop or unit in seam line which is produced by sewing thread from a sewing machine. Seam: Seam is a joint where two or more plies of fabric are held together. Sewing: The process of joining of fabric by the use of needle and sewing thread is called sewing. Difference between yarn and thread: Yarn is produced from spinning which is used for producing fabric and thread is produced from ply of yarn which is used for sewing. Thread is used in sewing because of its-  More strength  More durability  More abrasion resistant etc. Methods of Stitch Formation: Interlooping Intralooping Interlacing One loop of one thread passes through another loop of another thread. Here, two threads are used. One loop of one thread passes through another loop of the same thread. Here, one thread is used. One thread passes over another thread. Here, two threads are used. Seam Stitch
  45. 45. 40 Prepared by: Hasan (15th –Batch; SEU) | Email: hasanbd015@gmail.com Types of Stitch: Stitch types are generally classified in six categories. These are - 1. Stitch Class-100 (Single thread chain stitch) 2. Stitch Class-200 (Hand stitch) 3. Stitch Class-300 (Lock stitch) 4. Stitch Class-400 (Multi thread chain stitch) 5. Stitch Class-500 (Over lock stitch or over edge neatening) 6. Stitch Class-600 (Covering chain stitch) Some brief descriptions of various stitch classes are given below. 1. Stitch Class-100 (Single thread chain stitch):  In this stitch, one loop passing through another loop of same thread.  Stitches are formed one set of thread called “Needle Thread”.  Stitches are formed by intra-looping.  If one end of stitch is pulled then whole sewing will be opened.  The appearance of face and back are different in apparel. Sub-Classes: a). 101: Feature: Uses temporary purposes which can easily pick up. Uses: It is used for blasting of blazer (temporary stitching). e.g. Blazer components joining before final sewing to cooperate sewing. Basting: Primary & temporary stitching before final stitch with a view to facilitating accurate placement is called basting. Basting could be done either by hand or machine. b). 103 (Blind Stitch): Feature: Front side is invisible and back side is like chain. Uses: Bottom hemming of dress pants. Upper Side Bottom Side Fig. Single thread chain stitch
  46. 46. 41 Prepared by: Hasan (15th –Batch; SEU) | Email: hasanbd015@gmail.com 2. Stitch Class-200 (Hand stitch): Features:  Hand stitch is passed completely from one side to the other.  Hand stitch is originally made by hand but now can be formed by sewing machine.  The appearance of face and back are same. Uses:  Hand stitch is used for decorative purposes.  It is specially used in collar, pocket, front placket, shoulder etc. Sub-Classes: a) 202(Hand Stitch): This type of stitch is formed by hand. b) 209: This type of stitch is formed by “Pique Stitch Machine’’. Uses: Top stitch lapel of blazer, collar of shirt, saddle stitch etc. Saddle stitch: A special type of stitch which is formed by pique stitch machine using thick thread. It is used in Cowboy jeans. 3. Stitch Class 300 (Lock stitch): Features:  This type of stitch is formed by two sets of threads one set is called needle thread and another set is called looper thread.  Seam security extremely high.  Face and back has same appearance.  The stitch is difficult to pick up. Disadvantages:  Very poor elasticity.  Bobbin thread required frequently changing. Fig. Hand stitch Fig. Lock stitch
  47. 47. 42 Prepared by: Hasan (15th –Batch; SEU) | Email: hasanbd015@gmail.com Sub-Classes: a) 301(Lock stitch): Uses: All kind of top stitching in garments. b) 304(Zig-zag stitch): Uses: To attach elastic and lace in the garments. 4. Stitch Class 400 (Multi-thread chain stitch). Features:  This type of stitch is formed by two sets of threads one set is called needle thread and another set is called looper thread.  One side of stitch is like lock stitch and other side is like chain.  Elasticity is good.  It is widely used for making knitted garments. Disadvantages:  Seam security is not strong. Sub-Classes: a) 401: 1Needle + 1Looper Uses: Waist band of jeans, inseam of jeans. Needle Thread Bobbin Thread Needle thread (Upper part) Bobbin thread (Lower part) Upper Side Bottom Side
  48. 48. 43 Prepared by: Hasan (15th –Batch; SEU) | Email: hasanbd015@gmail.com b) 406: 2Needle + 1Looper Uses: Bottom and sleeve hem of T-shirt and Polo-shirt. c) 407: 3Needle + 1Looper Uses: Bottom and sleeve hem of T-shirt and Polo-shirt, elastic band of briefs. Hemming: The process of sewing of an edge or border on a piece of cloth, especially a finished edge, as for a garment or curtain, made by folding an edge under and stitching it down. e.g. Bottom edge of a shirt. 5. Stitch Class-500 (Over lock stitch or over edge neatening): Features:  This type of stitch is used to prevent the fraying out of loose yarns of the edge of fabric.  It requires more than two threads.  It is used for making knitted garments. 503 504 514 515 516 1N + 1L 1N + 2L 2N + 2L 401.503 401.504 Uses: Only for edging. Uses: Edging and light seaming. Uses: Edging and heavy seaming. Uses: Edging & sewing. These stitches are lightly extensible. Note: 503,504,514 are British Standard & 515 & 516 (Combination Stitch) are US Standard. 1N 1L 1N 1L Upper Side Bottom Side Fabric Upper Side Bottom Side Fabric 1N 1L 1N 2L
  49. 49. 44 Prepared by: Hasan (15th –Batch; SEU) | Email: hasanbd015@gmail.com 6. Stitch Class-600 (Covering chain stitch): Features:  This type of stitch is formed by 4 sets of thread 2 sets thread is called needle thread and another 2 sets are top and bottom covering threads or looper threads.  This stitch is used for sewing under wear for attaching lace, braid, elastic etc. Sub-Classes: a) 602: 2Needle + 2Looper Uses: Bottom and sleeve hem of T-shirt, Polo-shirt and decorative purpose. b) 605: 3Needle + 2Looper Uses: Bottom and sleeve hem of T-shirt& Polo-shirt, elastic band of briefs and decorative purpose. c) 606: 4Needle + 5Looper Uses: Not used in our country. Upper Side Bottom Side Fabric Upper Side Bottom Side Fabric
  50. 50. 45 Prepared by: Hasan (15th –Batch; SEU) | Email: hasanbd015@gmail.com Type of Seam: Arrangement of fabric ends of the seam line is called seam type. They are classified into following types- 1. Seam Class-1: Super imposed seam 2. Seam Class-2: Lapped seam 3. Seam Class-3: Bound seam 4. Seam Class-4: Flat seam 5. Seam Class-5: Decorative seam 6. Seam Class-6: Edge Neatening 7. Seam Class-7: Applied seam 8. Seam Class-8: Others seam 1. Seam Class-1 (Super imposed seam): Features:  Seam is achieved by two or more separate pieces of fabric sewing together.  Most commonly used.  The fabric ends are in same direction.  This class seam can be sewn a variety of machine. e.g. Lock stitch or over lock machine. Uses: Mostly used inside seam like as shirt and pants. Fig: Super imposed seam
  51. 51. 46 Prepared by: Hasan (15th –Batch; SEU) | Email: hasanbd015@gmail.com 2. Seam Class-2 (Lapped seam): Features:  This type of seam is achieved with two or more pieces of fabric over lapping each other.  Two sewn ends of the fabric are in opposite direction.  Mostly two needle chain stitch machine is used.  Seam under this class is very strong. Uses: Inside seams of jeans and dress shirts, Lungi etc. 3. Seam Class-3 (Bound seam): Features:  A bound seam is one piece of fabric encompassing the raw edge of another piece of fabric.  The purpose of bound seam is to finish an edge of garment.  Sometime used as decorative purpose.  There are 18 variations of bound seam. Uses: Neckline of a T-shirt, Yoke joint in the shirt, waist band, underwear. Fig: Lapped seam Fig: Bound seam
  52. 52. 47 Prepared by: Hasan (15th –Batch; SEU) | Email: hasanbd015@gmail.com 4. Seam Class-4 (Flat seam): Features:  Flat seam are constructed by having two pieces of fabric meet precisely of their edges.  Seam thickness is comparatively less.  Zig-zag stitch may be produced.  Edge should be cleaned before sewing to avoid tearing  Lock stitch is used for form this seam type. Uses: Intensively used in under garments in knitwear. 5. Seam Class-5 (Decorative seam): Features:  This type of seam is made by making one or more adjacent stitch lines in one or more layer of fabric.  Multi needle sewing machine is used.  Seam under this class are produced only for decorative purpose. Uses: Used in pant or other dresses and decorative garments. Fig: Flat seam Fig: Decorative seam
  53. 53. 48 Prepared by: Hasan (15th –Batch; SEU) | Email: hasanbd015@gmail.com 6. Seam Class-6 (Edge Neatening): Features:  Seam under this class are produced in such a way so that the fabric ends from out area cannot come out during use.  It can be used extensively.  It can be made by overlock machines. Uses: Mostly used in knitted garments and hemming. Neatening: The process of sewing with cutting edge of the fabric so that the slack yarn can not be opened. 7. Seam Class-7 (Applied seam): Features:  These are sometimes called applied seam because they are mainly used to a decorative material to an edge of seam such as lace, elastic. 8. Stitch Class-8 (Others seam): Features:  Mainly one piece of fabric used.  This class is commonly used for waist belt and belt loop.  The edge of fabric is sewn by folding in various ways. Elastic Fig: Seam Class-7 Fig: Edge Neatening Fig: Seam Class-8
  54. 54. 49 Prepared by: Hasan (15th –Batch; SEU) | Email: hasanbd015@gmail.com Sewing Threads Types of Sewing thread being used in the garments industry of Bangladesh: 1. Polyester Core spun Thread. 2. Spun Polyester Thread. 3. Staple Spun Cotton Thread. 4. Textured Polyester Thread. 5. Polyester Cotton Core spun Thread. 6. Trilobal Polyester Thread. 1. Polyester Core spun Thread: This is more costly thread. This type of thread is produced by spinning staple polyester fibre around a core of high tenacity continuous filament polyester in yarn-spinning operation. Two or more of these composite yarns are then twisted together to give the necessary size and tensile strength. e.g. Epic(Coats). Key Characteristics:  Exceptionally strong.  The continuous filament core (Having high tenacity) provides superior strength while the staple polyester cover helps to protect the inner core from damage due to needle heat.  Its resistance to abrasion helps ensure long seam life in a wide variety of materials.  Fine threads can be used for delicate fabric without compromising on strength, thereby avoiding problems like seam pucker. Uses: Mainly used in topstitching of shirts, blouses, trousers, sportswear, jeans & work clothes. Core polyester filament Staple polyester
  55. 55. 50 Prepared by: Hasan (15th –Batch; SEU) | Email: hasanbd015@gmail.com 2. Spun Polyester Thread: Staple polyester fibres are spun into polyester yarn. Then two or more of spun polyester yarns are twisted together to produce spun polyester thread. e.g. Astra (Coats). Key Characteristics:  High tenacity of polyester ensures greater strength and thereby high abrasion resistance.  Very least amount of shrinkage (less than 1%) compared to cotton thread. Uses: Mainly for over edging. Also used for general seaming of shirts, trousers, knitwear, jackets, blouses etc. 3. Staple Spun Cotton Thread: Normally long staple cotton fibres are spun into cotton yarn. Then two or more ply of spun cotton yarn are twisted together to produce spun cotton thread. e.g. dymax (Coats). Key Characteristics:  100% cotton thread have relatively low strength and elongation compared to those in synthetic thread, therefore they need relatively light sewing tension and high stitch densities.  Very high amount of shrinkage compared to synthetic thread.  During sewing, cotton thread is not damaged at high temperature generated by needle.  100% cotton thread is mercerized (treatment with caustic solution under tension) to provide greater luster and higher strength. Uses: Mainly used in sewing cotton garments that are to be post dyed.
  56. 56. 51 Prepared by: Hasan (15th –Batch; SEU) | Email: hasanbd015@gmail.com 4. Textured Polyester Thread: Made from textured continuous polyester filament. (Note- texturing means modification by applying crimp to the filament). e.g. Gramax (Coats). Key features:  Provides high softness and comfort.  High extensibility and seam strength enhance higher seam security. Uses: Mainly used in “next to the skin” seams for high softness .e.g. underwear, Swim wear, baby wear etc. Also widely used in over locking and covering stitches for high extensibility and seam security. 5. Polyester Cotton Core spun Thread: Made of polyester filament in the core and staple cotton fibre which wraps polyester filament. Two or three plies of this yarn are twisted together to make thread. e.g. dual duty (Coats). Key features:  This thread has been developed to improve the properties cotton and to get the opportunities of both cotton and polyester fibre.  Very low shrinkage, good strength and cotton core protects poly core from needle heat and high ironing temperature. Uses: fine cotton denim shirts, outdoor wear etc. Polyester filament Cotton fiber
  57. 57. 52 Prepared by: Hasan (15th –Batch; SEU) | Email: hasanbd015@gmail.com 6. Trilobal Polyester thread:  Newly developed polyester fibre to improve the dullness of usual polyester fibre.  Trilobal poly is a multiple filament, twisted, high-sheen continuous fiber thread. It has the bright appearance of rayon or silk. Triangular shaped fibers reflect more light and give an attractive sparkle to textiles. e.g. sylko(coats). Uses: embroidery for garment. Name of Some Thread Manufacturing Company: International:  Coats.  A&E (American & Efrad) Local:  Etafil  Well thread  Fabian.
  58. 58. 53 Prepared by: Hasan (15th –Batch; SEU) | Email: hasanbd015@gmail.com Thread Count and Ticket Number: Count: Count is a numerical value which expresses the fineness or coarseness of yarn. Higher the count, finer the yarn. Example- 30/3, 90/4 etc. Ticket number: Ticket number is a number which expresses the fineness or coarseness of sewing thread. Higher ticket number, finer the sewing thread. Example: 60/3, 90/5 means 60 & 90 are yarn count and 3 & 5 are no. of ply. 60/3 = 20 = 20 3 = 60 (Ticket no.) Here, Red color 3 is constant. 90/5 = 18 = 18 3 = 54 (Ticket no.) Formula: Ne = 0.59 Nm Where, Ne = Cotton ticket number Nm= Metric ticket number Problem: Cotton of a sewing thread is 60/3 Ne. What will be its metric ticket number? Solution: Ne ticket no. = 60/3 = 20 3 = 60 Metric ticket no, We know, Ne = 0.59 Nm => Nm = = 101.69 (Ans)
  59. 59. 54 Prepared by: Hasan (15th –Batch; SEU) | Email: hasanbd015@gmail.com Garment Defects Garment defects can be separated into 3 categories: 1. Fabric defects: These are defects that are found in the fabric, mostly these are not caused by the sewing lines. e.g. running shade, selvedge to selvedge shade, holes, staining mark, missing yarn, foreign yarn, slub, hairiness etc. 2. Workmanship and handling defects: These are defects that are directly caused by production section; this would include both the cutting and sewing section. Buyer’s approved samples must be referred to maintain perfect workmanship. Note: Workmanship means all the details such as measurement, outlook, ways of attaching trims, packing etc. 3. Trims, accessories and embellishment defects: These defects include color, size and placement of trims such as labels, sewing thread, screen print, embroidery designs, zipper, hangtag, lining, button and any kind of trims. Defects are also classified (as per extent of defect) into Critical, Major and Minor defects. a. Critical defects are defects that are not allowed to be shipped and are the most serious of defects (0%). b. Major defects are serious defects that are not allowed over a certain percentage (3%) depending on buyers requirements. c. Minor defects are serious defects that are not allowed over a certain percentage (5%) depending on buyers requirements
  60. 60. 55 Prepared by: Hasan (15th –Batch; SEU) | Email: hasanbd015@gmail.com Typical Defects: 1. Fabric defects: Fabric inspection method. 2. Workmanship defect: a) Seam Puckering: Refers to the gathering of a seam either just after sewing or after laundering causing an unacceptable seam appearance. This problem arises due to uneven stretching on to plies of fabric during sewing, improper thread tension, wrong sewing thread selection , dimensional instability of the plies of fabric etc. b) Shading Variations within different parts: Arises due to improper cutting, bundling and numbering. c) Open seam or broken seam: Portion of the garment that has not been covered by sewing thread. This happens due to improper handling of the parts of garments, improper setting and timing between needle and looper or hook etc. d) Broken Stitch: Non-continuous sewing thread. It appears due to improper trimming or machine usage. e) Drop stitch/Skipped stitch: Irregular stitching along the seam. It appears due to improper handling of cut pieces or machine usage. f) Wavy/staggered stitching: Stitches are not straight. It appears due to improper handling of cut pieces , faulty feed mechanism , needle deflection or wrong needle. g) Uncut/ loose thread: Extra thread or loose thread on seam line. It appears due to improper trimming or finishing. h) Sizing defects (Difference in measurement of various parts of garments): Wrong placement of pocket, buttonhole, embroidery and prints, measurement discrepancy- all these problems come from pattern section.
  61. 61. 56 Prepared by: Hasan (15th –Batch; SEU) | Email: hasanbd015@gmail.com i) Poor ironing: If not sufficient, there might be creases and crinkles on garment surface and if ironing is too heavy, there might be shining mark on garment. j) Misaligned buttons and holes ,unfinished button hole, missing buttons, wrong placement of labels, hang tag, wrong folding or poor folding , improper packing into cartons – all these defects come from finishing section. 3. Trims, accessories and embellishment defects: Unmatched color of thread, button and zipper tape, short zippers, faulty zippers, wrong labels, improper size of the labels, printing mistake of labels and cartons, broken poly bag , wrong hanger, improper embroideries and prints etc.
  62. 62. 57 Prepared by: Hasan (15th –Batch; SEU) | Email: hasanbd015@gmail.com Different types of sewing faults: Sewing faults: Sewing is a basic operation of garments manufacturing. Lots of problems occur during sewing operation. Now I will discuss on various causes of sewing faults. Sewing defect can be classified into three different groups- A. Problems of Stitch Formation B. Problems of Seam Puckers C. Fabric Damage at the seam line A. Problems of Stitch Formation:  Slipped or skipped stitch: Sometimes needle thread could not lock the bobbin or looper thread then it is called slipped or skipped stitch. The other name of this fault is floating.  Staggered stitch: Stitching line should be straight but sometimes it is not parallel then it is called staggered stitch.  Unbalance stitch: When locking is not formed at the middle point of upper and lower threads then it is called unbalance stitch. This type of defect is found in lock stitch machine.  Variable stitch density: Number of stitch per inch is not same then it is called variable stitch density. The low pressure of pressure foot, uneven feeding and too much tension of thread are the major reason of variable stitch density.  Frequent thread breakage: This is the breakage of thread again and again during sewing, which take more time and harmful for production. B. Problems of Seam Puckers:  Puckering: When fabric is gathered at the time of sewing is called puckering. C. Fabric Damage at the seam line: Fabrics or threads are damaged along the seam line during sewing.
  63. 63. 58 Prepared by: Hasan (15th –Batch; SEU) | Email: hasanbd015@gmail.com Application of Sewing Machines in Garments Manufacturing: 1. Plain Machine (PM): Stitch Class-301 (Lock Stitch) Uses: All kind of top Stitching in garments. 2. Two needle Lock Stitch Machine: Uses: Out seam of jeans 3. Over Lock Machine (O/L): Stitch Class: 503(2 thread), 504(3 thread), 514(4 thread), 515(4 thread), 516(5 thread) Uses: All kind of side seam, arm hole and sleeve. 4. Chain Stitch Machine (CS): Stitch Class-401 Uses: It is used for sew both knit and woven fabric (Waist band of jeans and inseam of jeans). 5. Two needle chain stitch machine: Stitch Class: 401 Uses: Temporary stitching of Basting. 6. Feed of the arm machine: Stitch Class-401: 2/3 needle feed of the arm machine. Uses: It is used specially for the sleeve inseam joining and inside seam joining of the pant or Lapped seam making. 7. Flat Lock/ Inter lock machine: Stitch Class: 406(3 Thread), 407(4 Thread), 602(4 Thread), 605(5 Thread). Uses: Bottom & Sleeve hem of T-shirt & polo shirt. 8. Kansani Machine: For multithread needle usage, up to 33 needles can be used. Stitch class- 400 Uses: Waist band of Jeans, top center of Shirt and Jacket for cuff & waist. 9. Button hole Machine: Stitch class-100/300 Uses: Button hole making in the apparel. 10. Button attaching Machine: Chain Stitch-100/300 Uses: Button attaching in the apparel.
  64. 64. 59 Prepared by: Hasan (15th –Batch; SEU) | Email: hasanbd015@gmail.com 11. Eyelet hole Machine. Stitch class-100 Uses: Men’s Jeans, Suits, Jackets, Coats button hole. 12. Bar tack Machine: Stitch class-301 Uses: Bar tack machine is mainly used in pant for belt loop joining, pocket corner and zipper fly. 13. Blind Stitch Machine: Stitch Class-103. Uses: It is used for sew bottom hem of the dress pant. 14. Basting Machine: Stitch Class-101. Uses: Temporary stitching (Basting of blazer) for garments assembly. 15. Pocket sewer machine: Stitch class- Uses: It is specially used for sew pockets of the coats and blazer. 16. Zig-zag Stitching Machine: Stitch Class-304. Uses: To attach elastic and lace in the garments. 17. Pique Stitch Machine: Stitch Class- 209. Uses: Top stitch lapel of blazer, collar of shirt, saddle stitch etc.
  65. 65. 60 Prepared by: Hasan (15th –Batch; SEU) | Email: hasanbd015@gmail.com Some Garments Industrial Sewing Machine Figure: Fig. Lock Stitch Fig. Over Lock Machine Fig. Feed of the Arm MachineFig. Chain Stitch Machine Fig. Flat Lock or Inter Lock Machine Fig. Kansai Machine
  66. 66. 61 Prepared by: Hasan (15th –Batch; SEU) | Email: hasanbd015@gmail.com Fig. Button Hole Machine Fig. Blind Stitch Fig. Eyelet Button Hole Machine Fig. Button Attaching Sewing Machine Fig. Snap & Shank Button Attaching Machine Fig. Bar tack Machine
  67. 67. 62 Prepared by: Hasan (15th –Batch; SEU) | Email: hasanbd015@gmail.com Fig. Zig-zag Stitching Machine Fig. Pocket Sewer Machine
  68. 68. 63 Prepared by: Hasan (15th –Batch; SEU) | Email: hasanbd015@gmail.com Parts of the Sewing Machine and Uses: Bobbin: Holds the lower/bobbin thread. Bobbin Case: Holds the bobbin in the machine and regulates the tension of the bobbin thread. Bobbin Winder Spindle: Put the bobbin to wind thread it. Feed Dog: During sewing, feed dog pulls the fabric in forward. Feed Dog Needle: The needle carries the upper thread through the fabric to create a stitch. Needle Presser Foot: The presser foot works with the feed dog to move fabric evenly through the machine. Presser foot
  69. 69. 64 Prepared by: Hasan (15th –Batch; SEU) | Email: hasanbd015@gmail.com Hand Wheel: It is used to raise and lower the needle. Always turn the hand wheel toward you to prevent tangling of the threads. Presser Foot Lifter:  Raises and lowers the presser foot.  Always have the foot down when sewing. Clutch Knob: Used to prevent the needle and take-up lever from moving when winding the bobbin. Reverse Stitch Lever: Used to allow backward stitching (locks the seam). Slide Plate: Covers the bobbin area while the machine is stitching. It can be removed or slid to the side while loading the bobbin into the machine. Throat/Needle Plate: Covers the feed dog. It is a semi-circular disc with a hole to allow the needle to pass through it. Throat Plate Hand Wheel Slide Plate Reverse Stitch Lever Presser Foot Lifter Clutch Knob
  70. 70. 65 Prepared by: Hasan (15th –Batch; SEU) | Email: hasanbd015@gmail.com Foot Feed/Pedal: Gives power to the machine electrically. Spool Pin: Holds the spool of thread. Spool Pin Stitch Length Regulator: It controls the length of the stitch. Stitch Width Regulator: It controls width of a zigzag stitch. Thread Take-up Lever: The take-up- lever pulls the thread back after each stitch, so that the stitches will lay evenly into the fabric. Thread Tension Control: This determines the tightness or looseness of the stitch. Stitch Length Regulator Thread Tension Control Stitch Width Regulator
  71. 71. 66 Prepared by: Hasan (15th –Batch; SEU) | Email: hasanbd015@gmail.com Thread Guides: The parts that guide the thread from the thread cone to the needle. They smooth the thread and protect it from abrasion. Needle Clamp Screw: Needle clamp screw holds the needle in its actual place. Needle Clamp Screw
  72. 72. 67 Prepared by: Hasan (15th –Batch; SEU) | Email: hasanbd015@gmail.com Construction of a Sewing Needle Sewing Needle: Needle is used to sew the fabric by thread. Different stitching is formed by the needle. Needle is different is size which is expressed by Needle Number (Nm). We know needle types also differ depending on its end use. The basic functions of a needle: 1. To create a passage in the material for the thread to pass through. 2. To carry the needle thread through the material and form a loop which can be picked up by the hook or looper mechanism. 3. To pass the needle thread through the loop formed by the looper mechanism on machines other than lock stitch.
  73. 73. 68 Prepared by: Hasan (15th –Batch; SEU) | Email: hasanbd015@gmail.com Functions of different parts of a sewing needle: 1. Butt: Butt is top end of the needle which is inserted into the needle bar/clamp. 2. Shank: The thicker part of the needle held by the needle clamp or the needle set screw. It supports the needle as a whole by providing additional strength. 3. Shoulder: Shoulder is the section intermediate between the shank and the blade. 4. Blade: It is the longest portion of the needle from the shoulder to eye. This part is responsible for the most amount of friction between needle and fabric. 5. Long groove: There is a fine slot in the needle from its shoulder to eye. Long groove safe the sewing thread from the abrasion of fabric with thread. 6. Short groove: Short groove is the slot on the side of the needle towards the hook or looper. It helps to make the loop of needle thread. 7. Eye: The hole at the end of the needle. Thread is passed through the needle eye. It prevents the sewing thread form damage during sewing. 8. Scarf (Clearance): Scarf or clearance cut is the portion across the whole faces of the needle just above the eye. Its purpose is to enable a closer setting of the hook or looper to the needle. 9. Point: It provides the most suitable penetration of the material being sewn according to its nature and the desired stitch effect. 10. Tip: It is the bottom point of a needle. It should be sharp for easy penetration.
  74. 74. 69 Prepared by: Hasan (15th –Batch; SEU) | Email: hasanbd015@gmail.com Pressing Pressing is the finishing process of garments. Sometimes this is refers as ironing. Object of pressing: 1. To remove unwanted crease and crinkles from the garments. 2. To give shape particular parts of the garments. e.g. front and back part of dress pants, front and back part of blazer. 3. To create permanent creases in the garments. e.g. permanent pleat in the skirt, lapel of blazer. Types of pressing: 1. No pressing: Here, pressing is not so necessary. e.g. specially underwear, swimwear etc. 2. Minimum pressing: Here, pressing is done only by heat but no need pressure. e.g. sweater and night gowns. 3. Under pressing: Some parts of the garments are pressed after cutting and before sewing. e.g. front and back part of blazer, dress pants are ironed before sewing etc. 4. Final pressing: This is general pressing to all garments after sewing. e.g. jacket, trouser, skirt etc. 5. Permanent pressing: Some garments are pressed to create permanent crease this is called permanent pressing. e.g. permanent pleat in the skirt, lapel of blazer. Fig. Pressing MachineFig. Ironing
  75. 75. 70 Prepared by: Hasan (15th –Batch; SEU) | Email: hasanbd015@gmail.com Packing into Carton When garments are ready for shipment then garments must be packed into carton according to the buyer requirement. Garments are packed into carton according to the following methods- 1. Solid color solid size: Here, color of garments and size will be same when packed into carton. The carton contains same color and same size. Example: Color: Yellow Size: S 2. Solid color assorted size: Here, color of garments will be same but size of garments will be different when packed into carton. The carton contains same color and different size. Example: Color: Blue Ratio: 2 : 1 : 4 : 3 Size: S M L XL 3. Assorted color solid size: Here, color of garments will be different but size of garments will be same when packed into carton. The carton contains different color and same size. Example: Size: M Ratio: 2 : 2 : 2 : 2 : 2 Color: W Y R G B 4. Assorted color assorted size: Here, color of garments and size will be different when packed into carton. The carton contains different color and different size. Example: Color Size Pcs Green S 3 Yellow M 3 Blue L 2 Green XL 2 10 pcs/carton 10 pcs/carton 10 pcs/carton 10 pcs/carton
  76. 76. 71 Prepared by: Hasan (15th –Batch; SEU) | Email: hasanbd015@gmail.com Acceptable Quality Level (AQL) Definition of AQL: The standard definition of Acceptable Quality Level (AQL) is “the maximum defective percent (or the maximum number of defects per hundred units) that for purpose of sampling inspection can be considered satisfactory as a process average”. It is expressed as percentage (%). Basically, we will randomly select a sampling size quantity (based on the AQL tables) to be inspected. After inspection according to the number of defects found (critical, major, minor defects), we will advice to accept or to reject our shipment from the chart of AQL. The faults or defects which are found during inspection are mainly classified into four categories: 1. Critical: Must be 100% accurate that means 0%. 2. Major: Normally 2.5% 3. Minor: Normally 4% 4. Slight: Normally 6.5% Types of AQL System Followed in Apparel Industry: There are total six types of acceptable quality level (AQL) system followed in garment manufacturing industry which are pointed out in the below: 1. AQL-1.0%, 2. AQL-1.5%, 3. AQL-2.5%, 4. AQL-4.0%, 5. AQL-6.5%, 6. AQL-10%.
  77. 77. 72 Prepared by: Hasan (15th –Batch; SEU) | Email: hasanbd015@gmail.com AQL Chart for Garment Industry: An acceptable quality level (AQL) chart have presented in the below to facilitate the easy understanding of the above discussion. Lot or Batch Size Sample Size Code Letter Sample Size Acceptable Quality Level (AQL) 2.5% 4.0% 6.5% Ac Re Ac Re Ac Re 2-8 A 2 0 1 0 1 0 1 9-15 B 3 0 1 0 1 0 1 16-25 C 5 0 1 0 1 0 1 26-50 D 8 0 1 1 2 1 2 51-90 E 13 1 2 1 2 2 3 91-150 F 20 1 2 2 3 3 4 151-280 G 32 2 3 3 4 5 6 281-500 H 50 3 4 5 6 7 8 501-1200 J 80 5 6 7 8 10 11 1201-3200 K 125 7 8 10 11 14 15 3201-10000 L 200 10 11 14 15 21 22 10001-35000 M 315 14 15 21 22 21 22 350001-150000 N 500 16 18 23 25 23 25 150001-500000 O 800 18 20 25 28 25 27 500000 and over P 1250 20 22 28 30 28 30 Example: Suppose you have been offered a shipment of 30,000 pieces for inspection. Select the range from table, it is 10001-35000. Now from table you have to select number of sample you are going to actually inspect. According the above table you will select 315 pieces out of 30000 pieces. Now assume that you are inspecting at 2.5 AQL. So, after inspecting all 315 pieces if you find 14 or less than 14 defective pieces will accept the shipment. And if you find 15 or more than 15 defective pieces in 315 samples you will reject that shipment.
  78. 78. 73 Prepared by: Hasan (15th –Batch; SEU) | Email: hasanbd015@gmail.com How to Read AQL table? Lot or Batch size: This means total how many pieces inspector is going to check or inspect. (i.e. if you have been offered a shipment of 30,000 pieces order quantity, the batch size of this shipment will fall under 10001-35000 pieces (Code - M). Sample size Code letter: This code is indicative a range of batch size. (Code 'G' means your lot size range is from 151 pieces to 280 pieces. Sample size: It means that how many pieces will be picked up for inspection from the total offered pieces (Batch). Ac (Accepted): The number in this column denotes that if the inspector finds up to that much defective pieces the shipment will be accepted by buyer. Re (Rejected): On the other hand number in this column denotes that if the inspector finds that much defective pieces or more than the listed number, the shipment will be rejected (or asked to the manufacturer for 100% inspection and re-offer for final inspection) by buyer.
  79. 79. 74 Prepared by: Hasan (15th –Batch; SEU) | Email: hasanbd015@gmail.com Fabric (Which are used in garments) Some fabric structure is given below: Woven Fabric: 1. Poplin Weave:  Poplin = Higher EPI and PPI. Finer Count. Yarn count is more than 30. Uses: Shirt, blouse, jackets, coats etc.  Sheeting= Equal EPI and PPI. Yarn count 20 – 30 Ne. Uses: Mattress cover and bed sheets.  Calico= Yarn count 11 – 20 Ne. Uses: Bed sheets, apron and light summer clothing.  Canvas= Yarn count 6 – 10 Ne. Uses: Slip covers, shoe fabrics, boat covers etc.  Taffeta= Made by polyester/ Nylon. Uses: Lining and evening wear.  Teslan= It is also used for lining of blazer. Made by polyester/ nylon but heavier than taffeta.  Flannel= Woven fabric and one side of this fabric is brushed. Uses: Winter Garments (Women’s suits, slacks. skirts and jackets). 133 72 40 40 133 72 40 40 96 76 14 14 72 48 7 7 110 76 70D 70 96 72 70D 140D
  80. 80. 75 Prepared by: Hasan (15th –Batch; SEU) | Email: hasanbd015@gmail.com  Chambray = Usually chambray has white yarns in the weft direction and colored yarns in the warp direction. Used for shirt.  Ottoman = Warp-faced rib fabric with 3 to 10 ribs per cm for coats, jackets and furnishings. Fig : Poplin Weave 2. Oxford/ Basket Weave: It is usually a 2 1 or 3 2 basket weave. It is most common as a 2 1 half basket weave. Good quality shirting and blouse fabric made in plain weave but with two ends weaving as one. Contrasting colors in warp and weft give a miniature diced pattern. 3. Twill Weave:  Basic Twill: Normally used in denim fabric. Always 1 down in their construction. No count variation. Denim fabric: a. Basic denim: 3/1 basic denim. b. Ring denim: 2/1, there are 7, 9, 12 count of yarn used. c. Slub denim: Only warp slub (one way slub) and weft slub (cross slub). d. Cross hatch denim: Warp and weft count variation. e. Stretch denim: Weft yarn (elastomer). f. Poly denim: Polyester used in weft.  Sateen and Satin: In terms of cotton and rayon respectively.  Broken Twill: Use in casual jacket and casual pants. Fig: Oxford/ Basket Weave.
  81. 81. 76 Prepared by: Hasan (15th –Batch; SEU) | Email: hasanbd015@gmail.com  Herringbone Twill: Generally term for fabrics woven in a reversing twill, often with contrasting colors in warp and weft. Used for suits, costumes and coats. 4. Dobby Weave: It is combination of plain and twill. Normally used for shirt and blouse. To exemplify its included rib stop fabric which perform box effect. 5. Jacquard Weave: Fabric with a complicated figured design. Figuring is commonly by interchanging satin, sateen, plain and twill weaves. Color and yarn effects may be used to accentuate the design. Used for furnishing fabrics and formal wear.  Check and Plaid fabric: If repeat size is less than 3 3 inches then it will be called check constructed fabric. And If repeat size is more than 3 3 inches then it will be called plaid fabric. Feeder Stripe: If the repeat length of the stripe is below 4cm then it is called feeder stripe. Engineering Stripe: If the repeat length of the stripe is above 4cm then it is called engineering stripe. Fig: Twill Weave Fig: Dobby Weave Fig. Jacquard Weave.
  82. 82. 77 Prepared by: Hasan (15th –Batch; SEU) | Email: hasanbd015@gmail.com Knit Fabric: 1. Single jersey: Two side of this fabric are different. Used for T-shirt, tank top, polo–shirt etc. GSM ranges from 120-200. 2. Rib: Both sides are same. Used for ladies item, undergarments etc. 3. Interlock: Both sides are same. Used for ladies item, undergarments etc. 4. Pique fabric: It contains very small size pore in their construction. Normally used in polo shirt. 5. Lacoste fabric: it also contains pore but bigger than pique. Normally used in polo shirt. 6. Fleece fabric: In knit fabric fleece may be two types. i. Terry fleece: Here one side single jersey and other side is brushed. ii. Polar fleece: Here both sides are brushed. Fig: T-shirt Fig: Polo-shirt
  83. 83. 78 Prepared by: Hasan (15th –Batch; SEU) | Email: hasanbd015@gmail.com Machine Lay-out of Garment: M/C lay-out of a Shirt: 1. Single needle plain machine (PM):  For joining collar, cuff, collar band, yoke, pocket and label. 2. Two needle plain m/c:  For top stitching of front and back part and arm hole. 3. Over lock (5 thread)/ 5 OL:  For side seam and sleeve joining. 4. Kansai Special:  Box pleat or multi-needle sewing, bottom & cuff with elastic in jacket. M/C lay-out of a Pant: 1. Single needle plain machine (PM):  Waist band joining, belt loop joining, side seam and inseam top stitch, zipper fly joining, zipper joining, side pocket joining, bottom hem. 2. Two needle plain m/c:  Front and back rise top stitch, side seam/ inseam top stitch of denim. 3. Over lock (3 thread)/ 3 OL:  Front and back rise 4. Over lock (5 thread)/ 5 OL:  For inseam and side seam; side pocket making. 5. Bar tack m/c:  Belt loop and bottom of fly zipper. 6. Flat lock m/c:  For loop making. 7. Button whole, button attaching m/c and eyelet hole m/c for denim. 8. Chain stitch m/c:  Normally used in waistband of denim
  84. 84. 79 Prepared by: Hasan (15th –Batch; SEU) | Email: hasanbd015@gmail.com M/C lay-out of a T-shirt 1. Over lock (3 OL/4 OL)  Sleeve joining, side seam and neck (rib) joining. 2. Flat lock m/c (2N+1 L) Stitch Class-406  For sewing sleeve and bottom hem. 3. Single needle plain m/c (PM)  For top stitching of shoulder, sleeve and neck. 4. Feed of the arm/ back tape m/c (2N+2L) Double stitch class- 406.  For joining tape inside neck or shoulder or outside neck. M/C lay-out of a Polo-shirt: 1. Single needle plain m/c:  For tops in (top stitching), rib cuff joining, collar joining. 2. Flat lock m/c:  For joining arm hole, shoulder and bottom& sleeve hem. 3. Over lock (4 OL):  Sleeve and side seam joining. 4. Button hole and button attaching m/c.  For making button hole & attaching button with garments.
  85. 85. 80 Prepared by: Hasan (15th –Batch; SEU) | Email: hasanbd015@gmail.com Sewing Flow Chart of T-Shirt Manufacturing: It is importance in garments manufacturing sector. Here, I have discussed about the process flow chart of T-Shirt manufacturing which is followed in garments industry. SL No. Process Procedure 01 Shoulder join Using over lock machine. 02 Neck rib join Using over lock machine. 03 Rib tack Rib tack is done by using plain machine. 04 Neck tape join with rib Using flat lock machine (1N+1L = Chain stitch) Or, Using plain machine (in case of Twill Tape) 05 Neck tape tack Using plain machine. 06 Neck tape top stitch with main label Using flat lock machine (1N+1L = Chain stitch). Or, Using plain machine. 07 Front neck top stitch Using flat lock machine (1N+1L = Chain stitch) Or, Using plain machine. 08 Sleeve hem Using flat lock machine. 09 Sleeve join Using over lock machine. 10 Side seam join with Care label Using over lock machine. 11 Sleeve opening tack + Arm hole security Using plain machine. 12 Sleeve outside tack Using plain machine. 13 Bottom hem Using flat lock machine. So, after inspection of the T-Shirt, it is ready for sell to buyer.
  86. 86. 81 Prepared by: Hasan (15th –Batch; SEU) | Email: hasanbd015@gmail.com Sewing Flow Chart of Polo-Shirt Manufacturing: Polo-Shirt is one of the stylist apparels in the world. An accurate process flow chart is very important to achieve the targeted garments production. Knitted polo shirt also maintains a process flow chart, which has discussed in this article. SL No. Process Procedure 01 Placket rolling Using plain machine. 02 Moon Using plain machine. 03 Moon top stitch Using flat lock machine. 04 Neck closing Using plain machine. 05 Placket matching with front Placket matching with front is done on the table. 06 Placket attaching with front Using plain machine. 07 Placket top stitch Using plain machine. 08 Placket tack Using plain machine. 09 Matching (Front & Back Part) Matching (Front & Back Part) is done on the table. 10 Shoulder joint with shoulder tap Using over lock machine. 11 Shoulder top stitch Using flat lock machine. 12 Collar cut without thread Using over lock machine.
  87. 87. 82 Prepared by: Hasan (15th –Batch; SEU) | Email: hasanbd015@gmail.com 13 Collar tuck with placket Using plain machine. 14 Collar joint with body Using over lock machine. 15 Neck piping Using flat lock machine. 16 Main label joint Using plain machine. 17 Sleeve hem joint with sleeve Using over lock machine. 18 Collar back top stitch Using flat lock machine. 19 Cutting & Matching Cutting & Matching is done on the table. 20 Sleeve joint Using over lock machine. 21 Placket kasa mara Using plain machine. 22 Placket 1/16 top stitch Using plain machine. 23 Placket tack Using plain machine. 24 Care label joint Using plain machine. 25 Placket box top stitch Using plain machine. 26 Inspection all back process Inspection all back process is done on the table. 27 Bottom Hem Using flat lock machine. 28 Side seam Using over lock machine. 29 Side band twill tape Using plain machine. 30 Side band tack Using plain machine. 31 Side band top stitch Using plain machine. 32 Sleeve inside tack Using plain machine. 33 Sleeve outside top stitch Using plain machine. 34 Side band tack Using plain machine. 35 Button hole Using button hole machine. 36 Button positioning Button positioning is done on the table. 37 Button attaching Using button attaching machine. So, after inspection of the Polo-Shirt, it is ready for sell to buyer.
  88. 88. 83 Prepared by: Hasan (15th –Batch; SEU) | Email: hasanbd015@gmail.com Different Types of Care Instructions for Garments Care Label: Care label is a component or trimming of garment which contains some internationally recognized symbols that indicate the care instructions of the garment. These symbols are called care label codes. Care label codes are used for perfect caring of garments. History: The care label was introduced in Europe about 1950. It’s a voluntary service so it was not regulated by any authority. It originated in The Netherlands and then spread to France and the other European countries as a voluntary service to the consumers offered by the textile and apparel industry. The care labeling code was protected by an international trademark, to control the correct application. The ownership of this international trademark belongs GINETEX, this International Association for Textile Care Labeling, has developed symbolic care labeling system in 1975. Fig: Care Label International Standard: ISO 3758 1991 provides a code of reference for the use of these symbols. The GINETEX care labeling system consists of five basic symbols for washing, bleaching, ironing, drying, dry cleaning and an extra symbol for wring. The symbols and their descriptions are shown in the following.
  89. 89. 84 Prepared by: Hasan (15th –Batch; SEU) | Email: hasanbd015@gmail.com 1. Washing Symbols: Symbol Care Instructions Meaning of Symbols Machine Wash (normal) Garment can be washed using hot water, detergent, agitation, and any machine designed for garments washing. Machine Wash (cold) Maximum temperature 30°C or 85°F Rinsing normal Spinning reduced Machine Wash (warm) Maximum temperature 40°C or 100°F Rinsing normal Spinning normal Machine Wash (hot) Maximum temperature 50°C or 120°F Rinsing normal Spinning normal Machine Wash (hot) Maximum temperature 60°C or 140°F Rinsing normal Spinning normal Machine Wash (hot) Maximum temperature 70°C or 160°F Rinsing normal Spinning normal Machine Wash (hot) Maximum temperature 95°C or 200°F Rinsing normal Spinning normal Machine Wash (permanent press) Garment is machine washed only on the setting designed to preserve permanent press with cold rinse prior to reduced spin. Machine Wash (gentle or delicate) Garment is machine washed only on the setting designed for gentle agitation and reduced time for delicate items. Hand Wash Garment is washed through the use of water, detergent and hand manipulation. Do not wash Garment can’t be safely washed by any process. Dry cleaning is applied.
  90. 90. 85 Prepared by: Hasan (15th –Batch; SEU) | Email: hasanbd015@gmail.com 2. Bleaching Symbols: Symbol Care Instructions Meaning of Symbols Bleaching is allowed Any commercially available bleaching agent can be used. Only chlorine bleaching is allowed Only chlorine bleaching agent can be used. Only non-chlorine bleaching is allowed Only non-chlorine, color-safe bleaching agent can be used. Bleaching is not allowed Bleaching agent can’t be used. The garment is not colorfast or structurally able to withstand any bleach. 3. Drying Symbols: Symbol Care Instructions Meaning of Symbols Tumble dry (normal) Machine dryer is used at the hottest available temperature setting. Tumble dry (normal , low heat) Machine dryer is used at a low heat setting. Tumble dry (normal , medium heat) Machine dryer is used at a medium heat setting. Tumble dry (normal , high heat) Machine dryer is used at a high heat setting. Tumble dry (normal , no heat) Machine dryer is used at no heat or air only setting. Tumble dry (permanent press) Machine dryer is used at the permanent press setting. Tumble dry (gentle) Machine dryer is used at the gentle setting. Do not tumble dry Machine dryer is not used. Usually accompanied by an alternate drying method symbol.
  91. 91. 86 Prepared by: Hasan (15th –Batch; SEU) | Email: hasanbd015@gmail.com Do not dry Machine dryer is not used. Usually accompanied by an alternate drying method symbol. Line dry Hang wet garment from bar, in or out doors. We use this in our country, it means hanging our dresses in rooftop for drying. Drip dry Hang dripping wet garment from bar, in or out doors, without hand shaping or smoothing. Dry flat Lay out horizontally for drying. Dry in shade Can’t dry in direct sunlight. 4. Ironing Symbols: Symbol Care Instructions Meaning of Symbols Iron in any temperature (steam or dry) Ironing is required and can be performed at any available temperature with or without steam. Iron (low) Regular ironing, steam or dry, is performed at low setting (110°C, 230°F). Iron (medium) Regular ironing, steam or dry, is performed at medium setting (150°C, 300°F). Iron (high) Regular ironing, steam or dry, is performed at high setting (200°C, 390°F). Do not steam Steam ironing will harm garment, but regular dry ironing at indicated temperature setting is acceptable. Do not iron Ironing is not allowed. Garment can’t be smoothed or finished with an iron.
  92. 92. 87 Prepared by: Hasan (15th –Batch; SEU) | Email: hasanbd015@gmail.com 5. Dry Cleaning Symbols: Symbol Care Instructions Meaning of Symbols Dry clean Dry cleaning in any solvent, any cycle any moisture, any heat. Dry clean (any solvent) Dry cleaning in any solvent. Usually used with other restrictions on proper dry cleaning procedure. Dry clean (any solvent, except trichloroethylene) Any dry cleaning solvent except trichloroethylene can be safely used. Usually para-chloro-ethylene, white spirit of solvent-113 is used. Dry clean (petroleum solvent ) Dry cleaning is done using only petroleum solvent. Usually used with other restrictions. White spirit of solvent-113 is used. Dry clean (reduced moisture) Can be used with A, P, F solvent restriction. Dry clean (short cycle) Can be used with A, P, F solvent restriction. Dry clean (no steam) Can be used with A, P, F solvent restriction. Dry clean (low heat) Can be used with A, P, F solvent restriction. Do not dry clean Dry cleaning is not allowed. 6. Wring Symbols: Symbol Care Instructions Meaning of Symbols Do not wring Wring is not allowed. Notes: 1. System of dots indicating that temperature range is same for all procedures. 2. If there is no bleaching symbol mentioned, it means any type of bleach is allowed. 3. GINETEX states that "milder forms of treatment and lower temperatures than those indicated on the label are always permitted." 4. A cross on any of the symbol means that the treatment shall not be used and a bar under the symbols indicates milder treatment is required.
  93. 93. 88 Prepared by: Hasan (15th –Batch; SEU) | Email: hasanbd015@gmail.com Some Important Terms: Penton Number: Penton Number is the code of color which is used for shade matching. Now-a-days pantone is used in all industries for DTM (dye to match). In the pantone card there are 6 digit numbers for each color. Those colors are help to minimize the garments shade variation problem. DTM (Dye to Match): Accessories with fabric color are same called DTM. For example-  Sewing thread DTM: Fabric color and sewing thread color will be same.  Button DTM: Fabric color and button color will be same. Lab dip: Develop any color in lab according to buyer requirement and sent to the buyer for approval. Metal button is not applicable for lap dip. Yarn dip: Develop yarn color in lab according to buyer requirement and sent to the buyer for approval. Yarn dip is done before yarn dyeing. Strike off: Develop print in lab according to buyer requirement and sent to the buyer for approval. Art work: Develop embroidery in lab according to buyer requirement and sent to the buyer for approval. Hand Loom: Develop repeat size of stripe and check fabric in lab by a small hand loom according to buyer requirement and sent to the buyer for approval. Swatch: A sample of cloth or a small piece of cloth which indicate color & type of the cloth. Swatch card: Swatch card is a simple and affordable way to present our fabric choices to our customers. Fabrics are attached in the swatch cards. Trim card: A trim card is used to show approved trims by attaching all garment trims on the trim card. In the production floor, supervisors used to follow the trim card as a guide for identifying the right trims.
  94. 94. 89 Prepared by: Hasan (15th –Batch; SEU) | Email: hasanbd015@gmail.com Compliance: Compliance means comply something that is yield to the wishes another. The main aim of compliance is to ensuring the all labour rights and facilities according to the Buyer code of conduct. These include-  Safety  Healthy environment  Working time  Over time  Salary & Wages  Facilities (Dining, Child care, Toilet, Doctor) Factories may be classified as-  Compliant  Semi Compliant &  Non-Compliant ISO: International Organization for Standardization is the world’s developer and publisher of international standards.  ISO is a network of the national standards institutes of 164 countries, with a central secretarial in GENEVA, Switzerland that coordinates the system.  ISO is a non-governmental organization that forms a bridge between the public and private sectors. It was established in 1947. Purpose of ISO:  Harmonization of standards.  To facilitate the world trade and transfer of technology. Structure of ISO: ISO UK USA JAPAN GERMANY HALY FRANCE AUSTRALIA CANADA
  95. 95. 90 Prepared by: Hasan (15th –Batch; SEU) | Email: hasanbd015@gmail.com ISO 9001: ISO 9001 is the internationally recognized standard for the quality management of businesses.  It is applied to the processes that create and control the products and services and organization supplies.  Persevere systematic control of activities to ensure that the needs and expectations of customers are met.  Is designed and intended to apply to virtually any product or service made by any process anywhere in world. Benefit of ISO 9001:  Provides senior management with an efficient management process.  Sets out areas of responsibility across the organization.  Mandatory if you want to tender for some public sector work.  Communications a positive message to staff and customers.  Identifies and encourages more efficient and time saving processes.  Highlight deficiencies.  Reduces your costs.  Provide continuous assessment and improvement.  Marketing opportunities. Benefits to customers:  Improve quality and service.  Delivery on time.  Right first time attitude.  Fewer returned products and complaints  Independent and demonstrates commitment to quality.

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