Industrial attachment of square knits fabrics limited (SKFL)

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Industrial attachment of square knits fabrics limited (SKFL)

  1. 1. INDUSTRIAL TRAINING Course Code: Tex -4036 INDUSTRIAL ATTACHMENT Square Knits fabrics Limited (SKFL)
  2. 2. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Square Knits fabrics Limited (SKFL) Abstract Textile technology education is based on industrial ground. Theoretical background is not sufficient so, industrial training is an essential part of study to make a technologist technically sound in this field. Industrial training provides us that opportunity to gather practical knowledge. Square Knits fabrics Limited (SKFL) is a truly integrated undertaking. The textile division has the capability to offer a complete product range for the export & domestic textile markets. The goal of this textile factory is to become the preferred partner for sourcing high quality fabrics & clothing from Bangladesh. With high advanced technology & an emphasis on developing local human resources, the textile division has the potential to make an important contribution to the nation’s growing readymade garments export sector. The rationale behind the existing structure & future expansion of the textile division is to capture value added at each stage of the textile manufacturing process. Despite Bangladesh’s lack of indigenous cotton production capability, Square Knits fabrics Limited (SKFL)has leveraged Bangladesh’s labor cost advantage & export competitiveness to maximum level.
  3. 3. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Declaration We hereby declare that the submitted work was completed using only the mentioned literature and without any Unalloyed assistance.
  4. 4. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT ACKNOWLEDGEMENT All the praises are for the almighty, Allah who bestowed me with the ability and potential to complete this Internship. I also pay my gratitude to the Al-mighty for enabling me to complete this Internship Report within due course of time. Project paper is an academic function of the Southeast University. We are highly delighted to express our regards & gratitude to honorable Professor supervising teacher Prof. Syed Fakhrul Hassan for providing us the chance to complete our internship and completion our project work in Squre knit fabrics limited We take this opportunity to record my deep sense of gratitude and appreciation to our Project Advisor “Mr. Fazley Elahi” (Asst. proff.) Department of Textile engineering, Southeast University for his constant encouragement and inspiring guidance with his Wisdom.We also take the opportunity to express our sincerest gratitude to the management, administration & personnel of Squre knit fabrics limited for their kind assistance.Cordial thanks goes to Mahamuddun Nabi General Manager & Md.Habibuzzman (Shameem)Senior ManagerYarn Processing & Mercerizing Square Knit Fabrics limited for their excellent co-operation during the period of our training. We would also like to thank Mofizur Rahman Senior Manager knit Fabrics dyeing section for their sincere support.Above all, we would like to acknowledge our deep debt to all teachers of our university & particularly of Wet Processing Department for their kind inspiration & help, which remain as the backdrop of all our efforts. Finally, we would like to acknowledge that we remain responsible for the in-adequacies & errors, which doubtless remain in the following report.
  5. 5. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Contents CHAPTER – I .................................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined. Organizational Over view.................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined. CHAPTER –II........................................................................ Error! Bookmark not defined. Project description .............................................................. Error! Bookmark not defined. CHAPTER – III ................................................................. Error! Bookmark not defined. Man power Management ..................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined. CHAPTER -IV....................................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined. Raw materials ..................................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined. CHAPTER -V..................................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined. Literature Review ............................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined. CHAPTER -VI .................................................................. Error! Bookmark not defined. Chemical Laboratory .......................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined. CHAPTER -VII ................................................................ Error! Bookmark not defined. Yarn processing ................................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined. CHAPTER –VIII ......................................................... 102Error! Bookmark not defined. Knitting................................................................................ Error! Bookmark not defined. CHAPTER -IX................................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined. Fabric Processing:................................................................ Error! Bookmark not defined. CHAPTER -X .................................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined. Fabric singeing & Mercerizing ......................................... 1Error! Bookmark not defined. CHAPTER -XI................................................................. 1Error! Bookmark not defined. Fabric finishing ................................................................. 1Error! Bookmark not defined. CHAPTER -XII ........................................................... 158Error! Bookmark not defined. Quality Assurance Department (QAD) ............................... Error! Bookmark not defined. CHAPTER -XIII ............................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined. Effluent treatment plant (ETP)& Custic recovery plant (CRP)Error! Bookmark not defined.
  6. 6. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT CHAPTER -XIV ............................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined. Maintenance......................................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined. CHAPTER -XV ................................................................. Error! Bookmark not defined. Utility Services .................................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined. CHAPTER -XVI ............................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined. Store & Inventory Control................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined. CHAPTER -XVII .............................................................. Error! Bookmark not defined. Socil & Invironmantal Information ..................................... Error! Bookmark not defined. CONCLUSION .................................................................. Error! Bookmark not defined.
  7. 7. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Organizational Overview
  8. 8. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Introduction: From fiber to fabric, the Textile division of Square group is a truly integrated undertaking. The Textile Division has the capability to offer a complete product range for the export textile markets. The goal of the Textile Division is to become the preferred partner for sourcing high quality fabrics and clothing from Bangladesh. With this goal Square Knit Fabrics Ltd. is advancement of this journey. With highly advanced technology and an emphasis on developing local human resources, the Textile Division has the potential to make an important contribution to the nation's growing ready made garments export sector keeping green environment into close consideration. The rational behind the existing structure and future expansion of the Textile Division is to capture value-added at each stage of the textile manufacturing process. Despite lack of indigenous cotton production capability of Bangladesh, Square has leveraged labor of Bangladesh cost advantage and export competitiveness to the maximum. Vision: To establish as a one stop source for the Global Knit Apparel market and to satisfy and meet customer's expectation by developing and providing products and services on time, which offer value in terms of Quality, Price, Safety & Environmental impact. Assuring complete compliance with the international quality standards and also providing the employees internationally acceptable working condition and standards. To promote the development and to use human talent & equal opportunity of employment Square Knit Fabrics Ltd. procure the most advanced & sophisticated technology suitable for producing desired product and attain highest level of competence through continuous development of the professional management system and to ensure complete transparency in all aspect of business. Mission: Square realizes the need to stake out a competitive segment in the changing global market of today through technological excellence and human expertise. Square is committed to transpose its local success to the world scene.
  9. 9. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Dhaka CantonmentGulshan Kakoli Chourasta SOUTHEAST UNIVERSITY Joydevpur Chandra Master -Bari Bus Stand Gazipur Chourasta Bhawal GorNational Park Square knit fabrics Ltd. Nasir Glass R.A.K Pharmaceuticals Maona BazarMaona Bazar Valuka Thana M Y M E N S I N G H H I G H W A Y Mohakhali Ashulia Rajendrapur Cantonment Location Map of Square Knit Fabrics Limited.
  10. 10. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Project Description
  11. 11. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Name of the Factory: Square Knit Fabrics Limited (SKFL). Type: Knit fabric manufacturing for 100% export oriented ready made Garments Industry. Year of Establishment: 2001, Commencement of Production in June 2002 Address: It is situated in Jamirdia, Master Bari, Valuka, Mymensingh, Bangladesh. History of Project Development: In 1997, Square entered the textile sector with its manufacturing facilities of cotton yarn. Combining modern technology with skilled manpower under Square's unique inspiring, atmosphere, this new Square venture soon rose to the top of the local textile industry. Today it has one of the most sophisticated vertically integrated set-ups. In 1998: Second unit of Square Textile established. In 2000: Square Spinnings Ltd. started its journey. In 2001: Square Knit Fabrics ltd. and Square Fashions Ltd. established. In 2002: Square Knit Fabrics commenced with its production. In 2009: Square Multi Fabrics Ltd. Commenced with its production. Textile Mills of Square Group: Square Knit Fabrics Ltd. Square Spinnings Ltd. Square Textiles Ltd. Square Fashions Ltd. Square Multi Fabrics Ltd. Physical Infrastructure:  Square at Valuka have three shades. They are Square Knit Fabrics Limited, Square Fashions Limited & Square Multi Fabrics Limited.  Total factory area is 165,000 ft2 . Production space is 135,000 ft2 , single storied.  There are four dormitories for worker, two dormitories for officials.
  12. 12. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT  Square Knit Fabrics Ltd. maintains its telecommunication with VOIP connection to its different corporate zones, PABX connections and LAN connections.  It’s others facilities are  Own Network Server,  Own power management;  Own utility management,  Free transport facility,  24 – hour medical center,  Free meals,  Fire service facility and  ETP. Different Departments: Square Knit Fabrics Ltd has the following departments approximately: Different Departments Personnel and Administration Knitting Wet Processing Yarn Processing Mercerizing Quality Assurance Finishing Laboratory R & D Fabric Inspection Maintenance Electrical Mechanical Utility ETP Fabric Processing Package and Hank
  13. 13. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Product Type:  Piece Dyed fabric,  Mercerized & Dyed fabric ,  Yarn dyed fabric,  Mercerized yarn dyed fabric (double mercerized). Product Mix:  Cotton: - Carded, Combed, Compact, & Organic.  Viscose: - Modal, Mélange,  Polyester,  Lycra,  Polyester-cotton blend,  CVC. Product Range:  Engineering stripe and semi jacquard,  Plain (100% cotton single jersey, slub single jersey, lycra single jersey, double mercerized single jersey),  Pique (100% cotton,100% lycra),  Four Needle structure,  Wofel rib,  1X1 Rib (cotton), 1X1 Rib (lycra), 1X1 Rib (slub),  2X2 Rib (100% cotton), 2X2 Rib (100% lycra),  2X1 Rib,  4X4 Rib,  Interlock,  Pique interlock (pima cotton),  Interlock (double mercerized),  Locust,  Jacquard,  Fleece & Terry fleece, etc.
  14. 14. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Capacity: 30,000-31,000 Kg. of Knit fabric processed per day (Open width & tubular finish). Production Capacity in knitting: 15,000 kg. Of greige fabric and 25000 pieces of cuff & collar set per day (depends on design i.e. if design is more then production will be less). Production Capacity in yarn dyeing: 4000 kg. Per day Production Capacity in knit dyeing: 30,000 Kg. Per day Investment Cost: Investment cost is US$ 11.11 million. Remarks: Square Knit Fabric Ltd. is greatest concerned with the quality of its product. For this reason it do not look for the production volume rather the quality of product, this increase its overhead cost. But better quality has welcome buyers with satisfaction. The infrastructure and land asset has the greatest possibility to extension and to create social contributions.
  15. 15. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Manpower Management
  16. 16. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Organogram of Administration: Organogram of Operation: Managing Director Executive Director General Manager Deputy General Manager Assistant General Manager Senior Manager Manager (Of QAD, YP, FP, Maintenance etc.) Deputy Manager Assistant Manager
  17. 17. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Shift Change: There are three shifts for operation personnel in this industry. So the shifts are changed at every 8 hours. The shift timings are as below:  6:00 am to 2:00 pm (“A” Shift)  2:00 pm to 10:00 pm (“B” Shift)  10:00 pm to 6:00am (“C” Shift) Administration i.e. Management personnel work on General (G) shift of duration 8:00 am to 5:00 pm and 6 days per week. Responsibilities of Production Executive:  To follow and execute the daily production plan accordingly.  To give the right decision for the minor troubleshooting.  To match the shade with the approved lab dip and take necessary help from Spectrophotometer.  To prepare dye line correctly and maintain logbook.  To convey the proper information to the next shift.  To maintain target productivity of every section in his shift  To give job card to maintenance department whenever machine is not working or any other problem with the machine. Senior Executive II Executive I Executive II Executive III Production Officer Assistant Production Officer Supervisor Senior Operator Senior Executive I
  18. 18. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Job description of Production Executive: Report to: Senior production officer Job Summary: To plan, execute & follow up the production activities & control the quality. Duties & Responsibilities: Overall supervision of dyeing, finishing production. Batch preparation & PH check. Dyes & chemical requisition issue & check. Write fabrics loading & unloading time from m/c. Program making, sample checking, color measurement. Control the supervisors, operators’ asst. operator & helpers of dyeing m/c. And also any other work as & when required by the management. Management System: Corporate Management System. Remarks: Though Square Knit Fabric Ltd. has more than 1100 manpower but Square Fashions Ltd. has manpower more than 6000 in around a single fence & Square Multi Fabrics Ltd. has around 200 manpower. Square pay a great attention for providing food and transport, medical, schooling of personnel’s children, their utility and maintain a safe, secured and calm environment. The working condition here is also standardized. These opportunities for the personnel of the industry have a direct positive impact on the production and also motivate the personnel for better and greater efficiency.
  19. 19. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Raw Materials
  20. 20. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Square Knit Fabrics Ltd. is a knit composite textile industry. In the industry raw materials for different section is different. As for example knitting uses the raw material Yarn, Fabric processing department uses the knit fabrics, dyes and chemicals again yarn processing uses the grey yarn and dyes chemicals. Following we describe the raw materials used in Square Knit Fabrics Ltd.  Yarn  Grey fabrics  Dyes  Chemicals  Auxiliaries Yarn: Following types of yarns are used to knit fabrics: Synthetic Polyester Viscose Modal Yarn Mélange Yarn Ecru mélange Cotton yarn Card Yarn Combed Yarn Compact Yarn Organic cotton
  21. 21. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Grey Fabrics: Following types of grey fabrics are dyed: Sources: The required yarns are supplied from Square Spinning Mills Ltd. (Bangladesh) , Thermax (Bangladesh), NRG (Bangladesh), Badsha Spinning Mills Ltd. (Bangladesh) Ginni (India), Nahar (India), Flat bed Simple Collar and Cuff Jacquard Collar and Cuff Double jersey 1x1 and 2x2 rib Interlock Flat back Single jersey Single and double lacoste Polo pique Terry fleece Engineering stripe Jacquard etc. Blend PC CVC Mélange
  22. 22. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT And special yarns are from Bardhaman (India), Aarti (India), Organic cotton – Indonesia. The required grey fabrics are produced in this industry. Price: Not provided. Dyes: The following dyes are used-  Reactive dyes.  Disperse dyes. The list of dyes for different substrate is as below: For Cotton Group (Reactive Dyes) Shade Name of Dyes Country of Origin Supplier Name Golden Yellow Type Novacron Yellow FN -2R Singapore Ciba Novacron Yellow NC Singapore Ciba Drimarene Yellow CL-2R Switzerland Clariant Indofix Yellow WHR India Indo Colchem Imcozin Yellow E3R German Impocolor Kimsoline Yellow KLL Turkiye Cida-Tex Kimsoline G.Yellow HF-2GR Turkiye Cida-Tex Kimsoline Yellow KED Turkiye Cida-Tex KimsolineYellow Shade SL Turkiye Cida-Tex Levafix Yellow CA Gran Singapore Dystar Levafix Amber CA Singapore Dystar Remazol Luminus Yellow FL Singapore Dystar Remazol Yellow RR Singapore Dystar Remazol Golden Yellow RGB Gran Singapore Dystar Remazol Ultra Yellow RGB Singapore Dystar Bezaktiv Yellow SLF Switzerland Bezema Bezaktiv Yellow S-3R Switzerland Bezema Cibacron Yellow H-R Singapore Ciba
  23. 23. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Shade Name of Dyes Country of Origin Supplier Name Lemon Yellow Type Cibacron Brilliant Yellow H- 4GN Singapore Ciba Kimsoline Yellow HF -3GN Turkiye Cida-Tex Kimsoline Yellow HF 4GL150% Turkiye Cida-Tex Everzol Yellow 3GL Taiwan Everlight Levafix Brill Yellow CA Singapore Dystar Remazol Brilliant Yellow 4GL Singapore Dystar Imcozin Brill. Yellow V4GL German Impocolor Blue Type Bezaktiv Blue SLF Switzerland Bezema Bezaktiv Blue S-FR Switzerland Bezema Bezaktiv Blue S-GLD Switzerland Bezema Bezaktiv Blue V-2B Switzerland Bezema Cibacron Blue H-GN Singapore Dystar Cibacron Blue F-GFN Singapore Dystar Cibacron Brilliant Blue FNG Singapore Dystar Novacron Blue FNR Singapore Dystar Novacron Ocean SR Singapore Dystar Drimarene Blue CLBR Singapore Dystar Remazol Blue RR Singapore Dystar Remazol Dark Blue SLT Singapore Dystar Remazol Br. Blue BB New Singapore Dystar Levafix Blue CA Singapore Dystar Levafix Brill. Blue E-FFN Singapore Dystar Imcozin Blue E-NR German Impocolor Kimsoline B. Blue SHF-RL Turkiye Cida-Tex Kimsoline Blue Shade BL Turkiye Cida-Tex Kimsoline Blue KLL Turkiye Cida-Tex Kimsoline Blue BRF Turkiye Cida-Tex Shade Name of Dyes Country of Origin Supplier Name Novacron Red FNR Singapore Ciba
  24. 24. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Red Type Novacron Brill Red FN-3GL Singapore Ciba Novacron Brown NC Singapore Ciba Novacron Scarlet FN-6G Singapore Ciba Cibacron Red H-D Singapore Ciba Indofix Red WHR India Indo Colchem Imcozin Red E-3BF German Impocolor Kimsoline Red KLL Turkiye Cida-Tex Kimsoline Red HF- 6BN Turkiye Cida-Tex Kimsoline Red KED Turkiye Cida-Tex Kimsoline Red Shade 3B Turkiye Cida-Tex Levafix Red CA Gran German Dystar Levafix Brill Red E-4BA German Dystar Levafix Brill Red E-BA German Dystar Levafix Brill Red E-6BA German Dystar Levafix Fast Red CA German Dystar Levafix Scarlet CA Singapore Dystar Levafix Rubine CA Singapore Dystar Remazol Red RR Singapore Dystar Remazol Deep Red RGB Gran Singapore Dystar Remazol Red RGB Gran Singapore Dystar Remazol Ultra Red RGB Singapore Dystar Remazol Brill Red F-3B Singapore Dystar Remazol Ultra Carmine RGB Singapore Dystar Bezaktiv Red SLF Switzerland Bezema Bezaktiv Red S-2B Switzerland Bezema Bezaktiv Red S-3B Switzerland Bezema Sunfix Red MFD Korea OH Young Ind. Ltd. Shade Name of Dyes Country of Origin Supplier Name Navy Type Drimarene Navy CL-R Switzerland Clariant Export AG Kimsoline Navy Blue HF-RN Turkiye Cida-Tex Kimsoline Navy Blue SHF-GFN Turkiye Cida-Tex Remazol Navy Blue GG Singapore Dystar Everzol Navy Blue GG Taiwan Everlight Bezaktiv Navy -S MAX German Bezema Bezaktiv Navy SBL Switzerland Bezema
  25. 25. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Bezaktiv Navy SLF Switzerland Bezema Cibacron Navy FN-B Singapore Ciba Cibacron Navy H-2G Singapore Ciba Sunfix Navy Blue MFD Korea OH Young Ind.Ltd. Black Type Cibacron Super Black G/Novacron Singapore Ciba Cibacron Super Black R/Novacron Singapore Ciba Indofix Black B India Indo Colchem Kimsoline Black B Turkiye Cida-Tex Remazol Black B Gran Singapore Dystar Remazol Deep Black GWF Singapore Dystar Reafon Deep Black NS Singapore Kappa International Bezaktiv Black -S MAX German Bezema Bezaktiv Black S -BUDGET German Bezema Sunzol Black EP Korea OH Young Ind. Ltd. Turquoise Type Cibacron Turquoise H-GN Singapore Ciba Everzol Turquise Blue G Taiwan Everlight Imcozin Turquiss Blue VG German Impocolor Remazol Tuerkis Blue G Singapore Dystar Remazol Brill Green 6B Singapore Dystar Kimsoline Turquise Shade 2G Turkiye Cida-Tex Kimsoline Turquise Blue HFG Turkiye Cida-Tex RSPL Type Bezaktiv Blue VR SPCL German Bezema Everzol Blue R SPCL Taiwan Everlight Shade Name of Dyes Country of Origin Supplier Name Orange Type Cibacron Orange FN-R Singapore Ciba Novacron Orange FBR Singapore Ciba Levafix Orange CA Singapore Dystar Kimsoline B. Orange 3R Turkiye Cida-Tex Sunfix Orange MFD Korea OH Young Ind. Ltd. Violet Type Remazol Brilliant Violet 5R Singapore Dystar Bezaktiv Violet V-5R Switzerland Bezema Bezaktiv Gray SLF Switzerland Bezema
  26. 26. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Grey Type Novacron Gray NC Switzerland Bezema Olive Type Levafix Olive CA Singapore Dystar Novacron Olive NC Singapore Dystar For Polyester Group (Disperse Dyes) Sl. No. Name of Dyes Country of Origin Supplier Name 1. Dianix Blue XF Singapore Dystar 2. Dianix Blue CC Singapore Dystar 3. Dianix Rubine CC Singapore Dystar 4. Dianix Crimson S-F Singapore Dystar 5. Dianix Yellow Brown SE-R Singapore Dystar 6. Dianix Terquise C-C Singapore Dystar 7. Dianix Navy X-F Singapore Dystar 8. Dianix Green C-C Singapore Dystar 9. Dianix Scarlet C-C Singapore Dystar 10. Dianix Scarlet X-F Singapore Dystar 11. Dianix Flavine XF Singapore Dystar 12. Dianix Luminus Yellow 10 G Singapore Dystar 13. Dianix Luminus Red G Singapore Dystar 14. Dianix Luminus Pink 5G Singapore Dystar 15. Dianix Luminus Red 3B Singapore Dystar 16. Dianix Brill Orange G Singapore Dystar 17. Dianix Turquise XF Singapore Dystar 18. Dianix Yellow CC Singapore Dystar 19. Dianix Blue AC-E Singapore Dystar 20. Dianix Red AC-E German Dystar 21. Dianix Yellow AC-E Singapore Dystar 22. Dianix Yellow S-4G Singapore Dystar 23. Dianix Navy S-2G Singapore Dystar 24. Dianix Black S-R Singapore Dystar 25. Dianix Deep Red SF Singapore Dystar 26. Dianix Blue S-BB Singapore Dystar 27. Dianix Violet S4R Singapore Dystar 28. Dianix Black XF Singapore Dystar 29. Dianix Yellow Brown SE-R Singapore Dystar 30. Terasil Black SRL Singapore Ciba 31. Terasil Violet BL Singapore Ciba 32. Terasil Blue BGE-01 Singapore Ciba 33. Terasil Blue W-BLS Singapore Ciba 34. Terasil Blue WW2GS Singapore Ciba 35. Terasil Blue W-RBS/W-BLS Singapore Ciba 36. Terasil Gold Yellow W-3R Singapore Ciba 37. Terasil Red W-BF Singapore Ciba 38. Terasil Red W-RS Singapore Ciba 39. Terasil Red FBN German Ciba
  27. 27. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT 40. Terasil Red W-FS Singapore Ciba 41. Terasil Red W-4BS Singapore Ciba 42. Terasil Red WWFS Singapore Ciba 43. Terasil Red WWBFS Singapore Ciba 44. Terasil Red 3BL Singapore Ciba 45. Terasil Red WW-3BS Singapore Ciba 46. Terasil Navy GRLC Singapore Ciba 47. Terasil Navy W-RS Singapore Ciba 48. Terasil Flabine 8GFN Singapore Ciba 49. Terasil Yellow W-4G Switzerland Ciba 50. Terasil Yellow W-6GS Switzerland Ciba Chemicals: Basic Chemicals Name of Item Country of Origin Supplier Name Acetic Acid (Glacial) India Jubilant Organosys LTD. Acetic Acid 30% India Jubilant Organosys LTD. Sirrix NE Switzerland Clariant Hydro Chloric Acid Singapore Swiss Colour Oxalic Acid Soda Ash Australia/India Penrice soda product/Nirma Sulphuric Acid Indonesia Ptlautan Iuas Tbk Acid Buffer  Sodium Acetate  Ammonium Sulphate Bleaching Agent Name of Item Country of Origin Supplier Name Polyclean SP Viscoclor Turkiye Cida-Tex Viscobleach Turkiye Cida-Tex No Bleach 200% Turkiye Eksoy Kimyevi Cottobleach Turkiye Eksoy Kimyevi Hydrozen Peroxide 50% China Gaungdong Zhong Salt/Electrolyte Name of Item Country of Origin Supplier Name Sodium Sulphite(Glubar Salt) Taiwan FCFC Sodium Sulphite (Refined Salt) Thailand KC Salt Caustic Soda Name of Item Country of Origin Supplier Name Caustic Soda Pearl Saudi Arabia Arabian Alkali Co.
  28. 28. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Detergent & Scouring Agent Name of Item Country of Origin Supplier Name Kappawet Bos Germany KaAP-Chemie Kieralon Jet-B Germany BASF Diwet Plus Tannex Noveco India Lanxess Lenaryl RK Germany ACI Foryl BGL India Pulcra Chemicals Feloson NOF Germany CHT R-Beitech KSN NOF Antifoam/Dearreting & Penetrating Agent Name of Item Country of Origin Supplier Name Albaflow JET Singapore Swiss Colour Contripon S Germany Harris & Menuk Primasol NF Germany BASF Anti Creasing Agent Name of Item Country of Origin Supplier Name Cibafluid C Singapore Swiss Colour Persoftal L India Lanxess Base Ledesan SVE Span Global Chemicals Peroxide Stabilizer Name of Item Country of Origin Supplier Name Stabilizer S0F Thailand Clariant Peroxide Killer Name of Item Country of Origin Supplier Name Bio Kill Turkey Eksoy Kimyevi Sequesterent & Dispersent for Bleaching Name of Item Country of Origin Supplier Name Ladiquest 1097 Thailand Clariant Optavon 4UD Germany Harris & Menuk Kappaquest A-41 Germany Hi-Tech Auxi Chem Lufibrol MSD Germany BASF Mercerizing Wetting Agent Name of Item Country of Origin Supplier Name Univerdin MR Singapore Swiss Colour
  29. 29. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Levelling Agent for Heat Setting Name of Item Country of Origin Supplier Name Depicol RC 9 Germany Zachimmer Reactive Fixing Agent Name of Item Country of Origin Supplier Name Cibafix Eco/Albafix ECO Singapore Swiss Colour Rewin ACP German R.H. Corporation Permafix RD Thailand Total quality Tinofix FRD/Albafix FRD Singapore Swiss Colour Cot. Levelling & Prof-Colloid Name of Item Country of Origin Supplier Name Irgasol Co New/Albatex CO Singapore Swiss Colour Levagol RL India Lanxess Drimagen E-2R Switzerland Clariant Drimagen E-3R Switzerland Clariant Oxidizing Agent for Polyester Name of Item Country of Origin Supplier Name Ludigol AR Singapore BASF Albatex AR Singapore Swiss Colour Dispersing Levelling Agent for Polyester Name of Item Country of Origin Supplier Name Univadine DIF Singapore Swiss Colour Acid PH Buffer (For Polyamide)  Setavin PAS After Soaping Agent Name of Item Country of Origin Supplier Name Matexil ADW India Avolan IS India Lanxess Cyclanon XC-W Germany BASF Eriopon OS Singapore Swiss Colour Gliding Agent for Cotton Yarn Name of Item Country of Origin Supplier Name Katamin BW Germany Zachimmer & Schwar
  30. 30. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Reducing Agent Name of Item Country of Origin Supplier Name Hydrosulphite (Hydrose) Singapore BASF Enzyme Finishing Agent Name of Item Country of Origin Supplier Name Nuvosoft / Ecosoft X750 Thailand Vrintex LTD. Biotuch C-39 Biopolish B-500 Primafast Luna CL Mega EH-S /EH-3 China Total quality Fabrilage HDL Optical Brightener for Cotton Name of Item Country of Origin Supplier Name Uvitex BHV Singapore Uvitex BAM India Diamond dye Skywhite BVB India PES-Dyeing PH -Buffer Name of Item Country of Origin Supplier Name Cibatex AB-45 Singapore Swiss Colour Rubbing Fastness Improver Name of Item Country of Origin Supplier Name Geitex WRN Taiwan Geigy Ent. De-Colorant for Effluent Treatment Name of Item Country of Origin Supplier Name Water Decolorint Agent. Local Ultra violet protection Agent Name of Item Country of Origin Supplier Name Tanofast CEL Singapore Ciba Antimurobiol Hygiene Protection Agent Name of Item Country of Origin Supplier Name Oleophobol ZSR Singapore Ciba Silicon Stripper Agent Name of Item Country of Origin Supplier Name Silicon Stripper Knitting Oil Removing Agent Name of Item Country of Origin Supplier Name Silvatol FLN Singapore Ciba
  31. 31. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Special Finishing Agent Softener Type of Softener Name of Item Country of Origin Supplier Name Cationic Sapamine CWS Tissocyl RC9 (Used for heat setting) Weak Cationic/Non- ionic Basosoft F-Euk Conc Singapore BASF Jinsofter CWS Soulbio SSK China Global Chemicals Alcamine CWS /Sapamine CWS Singapore Swiss Colour Non-ionic Soulbio FC China Global Chemicals Belsoft 200 Conc. P I German Cognis Silicon Adasil SM German Cognis Albafix ECO Laxsof Taiwan Geigy Ent. Silizen PEP Unisil 2ST Turkey Eksoy Kimyevi Unisil NBI Turkey Eksoy Kimyevi Unisil NLPW Turkey Eksoy Kimyevi Microsillc EG Super Name of Item Country of Origin Supplier Name Ultraphil HCT Singapore Swiss Colour Tubingal MSQ German R.H. Corporation Siligen PEP Ultra-Fresh Silphure Canada Thomson Unidal APY.TH Sanitized T9919 (Anti Bacterial Agent) Hydroperm RPU (Anti Bacterial Agent) Dilasoft JWN-CN (Anti Bacterial Agent) Umidol (Anti Bacterial Agent)
  32. 32. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Literature Review
  33. 33. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Cotton Fiber and its Chemical Structure: The chemical composition of cotton, when picked, is about 94 percent cellulose; in finished fabrics is it 99 percent cellulose. Cotton contains carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen with reactive hydroxyl groups. Glucose is the basic unit of the cellulose molecule. Cotton may have as many as 10,000 glucose monomers per molecule. The molecular chains are arranged in long spiral linear chains within the fiber. The strength of a fiber is directly related to chain length. Hydrogen bonding occurs between cellulose chains in a cotton fiber. There are three hydroxyl groups that protrude from the ring formed by one oxygen and five carbon atoms. These groups are polar meaning the electrons surrounding the atoms are not evenly distributed. The hydrogen atoms of the hydroxyl group are attracted to many of the oxygen atoms of the cellulose. This attraction is called hydrogen bonding. The bonding of hydrogen's within the ordered regions of the fibrils causes the molecules to draw closer to each other which increases the strength of the fiber. Hydrogen bonding also aids in moisture absorption. Cotton ranks among the most absorbent fibers because of Hydrogen bonding which contributes to cotton's comfort. The chemical reactivity of cellulose is related to the hydroxyl groups of the glucose unit. Moisture, dyes, and many finishes cause these groups to readily react. Chemicals like chlorine bleaches attack the oxygen atom between or within the two ring units breaking the molecular chain of the cellulose. Chemical Structure of Cotton Bleaching: Bleach is a chemical that removes colors or whitens, often via oxidation. Common chemical bleaches include household "chlorine bleach", a solution of approximately 3–6% sodium hypochlorite (NaClO), and "oxygen bleach", which contains hydrogen peroxide or a peroxide-releasing compound such as sodium per-borate, sodium per-carbonate, sodium per- sulfate, sodium per-phosphate, or urea peroxide together with catalysts and activators, e.g. tetraacetylethylenediamine and/or sodium nonanoyloxybenzenesulfonate. To bleach something is to apply bleach, sometimes as a preliminary step in the process of dyeing. The bleaching of textiles appears to have been known as early as 300 B.C. when soda ash was prepared from burned seaweed and used to clean cloth. Then the cloth was treated with soured milk to reduce its alkalinity. The bleaching process was completed when the cloth was exposed to the Sun. This type of sun bleaching typically took several weeks. A Swedish chemist discovered chlorine gas in 1784 and succeeded in demonstrating its use for decolorizing vegetable dyes. Fifteen years later a patent was awarded for a bleaching powder formed by the absorption of chlorine gas into dry hydrate of lime. Following World
  34. 34. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT War I the technology for shipping liquid chlorine was developed. This allowed for on-site production of sodium hypochlorite in textile mills and led to the development of other chlorine-based bleaches. In 1928, the first dry calcium hypochlorite bleach containing 70% available chlorine was produced in the United States. This material largely replaced bleaching powder in commercial bleaching. Hydrogen peroxide was prepared as early as 1818 but did not find use in the bleaching of textiles until much later. By 1930, the prices of peroxides had dropped sufficiently to allow the use of hydrogen peroxide in the bleaching of cotton, wool, and silk. By 1940, 65% of all cotton bleaching was done with hydrogen peroxide. Textile bleaching is one of the stages in the manufacture of textiles. All raw textile materials, when they are in natural form, are known as 'greige' material. This greige material will be with its natural color, odour and impurities that are not suitable for clothing materials. Not only the natural impurities will remain on the greige material but also the add-ons that were made during its cultivation, growth and manufacture in the form of pesticides, fungicides, worm killers, sizes, lubricants, etc. The removal of these natural coloring matters and add-ons during the previous state of manufacturing is called scouring and bleaching. Bleaching Chemistry The process of bleaching can be summarized in the following set of chemical reactions: Cl2(aq) + H2O(l) H+ (aq) + Cl- (aq) + HClO(aq) The H+ ion of the hypochlorous acid then dissolves into solution, and so the final result is effectively: Cl2(aq) + H2O(l) 2H+ (aq) + Cl- (aq) + ClO- (aq) Hypochlorite tends to decompose into chloride and a highly reactive form of oxygen: ClO- Cl- + O This oxygen then reacts with organic substances to produce bleaching or antiseptic effects. Reactive Dye: The best dyes, by far, to use for cotton and other cellulose fibers are the fiber reactive dyes. They are much brighter, longer-lasting, and easier-to-use than all-purpose dyes. Reactive dyes first appeared commercially in 1956, after their invention in 1954 by Rattee and Stephens at the Imperial Chemical Industries Dyestuffs Division site in Blackley, Manchester, United Kingdom. Reactive dyes are used to dye cellulosic fibres. The dyes contain a reactive group, either a haloheterocycle or an activated double bond, that, when applied to a fibre in an alkaline dye bath, forms a chemical bond with an hydroxyl group on the cellulosic fibre. Reactive dyeing is now the most important method for the coloration of cellulosic fibres. Reactive dyes can also be applied on wool and nylon; in the latter case they are applied under weakly acidic conditions. Reactive dyes have a low utilization degree compared to other types of dyestuff, since the functional group also bonds to water, creating hydrolysis.
  35. 35. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Reactive dyes are categorized by functional group Functional group Fixation Temperature Included in Brands Monochlorotriazine Haloheterocycle 80o Basilen E & P Cibacron E Procion H,HE Monofluorochlorotriazine Haloheterocycle 40o Cibacron F & C Dichlorotriazine Haloheterocycle 30o Basilen M Procion MX Difluorochloropyrimidine Haloheterocycle 40o Levafix EA Drimarene K & R Dichloroquinoxaline Haloheterocycle 40o Levafix E Trichloropyrimidine Haloheterocycle 80-98o Drimarene X & Z Cibacron T Vinyl sulfone activated double bond 40o Remazol Vinyl amide activated double bond 40o Remazol Dyestuffs with only one functional group sometimes have a low degree of fixation. To overcome these dyestuffs containing two different reactive groups (i.e. one monochlorotriazin and one vinyl sulfone) were created. Bifunctional Dyestuffs containing two groups are also known as bifunctional dyestuffs, though some still refers to the original combination. Other type of bifunctional dyes has been introduced. The first bifunctional dye made where more tolerant to temperature deviations (better process). Other bifunctionals are created, some with fastness (better quality) or only fixation degree (better environment/economy) in mind. Reactive dyes have good fastness properties owing to the bonding that occurs during dyeing. Cotton is made of cellulose molecules which react with the dye .During reactive dyeing the H atom in the cellulose molecule combines with the cl atom in the dyeing process and results in a bond. Trifunctional dyestuffs also exist.Procion MX. Many people feel quite strongly that the best dye choice for the beginner, as well as for many experienced dyers, is Procion MX, because this dye is very easy to work with. The dyes are relatively non-toxic. Other advantages include the remarkable wash fastness found in all fiber-reactive dyes. Optimum reaction temperatures for Procion MX dyes are between 95° and 105°F = 35° to 41°C (except for turquoise, which prefers up to 130°F = 55°C) Cibacron F. Another very good fiber reactive dye for artists and crafters to use is the Cibacron F line. (Don't confuse Cibacron F with just plain Cibacron! They can be completely different types of dyes; be sure you get the type with the "F" suffix.) Like Procion MX dyes, Cibacron F dyes can be used in warm water, instead of extremely hot water like some dyes. Its advantages over Procion MX dyes are that it 'keeps' better in solution, so you can store and possibly even buy it already in solution (liquid form), avoiding the safety hazard of breathing dye powder; it is also much easier to wash the excess dye out of the fabric when using Cibacron F dyes than when using Procion MX. However, the Cibacron F line has one major drawback when compared to the Procion MX line: there is not as wide a choice of colors.
  36. 36. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Cibacron F dyes can be used according to the exact same recipe as Procion MX dyes, and even mixed freely with them. However, Cibacron F dyes are slightly less quick to react than Procion MX type, which is why they can be stored so much longer after dissolving them in water than the Procion MX type dyes; this also means that slightly higher temperatures are needed. Optimum temperatures for Cibacron F dyes are slightly higher than for Procion MX dyes. Ciba says 55° to 65°C (130° to 150°F); ProChem (Sabracron F) says 45 to 55°C. (113° to 130°F) Drimarene K. This is the remaining popular "cool water" fiber reactive dye. It requires higher temperatures still than Cibacron F, but does not require steaming. Instructions for Drimarene K dyes can be found at Batik Oetoro; they are very similar in action to MX type dyes, except for requiring a minimum temperature of 35°C or 95°F. The greatest drawback, besides the need to find a warm place for the dye reaction to occur, is the lack of a truly rich red. Drimarene K has optimum temperatures around 60°C (140°F) for most colors, 80°C (176°F) for turquoise and a couple of others. Procion H dyes are usually used for silk painting; they require steaming or simmering to fix to cotton or silk. They are chemically similar to Procion MX dyes, being monochlorotriazines, but they are far less reactive, and will not work at all well at room temperature. Procion H dyes, may be fixed to cotton using a high-pH solution such as sodium silicate at room temperature, or by moderate heating. Vinyl sulfone dyes are particularly useful for chemical resist dyeing , in which two different types of fiber reactive dyes are used to print foreground and background in different colors. Remazol dyes are more suitable for dyeing for later discharge (bleaching) than are other fiber reactive dyes. Levafix. made by Dystar, for small-scale users. Their temperature optimum is around 50°C (122°F). This is lower than the optimum temperature of 60° to 80° C. for the Drimarene K dyes, which can be used in "cold" dyeing, but higher than the optimum temperature of about 35° to 40°C (95° to 105°F) for Procion MX. It is not necessary to get quite as high as the optimal temperature in order to have acceptable results. Dissolving the Dyes The dyes are in most cases readily water-soluble. They are dissolved either by passing with cold water to which is then added hot water or by strewing the dye powder into hot water which is stirred at high speed. Usually a temperature not greater than 80ºC is used for dissolution. In the case of highly reactive dyes such as Procion MX (ICI) warm (50-60ºC) water is used. Since the dyes are prone to hydrolysis stock solutions should not be stored for long periods. Reaction with Cellulosic fiber Reactive dyes formed covalent bond with cellulosic fiber by Nucleophilic substitution and addition reaction. The reactions are as follows ----- Substitution reaction: D – R – Cl + HO - Cell  D – R – O – Cell + HCl
  37. 37. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Addition reaction: D – F – CH2 = CH2 + HO – Cell  D – F – CH2 – CH2 – O – Cell Reaction with water: The cold brand reactive dyes are highly reactive in nature. They react also with water and get hydrolyzed. The reaction is as follows ---- D – R – Cl + HOH  D – R – OH + HCl The hydrolyzed dye is also colored substances and has very low substantivity for the cellulosic fiber. So they are attached with fiber surface after dyeing. If they do not washed away from the fiber surface the fastness property of the fiber must be very low. Salts used for Reactive Dyeing Depends on the substantivity to increase the exhaustion, salt like common salt (NaCl) or Glouber’s salt (Na2SO4) is used. Alkalis for Reactive Dyeing The common alkalis used for reactive dyeing are sodium bi-carbonate (NaHCO3), sodium carbonate (Na2CO3), sodium hydroxide (NaOH), sodium silicate (Na2SiO3) and sodium phosphate (Na3PO4). Sodium silicate is very strong alkali and only used for deep dyeing. Sodium carbonate is mostly used alkali in reactive dyeing. Eliminating the hydrolyzed dye The hydrolyzed dye is also colored substances and has very low substantivity for the cellulosic fiber. They tend to stay on the fiber surface after dyeing for sometimes although there is no bond between the dye and the fiber. These unfixed dyes come of the fibers when washed or rubbed subsequently. If they do not washed away from the fiber surface the rubbing and wash fastness property of the fiber must be very low. The presence of electrolytes in the washing water causes an increase in the hydrolyzed dye affinity making it difficult to extract, therefore very saline water must be avoided even if this water conditioned. Optical Brightener Optical brighteners, optical brightening agents (OBAs), fluorescent brightening agents (FBAs) or fluorescent whitening agents (FWAs) are dyes that absorb light in the ultraviolet and violet region (usually 340-370nm) of the electromagnetic spectrum, and re-emit light in the blue region (typically 420-470nm). Fluorescent activity is a short term or rapid emission response, unlike phosphorescence, which is a delayed emission. These additives are often used to enhance the appearance of color of fabric and paper, causing a perceived "whitening" effect, making materials look less yellow by increasing the overall amount of blue light reflected. Properties The most common classes of chemicals with this property are the stilbenes and older, non- commercial fluorescent dyes such as umbelliferone, which absorb energy in the UV portion of the spectrum and re-emit it in the blue portion of the visible spectrum. A white surface treated with an optical brightener can emit more visible light than that which shines on it, making it appear brighter. The blue light emitted by the brightener compensates for the
  38. 38. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT diminishing blue of the treated material and changes the hue away from yellow or brown and toward white. There are approximately 400 brightener types listed in the Color Index, but less than 90 are actually produced commercially and only a handful are commercially important. Generically, the C.I. FBA number can be assigned to a specific molecule, however, some are duplicated, since manufacturers apply for the index number when they produce it. The global OBA production for paper, textiles and detergents is dominated by just a few di- and tetra- sulfonated triazole-stilbenes and a di-sulfonated stilbene-biphenyl. These are subject to fading when exposed long term to UV, due to the formation of optically inactive stilbene cis- isomers found at the center of the molecule. All brighteners have extended conjungation and/or aromaticity, allowing for electron movement. Some non-stilbene brighteners are used in more permanent applications such as whitening synthetic fiber. Basic class types of brighteners include: - Triazine-stilbenes (di-, tetra- or hexa-sulfonated) - Coumarins - Imidazolines - Diazoles - Triazoles - Benzoxazolines - Biphenyl-stilbenes Brighteners can be "boosted" by the addition of certain polyols like high molecular weight polyethylene glycol or polyvinyl alcohol. These additives increase the visible blue light emissions significantly. Brighteners can also be "quenched". Too much use of brightener will often cause a greening effect as emissions start to show above the blue region in the visible spectrum. Besides the formation of cis isomer in stilbene-containing brighteners (only the trans isomer is optically active), continued exposure to UV-containing light will actually cleave the molecule and start the process of degradation. Common uses Brighteners are commonly added to laundry detergents to replace whitening agents removed during washing and to make the clothes appear cleaner. Optical brighteners have replaced bluing which was formerly used to produce the same effect. Some brighteners can cause allergic reactions when in contact with skin, depending on the individual. Brighteners are used in many papers, especially high brightness papers, resulting in their strongly fluorescent appearance under UV illumination. Paper brightness is typically measured at 457nm, well within the fluorescent activity range of brighteners. Paper used for banknotes does not contain optical brighteners, so a common method for detecting counterfeit notes is to check for fluorescence. A side effect of optical whitening is to make the treated fabrics more visible with Night Vision Devices than non-treated ones. This may or may not be desirable for military or other applications. Optically brightened paper is often not useful in exacting photographic or art applications, since the whiteness decreases with time. Endues of optical brighteners include: - Detergent whitener (instead of blueing agents) - Paper brightening (internal or in a coating) - Fiber whitening (internal, added to polymer melts) -Textile whitening (external, added to fabric finishes)
  39. 39. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Mercerization Mercerized cotton is cotton which has been treated with sodium hydroxide to bring out certain properties first discovered by John Mercer in 1851. In 1890, Horace Lowe added an additional step to the process, and the British cotton industry began to take an interest in mercerized cotton, which is available today in a wide range of incarnations from thread to completed garments. When treated properly, mercerized cotton is stronger, smoother, and shinier than regular cotton. In addition, it takes dye more readily so that manufacturers can create rich color saturation in their cottons. The brilliant, lustrous hues of Mercerized cotton can be found in fabric stores, yarn shops, and department stores all over the world. John Mercer discovered that immersing fibers such as cotton and linen in a caustic soda bath would increase their strength and also allow them to take dye more readily. He patented his fiber work, but the cotton industry did not express very much interest in it. It was Horace Lowe who popularized the process, by discovering that keeping the fibers under tension while they were soaked yielded a more lustrous thread. Mercer's name is presumably given to the process to recognize his important initial discovery, which paved the way to Lowe's refinement of the treatment. Mercerization starts with gathering the cotton and spinning it normally. Because cottons with long fibers take better to mercerization, Pima, Egyptian, and Sea Island cotton are usually chosen for the process. The cotton thread is held under tension and submerged in a highly alkaline bath of sodium hydroxide in a percentage which ranges, but usually hovers around 22%. After treatment, the mercerized cotton is placed into an acidic bath to neutralize it. Once this process is complete, the cotton can be dyed and knitted, woven, or packed as stand- alone spools of thread. The terms "pearl cotton" and "pearle cotton" are also used to refer to Mercerized cotton, because of the deeply lustrous appearance of the finished cotton thread. In addition to having rich color saturation and a shimmering appearance, mercerized cotton is also much stronger than conventional cotton thread. The process shrinks the cotton fibers, tightening and smoothing the grain of the thread. Because the cotton is preshrunk, mercerized cotton also tends not to shrink as much as regular cotton, so consumers can be more confident about the fit of mercerized garments. Mercerization Process Single Mercerization is a process in which the yarn used to make a shirt is run through the middle of an open flame at a very high speed. It passes through so quickly that the yarn itself doesn't burn but the millions of fuzzies and slubs on the yarn are eliminated instantly. This makes the yarn stronger. Since there is no fuzz on the yarn, it is held together better and can no longer unravel by itself. The yarn is also less prone to shrinking because the mercerization process literally pre-shrinks the fabric. Mercerization also cleans the yarn and gives it a strong affinity for dye. While normal cotton yarn has no clarity or depth to it's color, Mercerized yarn accepts the dye much better and the colors come out deeper, sharper and have a very clean look. The fabric now looks and feels ten times better. Single Mercerization is a huge step up from the quality of regular cotton shirts but Double Mercerization takes it even a step further. During the knitting process some fuzzies will ultimately resurface. In Double Mercerization the knitted fabric undergoes a second Mercerization process to remove these. The fabric is placed in a chemical bath using caustic soda to once again remove any additional fuzzies or slubs and is then washed clean. This makes the fabric even stronger and makes it look and feel even better. It has a luster and sheen that is unmatched. Double mercerized fabric feels so soft and smooth its look and feel can easily be mistaken for silk.
  40. 40. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Chemical Laboratory
  41. 41. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Chemical Lab Layout Way of physical lab & sample section of bleached fabrics 19 1 2 4 5 6 7 1114 13 12 8 9 10 18 20 16 15 21 3 17 ENTRANCE P a s s i n g w a y 22 23
  42. 42. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Description of the Chemical Lab Layout Sl. No. Equipment Manufacturer 1 Light box UK 2 Robo lab Greece 3 Ahiba Nuance sample Dyeing machine (5 piece) U.S. A. 4 Bath tab & Rack to keep apparatus, chemicals etc. 5 Rapid Washer /Quick Wash Plus Rapid 6 Electrolux Wascator SDL 7 Soaping (AH2-Y) Locally made 8 Rota wash SDL 9 Quick wash SDL 10 Washing machine (Siemens) Germany 11 Rota wash M228 SDL 12 Electrolux Washing machine (especially for H&M) UK 13 Washing M/C WASCATOR FOM 71 CLS (all buyer) UK 14 Washing machine Whirlpool USA 15 Spectrophotometer (Data color 600) USA 16 Q-SUN Xenon test chamber Bangkok 17 Lab attendant area + pipetting 18 Senior manager desk of QAD 19 Fabric inspection or approval room 20 Table for executive task 21 Iron on the stand 22 & 23 Senior Executive desk
  43. 43. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT LIGHT BOX: Brand name: VeriVide Company name: James. H. Heal Origin: UK Purpose: Sample is examined under different lighting media. With today’s complex color requirements, a shade cannot always be assessed under one light source. Several may be needed so that the shade is viewed in applicable conditions Light Sourc e Name Description C.R .I Length Watts D65 VeriVide D65 "Artificial Daylight VeriVide D65 “Artificial Daylight”. Correlated colour temperature 6500K. Within the tolerances prescribed in BS 950: Part 1; and all international specifications for D65 illuminant. Specified for most applications where there is a need to maintain colour consistency and quality. Conforming highly to the CIE specifications, for accurate colour matching. 98 600mm 1200mm 1500mm 20w 40w 65w F Tungsten Filament Tungsten Filament Lighting. Approximate colour temperature of 2800K. Required by BS 950: Part 1 as a test for metamerism (approximating CIE Illuminant ‘A’). Typical light source used within domestic environments 100 Globe Globe Round Clear- 284mm Opal-284 40w 60w 150w 60w 60w A Tungsten Halogen Tungsten Halogen Lighting (CIE Illuminant ‘A’). This represents incandescent A (inc-A) with a color temperature of 2856K. Typical light source used within domestic environments. Used to check for metamerism. 100 --------- 35w 840 P15 Narrow Band Triphosphor Fluorescent Lamps. Correlated colour temperature of 4000K. CIE Illuminant F11. Often chosen as 85 600mm 1200mm 1500mm 18w 36w 58w Figure: Light box & viewed angle
  44. 44. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT SAMPLE DYEING MACHINE Machine name: Top Speed II Brand name: Ahiba Nuance Company name: Data color Origin: America. Uses A rotary dyeing machine yielding the highest production in the laboratory. Process: Exhaust Fibers: Synthetic, Natural, Blends Substrate: Piece, Skein, Loose Stock, Top Testing: Fastness Testing Benefits - Laboratory recipes correlate with production recipes - Uniform temperature inside each dyeing beaker - Level dyeing a European “Point of Sale” light source, with good colour rendering and manufactured to a tighter tolerance specification as prescribed by Marks & Spencer. (Formerly TL84) CWF Cool White Cool White Broad Band Fluorescent Lamps. Correlated colour temperature of 4000K. Used as an American “Point of Sale” light source. Moderate colour rendering. 62 600m 1200mm 1500mm 20w 40w 65/80 w 830 Narrow Band Triphosphor Fluorescent Lamp. Correlated colour temperature 3000K. Often chosen as a European “Point of Sale” light source with good colour rendering.(Formerly TL83) 85 600mm 1200mm 1500mm 18w 40w 65/80 w UV Ultra Violet Ultra-Violet Black light. Used to detect the presence of Optical Brightening Agents and/or Fluorescent dyes. Therefore it is useful when assessing white and Fluorescent shades to check the level present and its evenness. N/A Clear- 450mm Blacklight -600mm 15w 18w Figure: Sample dyeing Machine
  45. 45. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT - Unlimited program storage and easy program editing Dyeing Positions & Beaker Size 20 x 150cc beakers (Two machine) 15 x 300cc beakers (Three machine) Features - Infrared heating; Water Cooling - Easy to program controller with memory card - Precision control and constant monitoring of dyeing parameters - Programmable speed and constant movement of the dye bath and substrate - Manual auxiliary additions - Machine standard rpm is 35 - Each M/C contains one sensor beakers. ROBO LAB Manufacturer: Sclavos Country of Origin: Greece Manufacturing Year: 2001 Total Weight: 800kg Stroke force: 7kw Electric consumption: 220v Dimension: Length = 200 cm, Width = 170cm, Height = 200cm. Purpose: -Uniform mixing of dyes. - Mixing up to 24 hours. - To ensure uniform solubility. - Automatic pipetting. Features  Fully automated dyestuff solution preparation.  Fully automated dispensing of dyeing recipes.  High dispensing accuracy +/- 0.003 g Figure: ROBOLAB 240 (Auto dispenser)
  46. 46. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT  High dyestuff solution accuracy +/- 0.0001%  Fast solution preparation (4 min.) & fast recipe dispensing (2 min. with 3 ingredients)  Patented gravimetric dispensing system  Direct dispensing into the beaker.  Compatibility with beakers of many lab machinery manufacturers.  Windows operating system.  Available in various languages  Data transfer via floppy disk or network. Rapid washing machine  Soaping is done after neutralization to remove unfixed dyes.  Dyeing is also possible except polyester.  Temperature: 95 c (Max).  Speed: 60 rpm.  At a time 24 samples would be washing. Washing Machine Place of Origin: Finland Used but excellent: Year approx 2006 Model Number: Wascator FOM71MP-Lab Brand Name: Electrolux Standard reference washing machine Wascator FOM71MP-Lab is manufactured by Electrolux AB, Sweden. The machine is used to determine the stability of fabrics and garments to washing and to investigate the effects of detergents and chemicals. The machine is in very good condition and fully operational. It is robustly constructed and the drum and external panels are manufactured in stainless steel and are rigidly fixed to a galvanized internal frame. This Wascator is microprocessor controlled and accepts up to 99 programs which can be entered or modified by the user, either manually at the keypad or electronically from a cassette. The Liquid crystal display shows up to four lines of text. The unit is programmed with BS, ISO, IWS and M&S test programs. Figure: Electrolux lab washing machine
  47. 47. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Machine physically:  Width 660 mm  Depth 630 mm  Height 1070 mm  Weight approx 120 kg Rota wash Brand name: Rota wash Company name: SDL ATLAS Country of origin: UK Feature  Using this machine for test color fastness to wash  This machine contains some jar  Also contains 25 steel ball (5mm diameter)  Machine running time accordingly test method used.  Machine run rotationally. Quick Wash Plus Figure: Color fastness test machine Figure: Quick wash machine
  48. 48. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Machine name: Quick wash plus Company name: SDL ATLAS Origin: UK Features  Less than 20 minute wash and dry time.  5 chamber bins handles multiple samples and weights.  Handles from 1-20 samples per bin depending on fabric weight.  Microprocessor controlled wash & dry sequences.  Prolonged programs for AATCC & other testing method. Table top maintaining.  Electronic air & water control & display. Optional fully automatic four liquid dispensing systems. Utilize operator time more efficiently. Utilize space not taken by traditional washer & dryer more efficiently. Quality control-testing dimensional stability, spirality and finish durability. Specification Accessories: Sample tongs Fabric making templates (2) Direct reading shrinkage ruler Marker pens (yellow & black) Sample size: 20*20 cm to 25*25 cm Cycle time: 12-45 minutes, Pre-programmed cycles up to 10. Number of specimens: 1 to 20 per cycle depending on sample weight. Water temperature: up to 70C Air temperature: Up to 90C Air pressure: 2.4 to 4.8 bar Water volume: 2.0 to 4.5 liter Siemens Washing Machine
  49. 49. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Product name: Washing Machines Brand: Siemens Origin: Germany Feature Label: A / A / C Capacity: 5 kg Spin speed: 1000/600 rpm Buttons: Rinse Hold, Spin speed reduction, Start Easy-care program: 30°C, 40°C, 60°C Wash optimization: Spin off, Spin speed reduction, Start  Multiple water protection  LED program progress indicators  Aquatronic wash system  Automatic load adjustment system  Unbalanced load detection  Foam detection system  30 cm porthole with 140 degree opening door can be built-under  Whites and colored program: 30°C, 40°C, 60°C, 60°C Pre-washing, 60° Stains Intensive, 90°C  Water protection system  Fully electronic control dials for wash programs, temperature and special programs Special programs: stains, pre-wash, hand-wash wool and delicates Figure: Washing machine especially for Puma
  50. 50. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Rota wash M228 Machine name: Rota wash Company name: SDL ATLAS Origin: UK Feature  Increased capacity is capable of holding the same amount of 550 ml or 1200 ml containers  No extra hardware tools or adaptors are required for 1200 ml containers.  Graphical display panel equipped with multi function controller frequency operation.  Built in testing programs for various international standards including ISO.  Communication part for routine updating. The redesigned Rota wash color fastness tester offers many feature upgrades that make it more efficient & easier for the lab technician to operate. The new graphical display & integrated controller provide an easy operating interface. All functions of the Rota wash are preciously controlled.  Water temperature.  Test duration  Rate of temperature rise.  Water level adjustment (Drain & Filling).  Rotation of container for loading & unloading.  Test method selection. Figure: Color fastness to wash test machine
  51. 51. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Electrolux Wascator Machine Machine name: Electrolux Wascator Company name: Healink James H. Heal Origin: UK WASCATOR FOM 71 CLS Machine name: WASCATOR FOM 71 C Company name: Healink, James H. Heal Origin: UK Code: 310B Model: Wascator FOM 71 CLS Weight: 195 kg DESCRIPTION High precision washing machine acknowledge as a standard reference for washing tests on fabrics. WASCATOR is suitable for checking dimension stability during washing and for checking the effects of washing detergent and chemical products on textile. Equipped with Fig.: Garments washing machine especially for H&M Fig.: Washing machine for all buyers
  52. 52. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT microprocessor for the control of the functioning cycle of the machine. Included are 9 pre- programmed washing cycles, programmable washing cycles are available as optional. OPTIONALS code 310 2 polyester make-weight code 310.4 ECE reference detergent code 310.8 sodium per borate code 310.14 Stability template and percentage rule for checking dimensional stability Whirlpool Washing Machine Machine name: Whirlpool Company name: SDL ATLAS Origin: Made in USA Modal: Heavy duty series 8 Specification Dry load capacity: 8.2 kg Weight approximate: 143 kg Water supply: Hot & Cold Minimum water pressure: 1 bar Minimum water temperature: 603 C Fig.: Fabric/Gts. Washing machine for American
  53. 53. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Spectrophotometer Machine name: Spectrophotometer Model: Data color 600 Origin: USA Purposes:  To collect recipe from Data Color.  To measure CMC difference. (Pass/Fail decision). To give staining, wash fastness, light fastness result. To know the metameric value & dye concentration. To give topping recipe. Figure: Spectrophotometer and different parts
  54. 54. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Specifications: Feature Description Instrument Type Dual-beam spectrophotometer Measurement Geometry Diffuse illumination and 8° viewing Illumination Source Pulsed xenon filtered to approximate D65 Sphere Diameter 152 mm / 6.0 in Specular Port Automated included or excluded Spectral Analyzer Proprietary SP2000 analyzer with dual 256 diode array and high resolution holographic grating Transmittance Measurements No Wavelength Range 360 nm to 700 nm Reporting Interval 5 nm or 10 nm(1) Effective Bandwidth 5 nm or 10 nm Photometric Range 0 to 200% Black Trap High performance 20 Read Repeatability On The White Tile Using Dual Flash (CIELAB) 0.01 (max) Inter-instrument Agreement(2) for Reflectance (CIELAB) 0.15 (max) , 0.08 (avg.) Lens 4 position auto zoom Aperture plates for reflection measurements 3 standard (LAV, SAV, USAV) 2 optional (XUSAV) LAV 30 mm illuminated 26 mm measured MAV 20 mm illuminated 16 mm measured SAV 9 mm illuminated 5 mm measured USAV 6.6 mm illuminated 2.5 mm measured XUSAV(3) 3.0 mm illuminated 2.5 mm measured Reflection Aperture Plate Detection Yes UV Calibration Yes
  55. 55. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Automatic UV Control Automatic UV calibration for the measurement of fluorescent Specimens with UV cutoff filters at 400 nm, 420 nm and 460 nm Q-Sun Xenon Test Chamber Machine name: Q-Sun Xenon test chamber Company name: Color Global Co. Ltd. Origin: Bangkok Purpose: - To measure color fastness to light. - To measure color fastness to light perspiration. Total Table Work Buyer swatch Work sheet open Lab dip submission card send to buyer Sample approved Yes No Production card Re Submission
  56. 56. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT TOTAL LAB PROCEDURE Swatch/standard/pantone number from buyer Swatch input in spectrophotometer to get color combination A/C to standard prepare recipe for lab dyeing with the help of database and spectrophotometer, fabrication is important issue. Sample taken a/c to buyer requirements for dyeing Prepare dye solution a/c to recipe with the help of electronic digital pipette (EDP) or hand Pipetting. Dyeing this sample according to recipe in lab dyeing machine. After treatment is done Drying and pressing Shade match with the swatch/standard in the light box according to the recommended light source of buyer Comparison of sample with swatch/standard If Pass If Fail Prepare lab deep submission card for buyer approval Color difference analysis Recipe Correction (Add / less) more than one. NO YES Production card prepared for lab to bulk
  57. 57. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Sample Dyeing Procedure Recipe Calculation Shade % × Weight of the fabric in gm Dyes (gm) = Stock solution % Salt (gm) = Auxiliaries & chemicals (cc/ml) = For Caustic soda (38 Be.) Dye line (Recipe) form lab executive Making stock solution (1% & 0.1%) for pipetting if necessary Add salt & soda according to shade percentage Take sample 10 gm and emerged in the solution Dyeing according to sample & dyes properties After treatment is done according to dyeing method. Drying & Ironing Required amount (g/l) × Liquor ratio × sample weight 1000 Required amount (g/l) × Liquor ratio × sample weight 1000 × concentration (%) of stock solution
  58. 58. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Required alkali solution in (cc/ml) = Conversion formula from percentage to g/l is as g/l = Required amount (%)× 10 . Stock Solution Making Procedure For solid, X gm chemicals/dyes/auxiliaries in the 100 ml water is called x% stock solution. For liquid, X ml/cc chemicals/dyes/auxiliaries in the (100 - x ml/cc) water is called x% stock solution. Caustic soda: The amounts of alkali recommended for the respective procedures refer to caustic soda 30%, 66Tw (36Be). For other concentrations, the amounts can be calculated with the aid of the following table: Density and conc. of caustic soda at 15C Baume (Be) Twaddle (Tw) Density g/ml g NaOH 100% per 1 Kg NaOH soln. g NaOH 100% per 1 Lit NaOH soln 15 23.2 1.116 103.0 114.9 16 25.0 1.125 110.6 124.4 17 26.8 1.134 119.0 134.9 18 28.4 1.142 126.9 145.0 19 30.4 1.152 135.0 155.5 20 32.4 1.162 143.5 166.7 21 34.2 1.171 151.5 177.4 22 36.0 1.180 160.0 188.8 23 38.0 1.190 169.1 201.2 24 40.0 1.200 178.1 213.7 25 42.0 1.210 187.1 226.4 26 44.0 1.220 196.5 239.7 27 46.2 1.231 206.0 253.6 28 48.2 1.241 215.5 267.4 29 50.4 1.252 225.0 281.7 30 52.6 1.263 235.0 296.8 31 54.8 1.274 244.8 311.9 32 57.0 1.285 255.0 327.7 33 59.4 1.279 265.8 344.7 34 61.6 1.308 276.5 361.7 35 64.0 1.320 288.3 380.6 36 66.4 1.332 300.0 399.6 37 69.0 1.345 312.0 419.6 38 71.4 1.357 325.0 441.0 39 74.0 1.370 337.3 462.1 40 76.6 1.383 350.0 484.1 41 79.4 1.397 363.6 507.9 Required amount (%) × wt of substrate × LR Conversion value from Be. to g/l of alkali
  59. 59. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT 42 82.0 1.410 376.5 530.9 43 84.8 1.424 390.6 556.2 44 87.6 1.438 404.7 582.0 45 90.6 1.453 420.2 610.6 46 93.6 1.468 435.8 639.8 47 96.6 1.483 451.6 669.7 48 99.6 1.498 467.3 700.0 49 102.8 1.514 484.1 732.9 50 106.0 1.530 501.0 766.5 For Light – Medium Shade (Cotton Fabric) with Cold Brand Dyestuff Sample Weight = 10 gm M: L = 1:8 Fabrication Buyer Name: X Recipe: Leva Blue CA = 0.034% Remazol yellow RGB = 0.447% Remazol Red RGB = 1.051 % Glauber Salt = 45 gm/l Soda Ash (20%) = 16 gm/l Leveling Agent = 1 g/l Sequestering agent = 1 g/l Calculation: Leva Blue CA = 0.034 × 10 = 0.34 cc Remazol yellow RGB = 0.447 × 10 = 4.47 cc Remazol Red RGB = 1.051 × 10 = 10.51 cc Glauber Salt = (45 ×80)/1000 = 3.6 gm Soda Ash (20%) = (16 × 80)/ (1000×20%) = 6.4 cc Sequestering agent = (1× 80)/ (1000×10%) = 0.8 cc Leveling agent = (1× 80)/ (1000×10%) = 0.8 cc Total Required Water = [80 – (0.34 +4.47 +10.51 +6.4 +0.8+0.8)] = 56.68 cc
  60. 60. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Dyeing Curve . 38 Dyeing Procedure: (1) At first, take required Dyes & leveling agent by pipetting in a beaker. (2) Then add glauber salt into the beaker. After that we put the sample fabric into the beaker. (3) Then place the beaker into the sample dyeing machine and dye bath set at 38o c. (4) Raise the temperature up to 60o c (3o c gradient or 3o /min ) (5) Run the machine for 30 minutes at 60o c. (6) At 30o c hold the machine and dosing soda/alkali solution according to dyeline. (7) Then run the machine 60 minutes at 60o c. (8) After that we drop the temperature of the sample dyeing machine and get the Sample from the machine and the sample is ready for after treatment. After that give soaping at 85o c for 10 minutes. We soaped again at 90o c for 10 minutes. Then we again give cold wash. (10)After that dried the sample and ironing it. Tempo C Fig: Dyeing Curve for Light Shade H 60 Time (min) 308 90 B.D Dosing alkali/soda
  61. 61. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT After Treatment: For Dark to Extra Dark Shade (Cotton Fabric) with Cold Brand Dyestuff Sample Weight = 10 gm M: L = 1:7 Yarn quality: 40/1 (100% cotton) Buyer Name: X Recipe: Levafix Blue- CA = 0.600400% Levafix Amber-CA = 0.6780% Levafix fast red-CA = 0.5650 % Glauber Salt = 45 gm/l Soda Ash (20%) = 16 gm/l Leveling Agent = 1 g/l Sequestering agent = 1 g/l Calculation: Levafix Blue- CA = 0.06004 × 10 = 6.004 cc Levafix Amber-CA = 0.6780 × 10 = 6.780 cc Levafix fast red-CA = 0.5650 × 10 = 5.650 cc Glauber Salt = (45 ×70)/1000 = 3.15 gm Soda Ash (20%) = (16 × 70)/ (1000×20%) = 5.6 cc Unload the sample from dyeing machine Neutralization with acetic acid (1 gm with 1 liter water for 4-5 min) Soaping with Sandphore RSK 1g/l at 85 o C for 15 min Soaping with Sandphore RSK 1g/l at 90 o C for 15 min. Hot wash Cold wash Drying & pressing Cold wash
  62. 62. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Sequestering agent = (1× 70)/ (1000×10%) = 0.7 cc Leveling agent = (1×70)/ (1000×10%) = 0.7 cc Total Required Water = [70 – (6.004 +6.780 +5.650 +5.6 +0.7+0.7)]= 44.53 cc Dyeing Curve: Dyeing Procedure: (1) At first, take required Dyes & leveling agent by pipetting in a beaker. (2) Then add glauber salt into the beaker. After that put the sample fabric/yarn into the beaker. (3) Then place the beaker into the sample dyeing machine and dye bath set at 30o c. (4) Raise the temperature up to 60o c (3o C gradient or 3o C/min) (5) Run the machine for 30 minutes at 60o c. (6) After 40 min run at 60o c hold the machine and dosing soda/alkali solution according to dyeline. (7) Then run the machine 70 minutes at 60o c. (8) After that drop the temperature of the sample dyeing machine and get the sample from the machine and the sample is ready for after treatment (9) After that give soaping at 95o c for 10 minutes. We soaped again at 90o c for 10 minutes. Then again give cold wash. (10)After that dried the sample and ironing it. Tempo C Fig: Dyeing Curve for light shade H 60 Time (min) 4010 110 B.D Dosing alkali/soda
  63. 63. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT After Treatment: Dark Shade for Mercerized Yarn Sample Weight =10 gm M: L = 1:12 Yarn quality = 60/2 (100% cotton double mercerized) Recipe: Levafix Blue CA = 0.07300 % Kimsoline red KED =1.5217 % Kimsoline yellow KED = 0.71199 % Leveling agent (Ludigol) & Sequestering agent (10%) =1 gm/l Soda Ash (20%) =12 gm/l Glauber Salt = 50gm/l Calculation: Levafix Blue CA = 0.07300 ×10=0.735cc Kimsoline red KED =1.5217 ×10=15.21cc Kimsoline yellow KED = 0.71199 ×10=7.11cc Leveling agent (Ludigol 10 %) = (1×120) / (1000×10%) = 1.2 cc Sequestering agent (10%) = (1×120) / (1000×10%) = 1.2 cc Unload the sample from dyeing machine Neutralization with acetic acid (1 gm with 1 lt water for 4-5 min) Soaping with Sandphore RSK 1g/l at 95 o C for 15 min Soaping with Sandphore RSK 1g/l at 90 o C for 15 min. Hot wash Cold wash Drying & pressing Cold wash
  64. 64. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Soda Ash (20%) = (12×120) / (1000×20%) =7.2cc Glauber Salt = (50×120) / 1000 = 6 gm Total Required Water = [120 – (0.735+15.21+7.11+1.2+1.2+7.2)] = 87.345 cc Dyeing Curve: H Working Procedure: (1) At first, take required Dyes & leveling agent by pipetting in a beaker. (2) Then add glauber salt into the beaker. After that put the sample fabric into the beaker. (3) Then place the beaker & Dye bath set at room temperature(30 o c) (4) Raise the temperature at 60 o c (3 o c per minute) and run for 20 minutes. (5) Again raise the temperature at 80 o c (2 o c per minute) and run for 20 minutes. (6) Now temperature migration from 80 o c to 60 o c (4 o c per minute). Then hold the machine for soda dosing according to dyeline. (7) After Soda dosing we run the machine for 65 minutes and finally drop the bath for after treatment. 30 80 60 10 30 40 60 125 0Time (min) Tempo C Fig: Dyeing curve for Mercerized 100% cotton fabric or yarn Dosing soda/alkali B.D
  65. 65. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT (8) Now should need cold wash of the sample. (9) Then neutralize the sample fabric by giving a wash with 1 gm CH3COOH in 1litre cold water for 4-5 minutes. (10)After that we give soaping at 90o c for 15 minutes. (11)After that we dried the sample and ironing it. After Treatment: Dyeing of polyester with disperses dyes: Dark Shade for Mercerized Yarn Sample Weight =10 gm M: L = 1:8 Fabrication = S/J (100% polyester) Recipe: Terasil blue WBLS = 0.006 % Terasil red FBN Conc. =0.6742 % Leveling agent & Sequestering agent (10%) =1.5 gm/l Acid buffer (Cibatex AB) = 2 g/l Calculation: Terasil blue WBLS = 0.006 x 10=0.06cc Terasil red FBN Conc. =0.6742 x10=6.74cc Unload the sample from dyeing machine Soaping with Sandphore RSK 1g/l at 95 o C for 15 min Hot wash Cold wash Drying & pressing Cold wash Neutralization with acetic acid (1 gm with 1 lt water for 4-5 min)
  66. 66. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Leveling agent (10 %) = (1.5 x 80) / (1000 x10%) = 1.2 cc Sequestering agent (10%) = (1.5 x 80) / (1000 x 10%) = 1.2 cc Acid buffer (Cibatex AB 10%) = (2 x 80) / (1000 x 10%) = 1.6 cc Total Required Water = [80 – (0.06+6.74+1.2+1.2+1.6)] = 69.2 cc Dyeing Curve: Working Procedure: (1) At first, take required Dyes, leveling, sequestering, agent and acid buffer by pipetting in a beaker. (2) Then put the sample fabric into the beaker. (3) Then place the beaker & Dye bath set at room temperature (30 o c) (4) Raise the temperature at 130 o c (2 o c per minute) and run for 70 minutes. (5) Now cooling temperature at 60 o c (2 o c per minute) and drop dyeing bath for after treatment. 50 140120 30 130 B.D Time (min) Tempo C Fig: Dyeing curve for 100% Polyester fabric or yarn
  67. 67. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT (6) Now should need cold wash of the sample. (7) Then need reduction clearing the sample fabric by giving a wash with caustic and Hydrose in 1 g/liter for 10 minutes at 80-90 o c (8) Again cold wash and neutralizing with acetic acid 1 g/l (9) Cold wash after that drying and pressing After Treatment: Dyeing of Cotton goods with Hot brand (Turquoise) Reactive dyes Dyeing Curve Unload the sample from dyeing machine Cold wash Neutralize with acetic acid 1 g/l Cold wash Drying & pressing Cold wash Reduction clearing with Hydrose & Caustic (1 g/l) @ 80-90 o C for 10 min. H 30 60 80 Tempo C
  68. 68. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Dyeing Procedure 1) At first, we took required Dyes, leveling& sequestering agent by pipetting in a beaker. 2) Then we add glauber salt into the beaker. After that we put the sample fabric into the beaker. 3) Then place the beaker & Dye bath set at room temperature (30 o c) 4) Raise the temperature at 60 o c (3 o c per minute) and run for 20 minutes. 5) Again raise the temperature at 80 o c (5 o c per minute) and run for 6-8 minutes. 6) Now temperature migration from 80 o c to 60 o c. 7) Then hold the machine for soda dosing according to dyeline. 8) After Soda dosing we run the machine for 45 at 80 o c minutes and finally drop the bath for after treatment. 9) Now we should need cold wash of the sample. 10) Then we neutralize the sample fabric by giving a wash with 1 gm CH3COOH in 1 liter cold water for 4-5 minutes. 11) After that we give soaping at 95o c for 10 minutes two times. 12) After that we dried the sample and ironing it. After Treatment: Unload the sample from dyeing machine Neutralization with acetic acid (1 gm with 1 liter water for 4-5 min) Soaping with Sandphore RSK & Ladiquiest1.5 g/l at 95 o C for 10 min Soaping with Sandphore RSK & Ladiquiest1.5 g/l at 95 o C for 10 min. Hot wash Cold wash Drying & pressing Cold wash
  69. 69. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Introducing with Buyer Requirements Some buyers of square knit fabrics Ltd. PUMA , G.STAR, H & M, S.Oliver, ESPRIT, ELCORTE, TEMA, Mexx, Strauss, Chater House, Promod, M & S, Ashcity, Kitaro, Mustang, Matalan etc. Buyer requirements receive by mail or hard copy or hand to hand. Maximum requirements are same for all buyers but particular buyers may have exceptional requirements. Some common requirements are given below-  Metameric free.  Shrinkage.  Spirality.  Color Fastness to washing.  Color fastness to rubbing.  Color fastness to light.  Color fastness to light perspiration. (Acid/Alkali)  Color fastness to perspiration.  Pilling properties.  Fabric strength etc. Metal free dyes must be used for Tema kids dress (Exceptional requirements) some tests are done as a special requirement. Right First Time (RFT) RFT is very much important for dyeing plant. Said that whose RFT good his production is good. It means lab to bulk trial. When lab dip approved then it is ready for bulk production at first batch of bulk for one particular batch to be considered as a trial batch If trial batch is okay at first trial without addition, topping as less as time as possible then we can say RFT is good then next batches run as follow as trial batch. But if does not match first trial batch then second trial is run for that some time become delay. But you have to remember it time consuming is very much important issue for profit as well as meet the buyer requirements and maintain schedule delivery time as per dead. If RFT increase simultaneously dyeing production efficiency increases. If we can save one hour per shift then we can save 3 hours per day that means 90 hours per month so it is huge profit if we right use this time.
  70. 70. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Yarn Processing
  71. 71. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT The demand of dyed yarn now a days increasing for the production of export quality knit fabrics. Yarn dyed fabrics add value to the garments and if the yarn is singed and mercerized then quality of garments improve remarkably. The Square Knit Fabrics Ltd. specializes in yarn dyeing both in hank form and package form. Here singeing and mercerizing of yarn is done in modern machineries and quality of processed yarn is maintained strictly which suffice the buyer demand. Variety of shade and yarn type has been processed for producing sophisticated extra qualified – double mercerized fabrics. In this report we will discuss the flow of process of yarn processing, layout, machine studies, different faults occurring at the different stages of production, recipe preparation and quality check.  Flow Process Chart of Yarn Dyeing (Package Section): Yarn receive by store from spinning mill according to buyer requirement Grey yarn receive from yarn storage by SR (Store Requisition) Soft winding / Precession winding on spring holder package Batch preparation for dyeing on the basis of yarn quantity at spindle Scouring & Bleaching Dyeing according to Dye line Washing & Finishing Hydro extracting Drying by RF dryer Random or hard winding at paper cone Packaging & delivery to yarn storage
  72. 72. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT  Layout of Package Dyeing Section:
  73. 73. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT  Description of the Layout of Package Dyeing Section: Sl. No. Equipment Name Sl. No. Equipment Name 1. Sample Dryer Machine 12. BERTA T.E. Hydro extractor Machine 2. SCHOLL Sample Dyeing Machine-011 13. SCHOLL Hydro extractor Machine 3. Fong’s Sample Dyeing Machine-009 14. STALAM RF Dryer Machine-001 4. SCHOLL Yarn Dyeing Machine-001 15. STALAM RF Dryer Machine-002 5. SCHOLL Yarn Dyeing Machine-002 16. SSM (SCHARER SCHWEITER METTLER AG) Soft Winding Machine-001 6. SCHOLL Yarn Dyeing Machine-003 17. SSM (SCHARER SCHWEITER METTLER AG) Soft Winding Machine-002 7. SCHOLL Yarn Dyeing Machine-004 18. SSM (SCHARER SCHWEITER METTLER AG) Soft Winding Machine-003 8. SCHOLL Yarn Dyeing Machine-005 19. SSM (SCHARER SCHWEITER METTLER AG) Soft Winding Machine-004 9. SCHOLL Yarn Dyeing Machine-006 & 007 20. SSM (SCHARER SCHWEITER METTLER AG) Random (Hard) Winding Machine-001 10. Fong’s Yarn Dyeing Machine-008 21. SSM (SCHARER SCHWEITER METTLER AG) Random (Hard) Winding Machine-002 11. Fong’s Sample Dyeing Machine-010 22. SSM (SCHARER SCHWEITER METTLER AG) Random (Hard) Winding Machine-003  Specification & Description of Package Dyeing Machine: Soft Winding (Precession Winding) Machine: Grey Yarn is wound on stainless steel dye springs on precession winders from SSM of Switzerland under controlled humidity to give uniform density package for best Dyeing. Here 60 Spindles Winding Machine, each Spindle is individually motor driven clubbed with SSM Propeller Yarn Guiding System which ensures most gentle treatment of yarn material. Yarn tensioning device by permanently rotating bar of disks adjustable by weights, with automatic yarn tension reduction with increase in package diameter. Thread guiding system ensures uniform winding density and no patterning. This machine has traveling blower to suck flies and fluff so that it does not go into soft package.
  74. 74. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Machine Name: SCHARER SCHWEITER METTLER AG (SSM) Machine No.: 883.0109/01 883.0110/01 883.0108/01 883.0491/07 Type: PS6 – W/F U: 415 V I Max: 32 A F: 50 HZ No. of Spindles: 60 RPM: 1000 (Max) Origin: Switzerland Capacity: 60 Packages. Various Parts of Soft Winding Machine: 01) Push button or lock using package in or out. 02) Opening bar using for package out from spindle. 03) Tube holder- Spring tube. 04) Support roller. 05) Yarn bar. 06) In flyer use for proper wind of the yarn on the package. 07) Sensor yarn bar. 08) Yarn clear guide. 09) Tension bar (guide + spring). 10) Feeder. 11) Finger. 12) Anti-balloon. 13) Anti-balloon yarn bar. 14) Package holder 15) Motor 16) Overhead blower 17) Auto splicer. 18) Locking device. Check Points: o Clean over head blower. o Water level in splicer. o Clean the yarn cleaner. Factors Considered / Controlling Parameters in Soft Winding: Winding on tension of the machine should be optimum and constant though the different heads of the machine.  Length of packages should be constant.  Package density should be optimum and constant.  Twist of yarn should be constant
  75. 75. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT  Yarn count mixing or lot mixing should be avoided.  All cones should be wound to a definite length of yarn. Parameters of Soft Winding Machine: Yarn Count Speed (m/min) Tension Length (meter) Feeder Initial Final 24/1 1000 45% 35% 46000 18% 26/1 1000 45% 35% 49000 18% 30/1 1000 45% 35% 58000 18% 34/1 1000 40% 30% 66000 18% 40/1 1000 35% 25% 77000 18% 20/2 1000 55% 45% 19000 18% 40/2 1000 45% 35% 39000 18% 58/2 (mercerized) 900 50% 40% 52500 18% 60/2 (mercerized) 900 50% 40% 54000 18% 100/2 (mercerized) 800 35% 25% 103000 18% Length Calculation in Package: To maintain the constant package density same length of yarn should be wound to all the packages of a batch or lot. The dyeing machine capacity is calculated on weight, so it is necessary to maintain the uniform weight throughout the packages. To do this for a definite count of yarn following calculation is followed, Count (Ne) = )()( )()( WWeightlunitLength wunitWeightLLength   L = w WlNe  = 6.453 840 WNe  yds. = 1006.453 54.236840   WNe meter = Ne × W in Kg × 1.693 m. In this machine length is pre selected. For different count of yarn different length of yarn is pre selected. This is due to maintain the constant package weight and package density. Production Calculation: Production = = ………X……… Kg/day. Production = Count (Ne) x Weight (lb) M/c rpm x No. of m/c x No. of head x Eff. x 60 x 8 x 3 x 1.0936 x 0.453 Yarn count (Ne) x 840
  76. 76. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT = Count (Ne) x Weight (lb) x 2.2046 x 840 = Count (Ne) x Weight (lb) x 2.2046 x 840 x 0.914 (yard to meter) = = ………X…….. m/min =……… X…… m/min x 60 x 8 x 3 x No. of head x No. of M/c x Eff. = ………X……..m/day. Batching: Machine name: Telemechanique Type: XCK-J Model: ZCK-EO Origin: France This is the second step of yarn processing, done by a pneumatic pressure unit. The soft wound packages of similar count are batched in a package carrier. The no of packages that will process is defined by the machine manufacturer for a definite machine with a definite carrier. The recommended no of package for carrier is as below: Type of Carrier No. of Packages in each Carrier Standard Height Full carrier 11 1524 mm Middle Carrier 8 1108 mm Half carrier 5 700 mm Count (Ne) x Weight (lb) x 2.2046 x 840 x 0.914 (yard to meter) M/c speed (rpm)
  77. 77. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT It should be mentioned that length of 11 packages is not 1524 mm yet. First 11 packages are creel in the spindle then pneumatic pressure is applied from up above the spindle. When 1524 mm reached then a screwed cover is screwed on the top of the spindle. The reason to press the soft wound package is to make uniform density of the packages by pressing all alone. The ratio of compression is recommended by the machine manufacturer. Note: Squeeze packages up to 13% from relax condition (It is depend upon dye bath depth). Exceptional only Fong’s bulk dyeing machine which contains 14 packages in each carrier and only full carrier is used. Package Density Calculation: Formula Total diameter of package = D1 Diameter of spring = D2 Diameter of the package = D (D1 – D2) Height of the package = H Weight of the total package = W1 Weight of the spring = W2 Weight of the package (W) = (W1-W2) We know, Package density () = Package weight / Package volume And volume of cylinder, V = π r2 H = π (D/2)2 H So package volume (V) = π (D1/2)2 H - π (D2/2)2 H = π /4 x H {(D1)2 – (D2)2 } =…X… cm3 Now package density () = =..........X……gm/cm3 = …….X……gm/cm3 x 1000 =……..X…….gm/dm3 . π /4 x H {(D1)2 – (D2)2 } W (gm) H D1 D2
  78. 78. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Density Calculation for Several Counts: 1 **Before Pressing Yarn Quality: 30/1 cc Package Height (H) = 162mm = 16.2cm Total Package Dia (D1) = 162mm = 16.2cm Total Package Weight (W1) = 1.38kg = 1380gm Spring Weight (W2) = 0.185kg = 185gm Spring Dia (D2) = 65 mm = 6.5cm Now Package density () = = 426 gm/dm3 2 **After Pressing Yarn Quality: 30/1 cc Package Height (H) = 145mm = 14.5cm Total Package Dia (D1) = 165mm = 16.5cm Total Package Weight (W1) = 1.38kg = 1380gm Spring Weight (W2) = 0.185kg = 185gm Spring Dia (D2) = 65 mm = 6.5cm Now package density () = = 456 gm/dm3 **So we can sure that after pressing for every count, yarn package density will be increase. Causes of Variation of Package Density: Package density may vary due to the following reason:  Head to head tension variation  High yarn irregularity  Differing yarn length among packages  Stoppage of head due to end breakage  Mechanical problem in flyer, tensioner, sensor etc 1.195 x 4 π x (16.22 – 6.52 ) x 16.2 1.195 x 4 π x (16.52 – 6.52 ) x 14.5
  79. 79. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Sample Dyeing Machines: 1. Machine Name : Scholl Manufacturer : Switzerland AG, CH: 5745, Safenwill. Capacity : 2.5 kg Spindle no : 1 Package : 2 Temperature : 140o C Pressure : 3-4 Bar 2. Machine Name : Fong’s Manufacturer : Fongs national Engineering Serial no : 29015894 Capacity : 14 kg Spindle no : 2 Package : 14 Design Temperature : 140o C Design Pressure: 660 Kpa 3. Machine Name: Fong’s Manufacturer : Fongs national Engineering Machine no : LABWIN -12 Serial no : 32022483 Capacity : 12 kg Spindle no : 2 Package : 12 Design Temperature : 170o C Design Pressure: 700 Kpa
  80. 80. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Bulk Dyeing Machines: 1. Machine Name: Scholl Manufacturer: Switzerland AG, CH: 5745, Safenwill. Capacity : 50 kg Spindle No. : 4 [1 Spindle = 11 Packages] Temperature : 140O C Pressure : 3-4 Bar 2 Machine Name: Scholl Manufacturer: Switzerland AG, CH: 5745, Safenwill. Capacity : 100 kg Spindle No. : 7 Temperature : 140O C Pressure : 3-4 Bar 3. Machine Name: Scholl Manufacturer: Switzerland AG, CH: 5745, Safenwill. Capacity : 100 kg Spindle No. : 7 Temperature : 140O C Pressure : 3-4 Bar 4. Machine Name: Scholl Manufacturer: Switzerland AG, CH: 5745, Safenwill. Capacity : 200 kg Spindle No. : 15 Temperature : 140O C Pressure : 3-4 Bar 5. Machine Name: Scholl
  81. 81. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Manufacturer: Switzerland AG, CH: 5745, Safenwill. Capacity : 200 kg Spindle No. : 15 Temperature : 140O C Pressure : 3-4 Bar 6. Machine Name : Scholl Manufacturer : Switzerland AG, CH: 5745, Safenwill. Capacity : 300 kg Spindle No. : 23 Temperature : 140O C Pressure : 3-4 Bar 7. Machine Name : Scholl Manufacturer : Switzerland AG, CH: 5745, Safenwill. Capacity : 400 kg Spindle No. : 32 Temperature : 140O C Pressure : 3-4 Bar 8. Machine Name : Fongs Manufacturer : Fongs National Engineering Machine No. : FCT IL Serial no : 612091-1 Capacity : 520 kg Spindle No. : 32 Temperature : 140O C Design Pressure: N/A
  82. 82. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT DYE LINE YARN PROCESSING UNIT Clients Name TEMA Lot No. 46 Work order no SFL-1531 Yarn quality 26/1 cc Shade Pink Y/P No. 04 Batch No. 4979/09 Total liquor(Lt.) 525 Recipe No. 9y366211 Batch Wt. 48.0 No. of package 48 Dyeing prog. No. 3500 Plan date 02-Nov-09 Shift B M/C No. YP-DY-02 Auxilaliary name Amount (g/l) Amount (%) Total amount (Kg) Addition Machine wash Hydrose 0.00 0.000 Caustic soda 0.00 0.000 Neutralization Acetic acid 0.00 0.000 Demineralization KSN NOF 0.50 0.263 60C – 10 MIN Optavon 4UD 1.00 0525 Bleaching KSN NOF 1.00 0.525 Optavon 4UD 0.50 0.263 Caustic soda 2.50 1.313 Hydrogen peroxide 3.00 1.575 Stabilizer SOF 0.00 0.000 Albaflow jet 0.50 0.263 Hot wash (without chemical) 80C- 20 min. Neutralization (Bleaching) Acetic acid 1.00 0.525 50C – 20 MIN Hot wash (with chemical) Bio kill 0.22 0.116 Check PH 45C- 20 min. Dyeing (Dyes & Chemicals) Leva red CA 0.3729 179 gm Leva fast red CA 0.00035 0.17 gm G. Salt 16.00 8400 Soda Ash 6.40 3360 Caustic Soda (India) 0.000 0.000 Irgasol Co NEW 1.50 0.788 Kappaquest A-41 1.00 0.525 Albaflow Jet 0.50 0.263 Std. PH= 10.0-11.0 Neutralization (Dyeing) Sirrix NE 0.50 0.263 Soaping 1 Cyclanon XCW 0.50 0.263 Kappaquest A-41 0.50 0.263 Soaping 2 Cyclanon XCW 0.00 0.000 Kappaquest A-41 0.00 0.000 Finishing Katamine BW 2.00 2.00 0.960 Tinofix FRD 0.00 0.000 Unisil NBI 0.00 0.000 Acetic acid 0.10 0.053 Std. PH= 4.5-5.0 Dye weight by Machine loading time 11.40 Cost per Kg Machine unloading time 23.30 Dye line for Light-Medium Shade
  83. 83. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Process Flow Chart Dyeing (Package Section) For Light Shade (Cellulosic Fiber) Hot wash (8020) Bleaching (10020) Neutralization (5020) Peroxide killing (4520) Neutralization (6010) Hot wash (5010) Dyeing (6045) Soaping (8520) Hot wash (7010) Finishing (4520) Machine wash (10020) Demineralization (6010) Machine neutralization (6015) Running 10 minutes with auxiliaries & chemicals then dyestuff dosing (linear) 6020 & run 20 after that Soda dosing (progressive-3) 6045 & run 45 also need check PH of the dye bath it should maintain (10.0 to 11.0) Dosing 10 & run 20 @ 45 C also check PH & maintain standard level (4.5 to 5.0) Check PH (6.0 to 7.0) Caustic add at 70C Dyeing sample Soaping sample Finishing sample If shade match then Unload
  84. 84. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT For Medium Shade (Cellulosic Fiber) Hot wash (8020) Bleaching (10020) Neutralization (5020) Peroxide killing (4520) Neutralization (6010) Hot wash (5010) Dyeing (6045) Soaping 1 (9015) Hot wash (7010) Soaping 2 (8510) Demineralization (6010) Running 10 minutes with Dyes, auxiliaries & chemicals 6020 than Soda dosing (progressive-3) 6045 & run 45 also need check PH of the dye bath it should maintain (10.0 to 11.0) Dosing 10 & run 20 @ 45 C also check PH & maintain standard level (4.5 to 5.0) Check PH (6.0 to 7.0) Caustic add at 70C Dyeing sample Soaping sample Finishing sample Hot wash (6010) Finishing (4520) If shade match then Unload
  85. 85. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT For Dark-Extra Dark Shade (Cellulosic Fiber) Hot wash (8020) Bleaching (10020) Neutralization (5020) Peroxide killing (4520) Neutralization (6010) Hot wash (5010) Dyeing (6045) Soaping 1 (9515) Hot wash (8010) Soaping 2 (9010) Demineralization (6010) Running 10 minutes with Dyes, auxiliaries & chemicals 6020 than Soda dosing (progressive-3) 6045 & run 45 also need check PH of the dye bath it should maintain (10.0 to 11.0) Dosing 10 & run 20 @ 45 C also check PH & maintain standard level (4.5 to 5.0) Check PH (6.0 to 7.0) Caustic add at 70C Dyeing sample Finishing sample Finishing (4520) If shade match then Unload Hot wash (7010) Hot wash (6010)
  86. 86. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT For White Shade of Cellulosic Fiber Hot wash (8020) Bleaching & Dyeing (12020) Neutralization (5010) Hot wash (9015) Machine wash (10020) Demineralization (6010) Machine neutralization (6015) Dosing 20 & run 10 @ 45 C also check PH & maintain standard level (4.5 to 5.0) Sample taken Finishing (4520) If shade match then Unload Drain @ 60 C
  87. 87. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT For Black Shade (Cellulosic Fiber) Hot wash (8020) Rinsing (3010) Rinsing (3010) Dyeing (6045) Neutral (5020) with Sodium acetate Soaping (9520) Rinsing (3010) Demineralization (8020) Running 20 minutes with Dyes, auxiliaries & chemicals 6020 than alkali dosing (progressive- 3) 6045 & run 45 also need check PH of the dye bath it should maintain (10.0 to 11.0) Dosing 15 & run 20 @ 45 C also check PH & maintain standard level (4.5 to 5.0) Finishing sample Finishing (4520) If shade match then Unload Wash with NaCl (3010) Rinsing (3010) Soaping (9520) Rinsing (3010) Soaping sample Dyeing sample
  88. 88. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT For Light-Medium Shade (Mercerized Cellulosic Fiber) Hot wash (8020) Bleaching (10020) Neutralization (5020) Peroxide killing (4520) Neutralization (6010) Hot wash (5010) Dyeing (6045) Soaping (8520) Hot wash (7010) Finishing (4520) Machine wash (10020) Demineralization (6010) Machine neutralization (6015) Running 10 minutes with auxiliaries & chemicals then dyestuff dosing (linear) 6020 & raise temperature at 80 and run 20 min after that migration at 60 & soda dosing (progressive- 3) 6045 & run 45 also need check PH of the dye bath it should maintain (10.0 to 11.0) Dosing 10 & run 20 @ 45 C also check PH & maintain standard level (4.5 to 5.0) Check PH (6.0 to 7.0) Caustic add at 70C Dyeing sample Soaping sample Finishing sample If shade match then Unload
  89. 89. TEXTILE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT For Dark-Extra Dark Shade (Mercerized Cellulosic Fiber) Hot wash (8020) Bleaching (10020) Neutralization (5020) Peroxide killing (4520) Neutralization (6010) Hot wash (5010) Dyeing (6045) Soaping 1 (9515) Hot wash (8010) Soaping 2 (9010) Demineralization (6010) Running 10 minutes with Dyes, auxiliaries & chemicals at 60 then raise temperature at 80 then run for 20 minutes after that migration at 60 & Soda dosing (progressive- 3) 6045 & run 45 also need check PH of the dye bath it should maintain (10.0 to 11.0) Dosing 10 & run 20 @ 45 C also check PH & maintain standard level (4.5 to 5.0) Check PH (6.0 to 7.0) Caustic add at 70C Dyeing sample Finishing sample Finishing (4520) If shade match then Unload Hot wash (7010) Hot wash (6010)

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