Indistrial attachment of micro fibre Group

2,231 views

Published on

Published in: Engineering, Business, Lifestyle
0 Comments
3 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
2,231
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
108
Comments
0
Likes
3
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Indistrial attachment of micro fibre Group

  1. 1. 1 | P a g e INDUSTRIAL TRAINING Course Code: Tex -4036 INDUSTRIAL ATTACHMENT MICRO FIBRE LTD
  2. 2. 2 | P a g e Letter of Transmittal Date- 15nd May’ 12 Syed Faqrul Hassan Professor & chairman Department of Textile Engineering Southeast University Subject: Submission of the “Industrial attachment Report”. Dear Sir, We are pleased to submit our “Industrial attachment Report” This is submitted under the program of B.Sc in Textile Engineering in Southeast University. The Report has been completed in accordance with the knowledge that we have gather during our Industrial Training and the guidelines received from our honorable teachers and our group members. We tried to make this Report is to give a clear picture on Fabric Manufacturing Technology, Wet processing Technology & Garments Manufacturing Technology practically used on Micro Fibre Ltd. However, we will always be ready to provide any further clarification that you may require. Yours Sincerely, Mohammad Tahmidur Rahman 2008100400096 Md. Lokman Hossain 2008100400086 Md. Abir Hossain 2008100400084 Md. Najmus Salihin 2008100400082 Batch: 8th Sec: GMT
  3. 3. 3 | P a g e ACKNOWLEDGEMENT At first my gratefulness goes to Almighty Allah for giving me strength and ability to complete the industrial training and this report. You have made my life more beautiful. May your name be exalted, honored and glorified. Now I wish to take this excellent opportunity to thank a lot of people who have assisted and inspired me, Prof. Syed Fakhrul Hassan my supervisor, to whom I am extremely indebted for his tremendous support and guidance throughout my training period. Working with him I have not only earned valuable knowledge but also was inspired by him innovativeness which helped enriches my experience to a greater extent. His ideas and way of working was truly remarkable. I would like to thank the management of the MICRO FIBRE LTD. for giving me the opportunity to complete the industrial training successfully and also for their valuable suggestion. My deepest gratitude goes to Executive Director Mr. Amirul Haque, General Manager Mr. Mizanur Rahaman Patwoary, Assistant general manager Mr. Solaiman Hossain, MICRO FIBRE LTD. for their permission to conduct my industrial training without which it would be impossible. Their generous support is greatly appreciated. I would also like to thank specially our senior brothers and sisters working there efficiently as textile engineer. I am greatly indebted to them. I also want to thank executives, senior executives and other official’s employee of MICRO FIBRE LTD. for helping me to complete industrial training successfully. My gratitude also goes to all the employees of MICRO FIBRE LTD. for their sincere co-operation, support and valuable advices. Finally my heartfelt thanks goes to my training mates for their indescribable co-operation & sincerity.
  4. 4. 4 | P a g e Table of Content Topics Page no. Letter of Transmittal 1 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT 2 Table Of Content 3 Introduction 7 Vision 7 Mission 7 Chapter-1 Project Description 8 Project Location 9 History of Project Development 10 Different Department 11 Product mix 11 Layout Design 12 Physical Infrastructure 13 Remarks 14 Chapter-2 MANPOWER MANAGEMENT Organ gram of man-power administration 15 Management system 16 Shift change 16 Total Section Wise Man power Management system 16 Responsibilities of S.P.O/P.O 17 Remarks 17 CHAPTER -03 RAW MATERIALS Types of Raw Materials 18 Yarn 18 Sources 18 Grey Fabrics 19 Sources 19 Price: 19 Chemicals 19 Chemical formula of common chemicals used in textile dyeing 20
  5. 5. 5 | P a g e Printing chemicals function 21 Annual requirement 21 Remarks 21 CHAPTER-4 Knitting Section Production Flow Chart of Knitting Section 22 Lay-out Plan of knitting Machineries 23 List of Single Jersey Circular knitting Machineries 25 List of Double Jersey Circular knitting Machineries 27 List of Auto Stripe Circular knitting Machineries 28 List of Flat Bed knitting Machineries 28 List of Cloth Inspection Machineries 29 Machine Description 30 Description of production process 32 GSM 32 Production calculation 33 Required yarn count to maintain G.S.M 35 Relation Between different yarn count, fabric type, stitch length & finished GSM 35 Structure, cam arrangement & notation diagram of various fabric 37 Fabric fault 39 Remarks 39 Chapter-05 Wet processing Section Production flow chart for fabric Dyeing 40 Process sequence for Cotton Dyeing 41 Pretreatment 41 Dyeing 44 Dyeing program for Disperse Dyes 45 Re-dyeing process 45 After Treatment Of All Program 47 Common textile auxiliaries used in dyeing 49 Problems Encountered In Dyeing 51 Printing 53 Finishing 56 CHAPTER-6 Garments section Introduction 72 Sample Section 73 IE (Industrial Engineering) 75 CAD Section 77 Cutting Section 79 Sewing Section
  6. 6. 6 | P a g e Introduction 87 Sewing Procedure Flow Chart 88 Sewing Procedure 89 Types of seam 92 Stitch 97 Machine Identification 102 SEWING NEEDLE 107 Sewing Thread 110 SMV calculation 113 SEWING DEFECTS OR PROBLEMS 114 Sewing Quality Checking Points 117 Finishing Section 118 GARMENTS MERCHANDISING Definition 120 Flow chart of merchandising 120 Responsibilities of Merchandiser 121 GARMENTS ACCESSORIES 122 CHAPTER-7 Quality Assurance System Quality assurance 124 Object of quality control 124 Quality Control Flow Chart 125 Quality Management system 125 Various Test 127 WORKING PROCEDURE FOR LAB 128 Dyeing And QC Laboratory Machineries 129 Fabric Inspection 134 Procedure of the Different Laboratory Tests 137 Quality Standard 145 Remarks 146 CHAPTER-08 MAINTENANCE Maintenance of machinery 147 Manpower Set-Up For Maintenance 148 Maintenance procedure 148 Maintenance work to the different machines 149 Maintenance tools/equipments & their functions 151 Remarks 152 CHAPTER-09 UTILITY SERVICE Available Utility Facilities 153 Utility cost 156
  7. 7. 7 | P a g e Remarks 156 Water treatment plant Process Flow chart 157 Function of different tank 157 Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP) Flow chart for ETP 158 Effluent analyzing report 159 Chemicals Used in ETP 159 CHAPTER-10 STORE & INVENTORY CONTROL Inventory system for raw material 160 Grey fabrics store 160 Dyes & chemicals store 160 Spares 160 Finished goods 160 Remarks 161 CHAPTER-11 COST ANALYSIS 161 CHAPTER-12 MARKETING ACTIVITIES Consumers of Product 162 Name of buyer 162 Importing countries 163 Manpower of marketing 163 Strategy 163 Duties and responsibilities of marketing officer 164 Remarks 164 CHAPTER -13 CONCLUSION 165 Introduction: Final course industrial training is one of the most essential parts of engineering & technical education. This industrial training is included in our syllabus to acquaint us with the practical implementation of the technology studied within the industrial environment. Though it is very helpful & lays the milestone for starting the carrier for fresh Textile graduates.
  8. 8. 8 | P a g e Fabric manufacturing, wet processing technology and Garments manufacturing technology which occupies a vast field in modern Textile technology is undergoing many stages of processing. Many problems are generally being encountered during each operation stage starting from yarn to fabric and fabric to finished garments stage. Finally from mill training, we learn practical Knowledge about on fabric manufacturing and wet processing under industrial environment. We think it will be helpful in our future carrier. Vision: To establish as a one stop source for the Global knit Apparel market and to satisfy and meet customers expectation by developing and providing products and services on time, which offer value in terms of Quality, Price, Safety and Environmental impact. Assuring complete compliance with the international quality standards and also providing the employees internationally acceptable working condition and standards. To promote the development and to use human talent and equal opportunity of employment. Mission: Micro fibre realizes the need to take out a competitive segment in the changing global market of today through technological excellence and human expertise. Micro fibre is committed to transpose its local success to the world scene. CHAPTER-01 PROJECT DESCRIPTION Name of the project : MICRO FIBRE GROUP Sister organizations : A-One polar Ltd, Liberty Knitwear Ltd, Midland Knitwear Ltd, Orient Chem.-Tex Ltd.
  9. 9. 9 | P a g e Type of the mill : 100% export oriented knit composite textile mill. Year of establishment:1998 Registered Office: 331, Tongi Dioversion Road, Moghbazar, Dhaka – 1217, Bangladesh Factory Address: Ramarbagh, Kutubpur, Fatullah, Narayangonj, Bangladesh 0189-214648, 0173-034617 (E.D) 0171-3001607 (D.G.M-Production), 0173- 011112 (Merchandising Manager) Communication: The project is easily accessible by road. The route has been clarified in the location map presented in the previous page. Sponsors: The mill is sponsored by M.S. Zaman. Capacity: Gray knit fabric production 8000 Kg/day (approximately) Dyed knitted fabric 22-24 ton/day (approximately) Project cost: Cost of the project is approximately in Taka 250,00,00,000 Project area : 7.00 acres
  10. 10. 10 | P a g e Location Of The MICRO FIBRE GROUP Chashara Micro Fibre Group Chittagong Road Shibo Market Fatullah Narayanganj Fatullah Fatullah Stadium Sign Board ZatraBari Tikatoli Gulistan Ramarvag Kamolapur railstation Fatullah Rail station WE N S
  11. 11. 11 | P a g e History of project development: It is a moment of rejoice to introduce Micro Fiber Group (MFG) to its clients and patrons. MFG believes whatever it has achieved; its credits should be directed toward its clients. Micro fibre group started their Textile business in 1998 by starting construction of the building for project setup. At 1st they set up Garments project. In 1999 they went to production of fabric and dyeing with a dryer of 400 kg & 6 ton capacity boiler. As an ambition to expand the business they setup knitting section in 2000 & to fill the demand of knitting they setup as well as stenter, calendar, dewatering m/c, dryer for finishing. With the passage of time different type of m/c were brought to the mill to improve the quality & production. The mill is well oriented for knit composite project. Therefore, when many struggle to survive in post-MFA world; its business in fact enjoying a healthy growth. Moreover, having endless efforts to ensure internationally accepted employment practice, its clients recognize us as a partner to protect their value system and images among final consumers.
  12. 12. 12 | P a g e Different departments: i. Knitting section  Circular  Flat ii. Dyeing section:  Knit dyeing iii. Garments section iv. Costing & Finance v. Logistics vi. Maintenance vii. Planning section viii. QC section Product mix: Types of raw materials processed here are- i. cotton- 100% combed or carded ii. polyester-cotton blend (p/c or t/c), (65%pet+35% cotton) iii. CVC (60% cotton+40% polyester) iv. grey melange (85% cotton+15% viscose) v. Ecru melange (98% cotton+2% viscose or 99% cotton+1% viscose)
  13. 13. 13 | P a g e Security RoomHealth facilities Room Liberty Garments Micro Finishing Micro Dyeing Utilities Room Utilities Room Midland Dyeing Midland finishing Midland Printing Maintenanc e Department Office Office Office M idl a n d fi ni s hi n g Midland Knitting & Garments Office Dyes & Chemicals Store Store Car parking Office Entrance Midland Dyeing Midland Finishing Laborator y Cantee n Prayer Place ETP E W S N LAYOUT DESIGN
  14. 14. 14 | P a g e Cost & finance Accounts MICRO FIBRE GROUP Knittin g Dyeing Garment Admin Maintena nce Knit (admin) Knit (prod) Knit dyeing QC Prod Gmt(Ad min) Gmt (Prod) Electric Dept Mechanica l Dept Utility Clea ning Physical Infrastructure: Remark: Micro Fiber Group is a well established knit composite industry. The industry stands on industrial area of Ramarbagh, Narayangonj. It is a Group of Companies, . It is going to prove its own standard of product quality in world market as they know that
  15. 15. 15 | P a g e their reputation depends on quality. It is a profitable project and contributes the economy of our country. CHAPTER -2 MANPOWER MANAGEMENT Organ gram of man-power administration MANAGING DIRECTOR EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR
  16. 16. 16 | P a g e GENERAL MANAGER ASST. GENERAL MANAGER ASSISTANT PRODUCTION MANAGER MANAGER (LAB & QC) SENIOR PRODUCTION OFFICER OFFICER PRODUCTION OFFICER SENIOR OFFICER ASSISTANT PRODUCTION OFFICER SENIOR LAB ASSISTANT SENIOR SUPERVISOR LAB ASSISTANT SUPERVISOR LAB BOY ASSISTANT SUPERVISOR SENIOR OPERATOR OPERATOR ASSISTANT OPERATOR HELPER Management system: In Micro Fiber Group the management system is regular. employees are well skilled and are graduate in their respective profession. Shift change: The industry has two shift .Duration of every shift is 12 hours. Workers get one hour break time. Shift change depends on the work order and production. There is a supervisor in every shift who takes the working activities & understands his responsibilities from previous supervisor during shift change.
  17. 17. 17 | P a g e Total Section Wise Man power Management system: Micro Fibre Group has sufficient number of skilled manpower working in different sections. A picture of manpower distribution with total manpower is given below: Responsibilities of S.P.O/P.O: The main job as well as main responsibility of a s.p.o is to control process. The responsibility of a s.p.o/p.o is to complete a batch in required time. Any fault or disturbance happens in a batch, the blame goes to s.p.o/p.o. The p.o should try to minimize overhead expenditures and also try to make a batch more profitable. In a word he is in charge of the floor & his responsibility is to keep moving the production smoothly. Job description of S.P.O/P.O 1. To give program slip according to daily production plan. 2. To follow up production process from raw materials to finished goods. 3. To match shade in connection with fabric quality according to buyer requirements. 4. To find out fabric faults as early as possible (before finishing), & take stes to recover it. 5. To rectify the finished fabric rejected from quality control department. 6. To coordinate with unit technical manager for achieving the target production. DEPARTMENT MANPOWER Knitting 445 Dyeing 560 Printing 138 Finishing 315 Garments 3587 Maintenance 40 Administration 23 Utility 20 Security 28 Total 5136
  18. 18. 18 | P a g e 7. To motivate supervisors and workers for achieving maximum production with minimum faults. 8. To check the daily production report. 9. To study dye & chemicals nature delivery by the manufacturer & apply them Correctly to the production to get best product. Remarks The manpower management system in Micro Fiber Group is well arranged. There are good number of textile engineers in the industry. but they are not adequate enough to undertake the huge production of the industry. Some more are expected to be enrolled there in the shortest possible time to meet up the growing need. The efficiency of the worker should be increased for more quality production. CHAPTER -03 RAW MATERIALS Micro Fiber Ltd. is a knit composite industry. In the industry raw materials for different section is different. As for example knitting uses yarn as raw material, Fabric processing department uses the knit fabrics, dyes and chemicals. Types of Raw Materials: Different type of raw materials are found like 1. Yarn 2. Grey Fabric 3. Dyes 4. Chemicals Order is usually obtain in the form of making complete garments grey fabric or yarn dyeing that is main raw material is fabric & yarn. Fabric is made in its own knitting section from different types of yarn according to requirement, but sometimes buyer may supplies this.
  19. 19. 19 | P a g e Yarn: Following types of yarns are used to knit fabrics: 1. Cotton — 30 s/1, 80/2, 20/1, 60/2,34s/l, 26/1, 20/1, 18/1, 24/1 (Carded or combed.) 2. Filament —20/D, 24/D, 30/D, 40/D,75/D, 100/D, 150/D. 3. Polyester spun — 50/2 Ne, 20/2 Ne. 4. T/C —+30/1, T/C. 5. Viscose —26/1. 6. CVC (varying proportion) The count mentioned above was found during mill training. Sources: Yarn is collected from the fo1lowing sources: 1. Shohagpur spinning mills 2. Delta spinning 3. Israk spinning mills 4. Delsy spinning mills 5. Techno spinning mills 6. Jamuna spinning mills 7. Malek spinning mills 8. Kader spinning mills Price: Not provided. Grey Fabrics: Following types of grey fabrics are dyed: 1.Single jersey: - Single and double lacoste - Polo pique - Terry fleece - Engineering stripe 2. Single jersey with Lycra 3. Double jersey: - Rib - Interlock 4. Double jersey with Lycra 5. Flat bed : -Single Collar and Cuff -Design Collar and cuff Sources: The required grey fabric is produce in the industry. The required fabrics are supplied from Micro Fiber Ltd.
  20. 20. 20 | P a g e Price: Price of grey fabrics depends upon the price of yarn and the making charge of the fabric. For example, in case of 30’s spun cotton yarn, the price of yarn is $3/kg and for single jersey fabric the knitting charge is $0.18. So the price of single jersey fabric is $3.18/kg. Chemicals: CHEMICAL NAME TRADE NAME CHEMICAL NAME TRADE NAME Optical brightening Bluton –BVB Anticreasing agent CAN Wetting agent SCF Leveling agent CL-225 Fixing agent SR Softener FS Peroxide killer OEM Antifoaming agent SF Leveling agent RLF-349 Anticreasing agent CBA Sequestering agent SQ-117 Antifixing agent TPA Softener WCS Softener EAS Sequestering agent 2UD Soap AW-501 Alkali RH Sequestering agent SQ-114 Acetic acid G.acid Brightening agent SQS Silicon PE-40 Wetting agent MC Optical brightening ER330 Enzyme MKL Flame retardant WRN Optical brightening BBU Dust remover Flock BM Sequestering agent InSA Fixing agent SR Optical brightening BUBZAM Commonly used dyes in fabric dyeing section in Micro fibre Ltd For light color: RR dyes i. Yellow RR ii. Red RR iii. Blue RR  Chemical formula of common chemicals used in textile dyeing: Water – H2O
  21. 21. 21 | P a g e Hydrochloric acid - HCI Sulfuric acid –H2SO4 Phosphoric acid – H3PO4 Sodium chloride (common salt) - NaCl Sodium carbonate – Na2CO3 Sodium sulfate (glauber salt) – Na2SO4 Sodium bicarbonate – NaHCO3 Sodium hydroxide - NaOH Potassium hydroxide - KOH Sulfur dioxide – SO2 Tri sodium Phosphate – Na3PO4 Benzene – C6H6 Acetic acid - CH3COOH Oxalic acid - (COOH)2 Cellulose – C6H10O5 Starch - C6H10O5 Hydros (sodium hydrosulfite) – Na2S2O4 Bleaching powder- Ca(OCl)Cl Printing chemicals function: The functions of chemical used in printing process are given below  Urea: Hydroscoping agent, by using urea the steaming is finished within 5 to 10hours.  Resist salt: NaCl is penetrated by heating but resist salt is penetrated into fabric without heating.  Na2CO3: Fixing the dyes molecules properly.  Thickener: Thickener helps the past or chemical to be not sprayed on the fabric or not to be bleeding.  Increased paste viscosity.  Reduce screen pore radius. Price: Price of dyes & chemicals depend on the quality, type availability & requirement. For high quality product, better dye & chemical should be used though cost is high. Annual requirement: Annual requirement of dyes & chemical depend on the order of production but for various reasons such as improper weighting, carelessness of operators, hydrolysis of dyes, uneven process control, wrong recipe formulation, incorrect batching, improper storage facilities & for different unwanted expenditure increases dyes & chemicals requirement. Remarks: For smooth running of a factory uninterrupted supply of raw materials is very essential. As far as we saw the raw material control of MFG is good.
  22. 22. 22 | P a g e CHAPTER-4 Knitting Section The process in which fabrics are produced by set of connected loops from a series of yarns is called knitting.  Warp knitting  Weft knitting When fabric is produced by this method in weft direction then its called weft knitting & warp direction then its called warp knitting. Production Flow Chart of Knitting Section: Sample fabric Design analysis Machine selection Setting the machine for the specific design Sample Knitting Sample approval Bulk Production Grey fabric inspection
  23. 23. 23 | P a g e Lay-out Plan of knitting Machineries : A = Office of A.G.M (Knitting) B = Office of Production Officer D L G F E M I A J J S E W N K H C B I
  24. 24. 24 | P a g e C = Cloth inspection machine D = Re-conning machine E = Supervisor office & Knit Admin F = Flat bed knitting section G = Spare Cylinder room H = Stair I = Lift J = Store of Spare parts & equipments K = Fitter / Staff office L = Toilet M = Auto stripe Machine Section = Circular Knitting Machine (Single & Double Jersey) = Eyes marking or Floor marking Total Floor space of the knitting floor = 20,338.93 Sq.ft (approximately) In Micro Fibre Group the total number of knitting machine is 83 ( where Single jersey circular knitting machine is 47, Double jersey circular knitting machine is 14, Auto Stripe circular knitting machine is 5, And Flat Bed knitting machine is 17, total 83). But there has another knitting floor where other knitting machines are positioned. The space of 14862.19 Sq.ft for Circular knitting machines which are assembles in previous page.And in this lay out plan 40 No’s of Circular knitting machine are situated. One circular knitting machine with creel stand which required 262.44 sq.ft So, the number of 40 knitting machines required space is, = 262.44 sq.ft × 40 = 10497.6 Sq.ft The totally free space is = 14862.19 Sq.ft - 10497.6 Sq.ft = 4364.59 Sq. ft List of Single Jersey Circular knitting Machineries : Serial No Machine Brand Name M/C Type M/C Dia M/C Gauge M/C Feeder Origin 01 Jiunn Long S/J 22 24 66 F Taiwan
  25. 25. 25 | P a g e List of Single Jersey Circular knitting Machineries : 02 Jiunn Long S/J 22 24 66 F Taiwan 03 Jiunn Long S/J 23 24 69 F Taiwan 04 Jiunn Long S/J 23 24 69 F Taiwan 05 Jiunn Long S/J 24 24 72 F Taiwan 06 Jiunn Long S/J 24 24 72 F Taiwan 07 Jiunn Long S/J 25 24 75 F Taiwan 08 Jiunn Long S/J 25 24 75 F Taiwan 09 Jiunn Long S/J 25 24 75 F Taiwan 10 Jiunn Long S/J 25 24 75 F Taiwan 11 Jiunn Long S/J 26 24 78 F Taiwan 12 Jiunn Long S/J 26 24 78 F Taiwan 13 Jiunn Long S/J 26 24 78 F Taiwan 14 Jiunn Long S/J 26 24 78 F Taiwan 15 Jiunn Long S/J 28 24 84 F Taiwan 16 Jiunn Long S/J 28 24 84 F Taiwan 17 Jiunn Long S/J 32 24 96 F Taiwan 18 Jiunn Long S/J 34 24 102 F Taiwan 19 Jiunn Long S/J 36 24 108 F Taiwan 20 Jiunn Long S/J 34 24 102 F Taiwan 21 Jiunn Long S/J 40 24 120 F Taiwan 22 Jiunn Long S/J 38 24 114 F Taiwan Serial No Machine Brand Name M/C Type M/C Dia M/C Gauge M/C Feeder Origin 23 Jiunn Long S/J 36 24 108 F Taiwan 24 Jiunn Long S/J 23 24 69 F Taiwan 25 Jiunn Long S/J 24 24 72 F Taiwan 26 Jiunn Long S/J 21 24 63 F Taiwan
  26. 26. 26 | P a g e List of Double Jersey Circular knitting Machineries : 27 Jiunn Long S/J 20 24 60 F Taiwan 28 Jiunn Long S/J 32 24 96 F Taiwan 29 Jiunn Long S/J 30 24 90 F Taiwan 30 Jiunn Long S/J 28 24 84 F Taiwan 31 Jiunn Long S/J 30 24 90 F Taiwan 32 Jiunn Long S/J 36 24 108 F Taiwan 33 Jiunn Long S/J 30 20 90 F Taiwan 34 Jiunn Long S/J 30 20 90 F Taiwan 35 Jiunn Long S/J 30 20 90 F Taiwan 36 Jiunn Long S/J 30 20 90 F Taiwan 37 Jiunn Long S/J 30 24 90 F Taiwan 38 Jiunn Long S/J 40 24 120 F Taiwan 39 Jiunn Long S/J 30 20 90 F Taiwan 40 Jiunn Long S/J 30 20 90 F Taiwan 41 Jiunn Long S/J 36 24 108 F Taiwan 42 Jiunn Long S/J 30 20 90 F Taiwan 43 Jiunn Long S/J 30 20 90 F Taiwan 44 Jiunn Long S/J 30 20 90 F Taiwan 45 Jiunn Long S/J 36 24 108 F Taiwan 46 Fukuhama S/J 30 24 90 F Taiwan 47 Fukuhama S/J 31 22 72 F Taiwan Seri al No Machine Brand Name Fabric type M/C Type M/C Dia M/C Gaug e M/C Feeder Origin 01 Falmac Interloc k D/J 24 16 38 F Singap ore 02 Falmac Rib D/J 34 16 54 F Singap ore 03 Falmac Rib D/J 30 16 48 F Singap ore 04 Falmac Rib D/J 30 16 48 F Singap ore
  27. 27. 27 | P a g e List of Auto Stripe Circular knitting Machineries : List of Flat Bed knitting Machineries : 05 Hubter Rib D/J 38 18 80 F Taiwan 06 Hubter Rib D/J 40 18 84 F Taiwan 07 Hubter Rib D/J 20 16 32 F Taiwan 08 Hubter Rib D/J 30 16 48 F Taiwan 09 Fukahama Interloc k D/J 36 18 72 F Taiwan 10 Fukahama Interloc k D/J 36 18 72 F Taiwan 11 Fukahama Rib D/J 36 18 72 F Taiwan 12 Fukahama Rib D/J 34 18 72 F Taiwan 13 Fukahama Rib D/J 34 18 102 F Taiwan 14 Fukahama Interloc k D/J 28 20 84 F Taiwan Serial No Machine Brand Name M/C Type M/C Dia M/C Gauge M/C Feeder Origin 01 Fukuhara S/J 30 24 48 Japan 02 Fukuhara S/J 30 24 48 Japan 03 Fukuhara S/J 34 24 48 Japan 04 Fukuhara S/J 34 24 48 Japan 05 Fukuhara Rib/ Interlock 36 18 48 Japan Seri al Machine Name M/C Type M/C Bed M/C Gauge M/C Cares Origi n
  28. 28. 28 | P a g e List of Cloth Inspection Machineries : Serial No Machine Name Nos Brand Origin 01 Grey Fabric Inspection Machine 02 Sets UZU® Thailand No Length 01 Around Star Computerized Flat Bed M/C 40 14 Single Cares Taiwa n 02 Around Star Computerized Flat Bed M/C 40 14 Single Cares Taiwa n 03 Around Star Computerized Flat Bed M/C 40 14 Single Cares Taiwa n 04 Around Star Computerized Flat Bed M/C 40 14 Single Cares Taiwa n 05 Around Star Computerized Flat Bed M/C 40 14 Single Cares Taiwa n 06 Around Star Computerized Flat Bed M/C 40 14 Single Cares Taiwa n 07 Around Star Computerized Flat Bed M/C 86 14 Single Cares Taiwa n 08 Around Star Computerized Flat Bed M/C 68 14 Double Cares Taiwa n 09 Around Star Computerized Flat Bed M/C 68 14 Double Cares Taiwa n 10 Around Star Computerized Flat Bed M/C 68 14 Double Cares Taiwa n 11 Around Star Computerized Flat Bed M/C 68 14 Double Cares Taiwa n 12 Around Star Computerized Flat Bed M/C 68 14 Double Cares Taiwa n 13 Around Star Computerized Flat Bed M/C 68 14 Double Cares Taiwa n 14 Around Star Computerized Flat Bed M/C 68 14 Double Cares Taiwa n 15 Around Star Computerized Flat Bed M/C 68 14 Double Cares Taiwa n 16 Around Star Computerized Flat Bed M/C 68 14 Double Cares Taiwa n 17 Around Star Computerized Flat Bed M/C 68 14 Double Cares Taiwa n
  29. 29. 29 | P a g e Machine Picture SINGLE JERSEY CIRCULER KNITTING MACHINE JIUNN LONG MACHINE CO. LTD. TAIWAN. Specification: Model: JLS Cyl. Dia: 30" Feeders: 90 F Gauge: 24 G Needles: 2256 T SINGLE JERSEY CIRCULER KNITTING MACHINE JIUNN LONG MACHINE CO. LTD. TAIWAN. Specification: Model: JLS Cyl. Dia: 30" Feeders: 90 F Gauge: 24 G Needles: 2256 T SINGLE JERSEY CIRCULER KNITTING MACHINE FUKAHAMA MACHINERY CO. LTD. YUANHSIEN, TAIWAN. Specification: Model: SH-JFA3 Cyl. Dia: 34" Feeders: 102 F Gauge: 24 G Mfg. Date: Sep. 2010
  30. 30. 30 | P a g e FUKUHARA STRIPER MACHING PRECISION FUKUHARA WORKS,LTD. JAPAN. Specification: Gauge: 20/24 Feeders: 192 F Size: 34" Mfg. Date: March.2007 COMPUTERIZED FLAT KNITTING MACHINE AROUND STAR INTERNATIONAL CO. LTD. TAIWAN. Specification: Bed Length: 40" Gauge: 14 G Mfg. Date: 2008 UZU® FABRIC INSPECTION MACHINE AATPR INDUSTRY CO. LTD. THAILAND. Mfg. Date: April-2007
  31. 31. 31 | P a g e Description of production process: Micro Fiber Ltd. Is capable of producing stripes of any width and enormous color. The engineering stripes machines are used for producing such fabrics. Except this feeder stripes are also produced. Single jersey fabrics and its derivatives like lacost, polo pique, terry fleece etc. are also produced. Rib and interlock fabrics and its derivatives such as 2x2, 3x3 etc. are also produced. Different fabrics can be produced by jacquard m/c by varying the tucking lengths and looping sequence.Collar and cuffs of any designs are produced here in the flat bed m/cs. The jacquard design can be computerized and transferred to the knitting m/c by floppy disks. The yarn that used in the body fabric is also used in producing collar and cuff. GSM: It is the critical parameter that is checked and controlled at different staged of processing the fabric after knitting to finishing. Fabric GSM can be controlled by the following ways: By varying the loop length by VDQ pulley. By varying the no. of loops by needle gauge setting. By using different count of yarn. The yarn count, in all cases, has prescribed by the buyers. So m/c setting is the only way to control the grey GSM. The final GSM in the finished fabric depend on the finishing treatments and parameters of finishing machineries. Fabric width: Fabric width can be controlled by changing cylinder diameter or by changing m/c. RPM: M/c rpm is adjusted with the lead time for production. When lead time is very short then rpm may increase at a certain level for definite count and strength of yarn. So it also depends on the yarn parameter and also with structure to be produced. Loop length: Loop length determines the fabric GSM. It can be controlled by changing the dia of VDQ pulley In Mayer & CIE m/c , it can be controlled digitally. No. of feeder or no. of cone: It depends on the urgency of production, available cone packages, color to be knit and structure of the fabric. Gauge: Needle gauge determines the no. of loops in a course which determines the GSM of fabric. Production calculation: 1. Production = no. of needle x no of feeder x RPM x stitch length/ yarn count
  32. 32. 32 | P a g e Production per shift in KG at 100% efficiency RPM x no of feeder x no of needle x stitch length(mm) x 60 x 12 = 10 x 2.54 x 36 x 840 x 2.2046 x yarn count Ks X 590.5 2. Stitch length = Count (Ne) x GSM Where, Ks = knitting constant Count = linear density of yarn GSM = gm per square meter Another formulae is Stitch length = (Tex × Ks) / GSM Ks is a constant. Its value is different for different fabric structure and fabric type. Ks is calculated and estimated as below: Ks = (GSM x Stitch length) / Tex Fabric type Color Value of Ks Single jersey Average 19.55 Single lacoste Average 22.4 Double lacoste Average 22.75 Polo pique Average 25 Plain interlock Average 39.3 1 X 1 rib Light 24.5 1 X 1 rib Average 26.5 3. Production/shift in meter: 100/ 1260. / .min/     cmCourse EfficiencyFeederofNoRPM cmCourse Course
  33. 33. 33 | P a g e 4. Fabric width in meter: Fabric type Yarn count Stitch length Color D X G Finished dia Finished GSM Plain s/j 18s/1 2.94 White 26X24 30 inch 220-230 20s/1 2.98 White 30X24 33.5 inch 200-210 24 s/1 2.68 White 30X24 32 inch 175-185 26s/1 2.66 White 30X24 31 inch 160-170 28s/1 2.70 Avg 26X24 25 inch 150-160 30s/1 2.68 Avg 30X24 30 inch 130-140 34s/1 2.40 Avg 26X24 24 inch 125-135 40s/1 2.44 Avg 24X24 20 inch 100-110 1x1 Rib 26s/1 2.50 Avg 40X18 41 inch 240 24s/1 2.75 Avg 30X18 64 inch 235 26s/1 2.45 Avg 40X18 40inch 245 26s/1 2.55 Avg 40X18 47inch 235 26s/1 2.65 Avg 32X18 32inch 230 36s/1 2.65 Avg 32X18 33inch 170 24s/1 2.95 Avg 34X18 32inch 220 24s/1 2.90 Avg 40X18 38inch 225 28s/1 2.40 Avg 30X24 38.5inch 232 2X1 L Rib 34s/1 2.60 Avg 40X18 23inch 190 34s/1 2.70 Avg 32X18 20inch 185 40s/1 2.76 Avg 30X20 35”T 160 28s/1 2.87 Avg 34X18 32”T 260 26s/1 3.25 Avg 34X18 31”T 205 24s/1 3.50 Avg 34X18 31.5”T 285 20s/1 3.25 Avg 34X20 55”(op) 260 2X2 L/Rib 20/1+40D 3.10 Avg 30X18 18”T 390 24/1+40D 2.90 Avg 30X18 18”T 320 30/1+70D 2.90 Avg 30X18 18”T 320 30/1+40D 2.98 Avg 26X18 18”T 240 30/1+40D 2.80 Avg 26X18 18”T 240 Single lacost 18s/1 3.00 Avg 30X24 46 inch 245-255 24s/1 2.64 Avg 30X24 40 inch 210-215 26s/1 2.60 Avg 30X24 36inch 200-210 30s/1 2.50 Avg 30X24 33inch 180-190 100/ . 100/ .     cmWales knittingNeedlesofnoTotal cmWales walesofnoTotal
  34. 34. 34 | P a g e Following Counts are used to achieve the mentioned G.S.M: Relation between yarn count, fabric type, stitch length and finished GSM: By the following three tables, we can summarize the above data: For Single jersey- FINISHED GSM COUNT FINISHED DIA 140 30/1 Machine dia=Finished dia 160 26/1 Machine dia+1=Finished dia 180 24/1 Machine dia+2=Finished dia 200 20/1 Machine dia+3=Finished dia 220 18/1 Machine dia+5=Finished For S/J with Lycra Fabric G.S.M Yarn Count 180-190 34s 190-210 32s 210-220 30s 220-240 28s 240-250 26s For S/J without'Lycra Fabric G.S.M Yarn Count 110-120 40ѕ -36s 120-130 36s-32s 130-140 32s-28s 140-150 28s 150-160 26s 170-210 24s For Rib without Lycra: Fabric G.S.M Yarn Count 180-190 36s-32s 190-200 30s 200-210 28s 210-220 26s 220-250 24s 250-300 24s For interlock without Lycra Fabric G.S.M Yarn Count 200-220 34s 220-230 32s 230-250 30s 250-300 26s For Lacoste without Lycra Fabric G.S.M Yarn Count 180-190 30s 190-210 28s 210-230 26s 230-250 26s
  35. 35. 35 | P a g e For 1X1 Rib Finished gsm Count Gauge Finished dia 150-200 30/1 18 Machine dia 210-220 28/1 18 Machine dia 220-230 26/1 18 Machine dia+1 240-250 24/1 18 Machine dia+1/2 280-300 20/1 18 Machine dia+2/3 For Plain Interlock- Finished gsm Count Gauge Finished dia 200 40/1 24 Machine dia 180 40/1 24 Machine dia+1 220-230 34/1 24 Machine dia+2 240-250 30/1 24 Machine dia+2/3 If the fabric is to be Enzyme washed, the stitch length should be kept (10%) less than the normal range. Because, enzyme wash reduces the total weight of the fabric by removing the floating fibre and hairy fibre. For light color, the finished GSM varies near about 15-20% from grey GSM For average color, the finished GSM varies 20-25% For dark color, grey GSM is kept less (i.e. the stitch-length is large) because take up% of dark color is more and the weight of dyed fabric will be increased. dia
  36. 36. 36 | P a g e If the GSM varies 25-30%, it is not only necessary to control the VDQ pulley dia but also yarn tension & take up roller. Grey fabric introducing: Factors that should be considered for changing of fabric design on: i) Cam arrangement changing. ii) Needle butt setting & needle dropping. iii) Using of different colors in selected feeder. iv) Using of jacquard mechanism. v) Size of the loop shape Stitch Notation, Cam Arrangement & Needle Repeat Of Some Knitted Fabric: FABRIC NAME: SINGLE LACOST Stitch Notation:                     Fig. Looping diagram Cam arrangement & Needle arrangement: i) Using two track cams: ▲ ▲ ▲ T ▲ ▲ T ▲ ▲ ▲ ii) Using three truck cams: ▲ ▲ ▲ T ▲ 1 2 1 2 3  = Knit stitch  = Tuck stitch K = Knit cam T = Tuck cam 1 = 1 Butt Needle 2 = 2 Butt Needle 3 = 3 Butt Needle
  37. 37. 37 | P a g e FABRIC NAME: DOUBLE LACOST Stitch Notation:                         Fig. Looping diagram Cam arrangement & Needle arrangement: i) Using two track cams: ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ T T ▲ T T ▲ ▲ ▲ ii) Using three truck cams: ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ T T ▲ T T ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ T T Fig.- Cam arrangement Fig.- Needle arrangement FABRIC NAME: SINGLE JERSEY Stitch Notation: ▲ T ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ T ▲  = Knit stitch  = Tuck stitch K = Knit cam T = Tuck cam 1 = 1 Butt Needle 2 = 2 Butt Needle 3 = 3 Butt Needle 1 2 1 2 3  = Knit stitch K = Knit cam 1 = 1 Butt Needle 2 = 2 Butt Needle
  38. 38. 38 | P a g e                     Fig. Looping diagram Cam arrangement & Needle arrangement: i) Using two track cams: ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ Fig.- Cam arrangement Fabric inspection : Two ways of grey fabric inspection used to done by- a) Auto turning fabric inspection m/c. b) Varivide colour assessment cabinet –2 D-65, TL-84, TL-83, Florescent, UV.  Grey fabric faults : Following faults are found in the grey fabric: Problem Reason Remedy 1. Hole Broken needle head Change the needle 2. Missing yarn Missing of one end of double yarn Careful observation and instant stop when fault found 3. Needle line Bent needle latch Replace the needle 4. Thick & thin yarn Yarn fault Replace the yarn cone to a more uniform yarn cone 5. Slubs Yarn fault Replace the yarn cone to a more uniform yarn cone 1 2
  39. 39. 39 | P a g e Remarks : The Lay out plan of the machineries is well Micro Fiber Ltd. arranged. There are good number of textile machineries in the industry. They are adequate enough to take the huge production of the industry. The efficiency of the worker should be increased for more quality production. Chapter-05 Wet processing Section Fabric Dyeing Section: Production flow chart for fabric Dyeing: Grey fabric inspection Batching Pretreatment Dyeing Dewatering Dewatering (Tube form) Dewatering(Open form) 6. Drop needle Needle fail to receive the yarn while knitting, needle missing Reset the needle 7. Barrie mark/patta Irregular tension of take down roller Adjust the take down tension or synchronize the take down speed with knitting 8. Pin hole Due to missing stiches or loop Concentrate on needle and latch 9. Oil line Improper lubrication Proper lubrication 10. Fly contact Fly coming fro the adjacent m/c Separate one m/c from others 11. Oil stain Dirty m/c and improper handling of fabric Proper lubrication and clean m/c
  40. 40. 40 | P a g e Tension less dryer Slitting Calendaring Stentering Compacting Inspection Inspection Packing Packing Delivery Delivery Process sequence: For Cotton Dyeing: Pretreatment Enzyme (anti pilling) Dyeing Soaping Softening Pretreatment: Two types of pretreatment are done in Micro Fibre Ltd. 1. Scouring-Bleaching 2. Bio-Scouring (Bio polishing/ Enzyme treatment)
  41. 41. 41 | P a g e Scouring-Bleaching: Pretreatment program: (scouring ,bleaching and enzyme) Light color: M:L=1:10 Fill water Fabric load SCF (0.25g/l)+2UD (0.25g/l) ACN+CBA (0.25+0.25g/l) ( Dosing 10mins) Temp=60o c and run=20min Drain Fill water SCF+InSA(0.65+0.65g/l) +ACN+CBA (1.25+1.25g/l) (Dosing 10mins at room temp) Caustic Dosing at 40o c (1.8g/l) Temp 70o c Peroxide +stab (1.75+0.22g/l) Temp=98o c and Run=50-60mins Cooling at 80o c Drain Fill water Green acid( 0.5 g/l) OEM ( 0.3 g/l) dosing 20 minutes Raise temp. 80o c and run 10 mins Drain
  42. 42. 42 | P a g e Fill water Hot wash (95o c X 10mins) Medium/deep color: M:L=1:8 Fill water Fabric load SCF (0.17g/l) ACN+CBA (0.425+0.425g/l) ( Dosing 10mins) Temp=60o c and run=20min Drain Fill water SCF+InSA(0.552+0.637g/l) +ACN+CBA (0.637+0.637g/l) (Dosing 10mins at room temp) Caustic Dosing at 40o c (1.70g/l) Temp 70o c Peroxide +stab (1.70+0.212g/l) Temp=98o c and Run=50-60mins Cooling at 80o c Drain Fill water Hot wash (95o c X 10mins) Fill water G. acid(0.697g/l) OEM ( 0.3 g/l) dosing 20 minutes Raise temp. 80o c and run 10 mins Drain
  43. 43. 43 | P a g e Bio-Scouring: Process description of Bio-Scouring is same as normal pretreatment process. But in Bio- Scouring process, we use only one auxiliary (MA-stab XLC), where in normal pretreatment process ,we use more than one auxiliary. Enzyme Treatment: Process Description of ENZYME TREATMENT: Light color: M:L=1:10 Or, Medium/deep color: M:L=1:8 Water fill Green acid (0.4g/l)(Check PH ) MKL (0.3% owf) Temp 55o c and Run 60mins Drain Ready for dyeing Dyeing: Normaly for knit dyeing, there are many kinds of dyeing procedure such as Iso thermal process, Critical migration process, Exhaust method etc. In Micro Fibre they use Exhaust method for knit dyeing. Dyeing program for Disperse Dyes: Fabric treated with oxalic acid at 70°C for 20min
  44. 44. 44 | P a g e Rinse for 5 min pH is controlled at 4.0-4.2 Dyeing at 130°C temp for 40-50 min Hot wash for 5 min Reduction cleaning 80-90°C temp for 30 min Neutralization/Hot wash Softener at 60°C temp for 20 min Drain the bath Unload the fabric Re-dyeing Process: When shade is not matched then fabric is treated again in dyeing machine for shade matching is known as re-dyeing. Generally, re-dyeing is done if the shade is deeper than the target shade. It may occur when the fabrics absorb one or two colors more or less. One re-dyeing process is described below. - Drain the let off solution - Hot wash at 700 -800 C - Acid wash at 600 -700 C(600 for light shade & 700 for deep shade). - Soda ash washes at 900 -1000 C for 60mins to reduce the depth of shade. - Acid wash at 600 C. - Addition to required dyestuffs. - Salt addition. - Soda ash addition.
  45. 45. 45 | P a g e Other operations are same as previous described dyeing operations. Stripping process: Add water Fabric load TPA+G.ACID Temp=90o C run=20min Drain Fill water SCF+NaOH Temp=98o C run=30min Cooling at 80O C Hydrose Temp=98o C run=60min Drain Hot wash Half scouring Temp=98o C run=35-50min Dyeing After Treatment Of All Program: For light color For Deep / Medium color Recipe: Antifixing agent (TPA)= 3.0g/l A.Acid (G.Acid)= 3.0g/l Wetting agent(SCF)= 0.2g/l Hydrose= 4.0g/l Caustic= 3.0g/l Half scouring recipe: SCF=0.26g/l InSA=0.6g/l ACN+CBA= 0.26+0.26g/l Stab= 0.088g/l Caustic= 0.72g/l 50% H2O2=0.7g/l G.acid= 1.0g/l OEM=0.12g/l
  46. 46. 46 | P a g e C Neutralizer=0.425g/l Temp=60c-65c Run=20min Hot Wash (AW-501=0.17g/l) Temp=60-65c Run=20 Temp=80c-90c FS(10% Solution)=3-4g/l Temp=50O c-For light color Temp=60O c –For deep color PH=4.0-4.5 Fixing agent =0.425g/l Run =20min Hot Wash C Neutralizer=0.425g/l-0.552g/l Temp=60c-65c Run=20min Hot Wash 90O c- run 10min (AW-501=0.255-0.425g/) Fixing agent =0.425g/l Temp=50o c-60o c Run=20min PH =5.0-5.5 FS(10%solution)=3-4g/l Temp=60o c run=20min PH =4.0-4.5 Temp=50c-60c Run=20min After dyeing for neutralization: For white (without enzyme) For white (with enzyme) For light color For medium color For deep color
  47. 47. 47 | P a g e A.Acid=1.5g /l Temp 65o c Run=20min PH =4.5- 4.8(By using A.Acid) Temp 55o c Run=60min C.Neutralizer= 0.425g/l Temp 63-65o c Run=20min C.Neutralizer= 0.425-0.552g/l Temp 63-65o c Run=20min C.Neutralizer= 0.552g/l Temp 63-65o c Run=20min For fixing: For medium color For deep color SR=0.425-0.85g/l Temp 50-60o c Run=20min PH =5.0-5.5(By using C.neu) SR=1.275-1.7g/l Temp 50-60o c Run=20min PH =5.0-5.5(By using C.neu) Softener solution(10% solution): For white For light color For medium/deep color WCS(10%Soln )=2.55- 3.4owf Temp 60o c Run=20min PH =4.0-4.5(By using A.Acid) FS(10%Soln )=2.55- 3.4owf Temp 50o c Run=20min PH =4.0-4.5(By using C.neu) FS(10%Soln )=2.55- 3.4owf Temp 60o c Run=20min PH =4.0-4.5(By using C.neu) Common textile auxlliaries used in dyeing: Acid - The chemical compounds that dissolve in water and provide H+(proton). It changes the color of litmas paper from blue to red. Strong acids - completely ionized in water; For example: HClO4, Hl, HBr, HCl, HNOs, H2SO4, H3PO4 Weak acids - partial ionized in water; For example: HF, H2S, HCN, HC2H3O2 and most organic acids.
  48. 48. 48 | P a g e Alkalis - The chemicaL compound that dissolve in water and provide 0H- . It changes the color of litmas paper from red to blue. Strong alkalis - completely ionized in water; For example: NaOH, KOH, LiOH, Mg(OH)2 most metallic hydroxides Weak alkalis - partial ionized in water; For example: NH4OH and most organic alkalis Buffer - lt is a saturated solution of acid-salt or alkali-salt mixture. lt resists the change of pH on addition of acid or alkali. Usually it is used to control the any bath solution. Buffer solutions are solutions containing mixtures of a weak acid or base and a salt of that acid or base. For exampre, the mixture of acetic acid and sodium acetate, which dissociates as: CH3COOH CH3COO - + H+ CH3COONa CHs COO - + Na+ Oxidizing agent - The chemical compound which provide oxygen during chemical reaction and converting to oxide, They gain electrons in a redox chemical reaction, for example, O3, H2O2, Ca0Cl2. Reducing agent - The chemical compound which losses electron during chemical reaction. lt reduces other substances chemically, especially by donating an electron or electrons, for example, Hydrose (Na2S2O4), Rongalite C. Surfactants - Surfactants or surface-active agents act in solid-liquid, solid-gas, or liquid-gas interfaces and reduces the interfacial tension. ln textile wet processing it works in between solid-liquid interface and reduce the surface tension of liquid. lt has a versatile application in textile industries especially in textile coloration, for example, Wetting agent, Detergent, Lubricant, Foaming agent, Anti-foaming agent, Leveling agent, Dispersing agent. Wetting agent - lt accelerates the wetability of material in solution; thus helps to easy penetration of chemicals into substrate. Usually it is used in scouring, bleaching and dyeing processes. lt is available in market in form of clear or yellowish liquid. Detergent - Detergents are one kind of surface active agents but the reverse is not always true. The surfactants which have detergency power and the number of carbon in aliphatic chain are not less than 9. Usually it is used in textile to clean the materials by removing undesirable substances. These products are either soaps or synthetic detergents. Lubricant - The chemical compounds use to prevent contact between solid surfaces in relative motion in order to reduce friction, wear, overheating, and rusting. They are very good coolants, provide the appropriate range of viscosities, and are thermally stable. Anti-foaming agent - Anti-foaming agents are another type of surfactants which are able to prevent or reduce foam. Usually, anti-foaming agents are used in dyeing bath and in printing paste to hinder foam generation. Excess foam generation can create adverse effect in processing and product. Anti-creasing agent - Usually used in dye bath or in finishing stage to prevent creasing of fabric or garments.
  49. 49. 49 | P a g e Anti-pilling agent - Some man-made and blended fibre fabrics can easily form pills in their surface. Thus it reduces the aesthetic value of the fabric or garment. Anti-pilling agents are used to prevent such kind of pills formation during wearing of cloth. Leveling agent - Leveling agent is used in textile coloration process to achieve uniform dyeing over the whole substrate by controlling the rate of dyeing. Generally it is a non-ionic surfactants type compound either fibre substantive or dye substantive. lt is available in market in liquid form. Dispersing agent - usually it is used in disperse and vat dyeing process helps to distribute the dye molecules in dye bath. it is also help to penetrate the dye molecules into the substrate. lt is available in market in powder form. Retarding agent - The chemical compound that are able to retard or control the dye uptake inside of the fibre .Using retarders is very common in acrylic dyeing with cationic dyes. Carrier - Carriers are relatively small organic substances that usually have affinity for polyester. lt acts as a catalyst to accelerate the dye penetration into the fibe in disperse dyeing process. Chemical formula of common chemicals used in textile dyeing: Water – H2O Hydrochloric acid - HCI Sulfuric acid –H2SO4 Phosphoric acid – H3PO4 Sodium chloride (common salt) - NaCl Sodium carbonate – Na2CO3 Sodium sulfate (glauber salt) – Na2SO4 Sodium bicarbonate – NaHCO3 Sodium hydroxide - NaOH Potassium hydroxide - KOH Sulfur dioxide – SO2 Tri sodium Phosphate – Na3PO4 Benzene – C6H6 Acetic acid - CH3COOH Oxalic acid - (COOH)2 Cellulose – C6H10O5 Starch - C6H10O5 Hydros (sodium hydrosulfite) – Na2S2O4 Bleaching powder- Ca(OCl)Cl
  50. 50. 50 | P a g e Problems Encountered In Dyeing: Uneven Dyeing  1. It can be caused due to rapid addition of dyes and chemicals. For this purpose the dosing of soda ash should be maintained properly. 2. Pressure difference. 3. Over loading in the m/c. 4. Yarn lot mixing. 5. Improper control of temperature. 6. Less amount of leveling agent. 7. Improper pretreatment. Uneven Shade in Rope to Rope  1. Improper rope length in each chamber. 2. Improper fabric flow speed in each nozzle. Off Shade 1. Improper M: L ratio. 2. Lower amount of auxiliaries. 3. Improper mixing of dyestuffs. Dye Spots  This is most common fault caused by operator not correctly mixing and thoroughly dissolving dyestuffs in the right amount of water. Batch to Batch Shade Variation  If any of parameters of dyeing are changed then it will produce problems in batch to batch consistency. In order to avoid this defect the following steps should be followed- 1. Maintain the same liquor ratio. 2.Check that the fabric has the same dye affinity. 3. Use the same standard program procedures for each batch. 4. Making sure that the operators add the right bach of chemicals at the same time & temperature in the process. 5. Check the water supply daily especially ph , hardness & Na2CO3 content. Crease Mark  Crease marks are produced due to the lower concentration of anti creasing agent and improper cooling rate (defective cooling gradient). This is encountered by increasing the concentration of anti creasing agent and proper adjustment of cooling rate. Running Marks  Running marks are frequently related to the material construction and are caused by poor opening of the fabric rope. 1. Reducing the machine load and running at a slightly higher nozzle pressure, or using the next largest available nozzle size, may also help. 2. Either pre setting or pre relaxation of the fabric before dyeing can avoid this problem. 3. Running and crack marks can also be a result of incorrect process procedures. A higher fabric speed, combined with slower rates of rinse and cooling will often correct the problem. 4. Care should be taken to check that bath draining temperatures are not very high especially viscose blends are involved. 5. Shock cooling of static material will also cause crack marks.
  51. 51. 51 | P a g e Intensive Foaming  In case of intensive foaming, which is caused when, the pumps try to pump a mixture of air and water. This resets in the loss of nozzle pressure & floating of flake. If the foaming is severe it is better to drop the bath & restart the process, after adding an anti foaming agent to the new bath. Remarks: The production process, followed by the Dye-house of Micro fibre group is impressive. The processes are being carried out very quickly and accurately. Due to the excellence of process, machineries and lab trials very few cases of re-dyeing is performed Printing Printing involves localized coloration. This is usually achieved by applying thickened pastes containing dyes or pigments onto a fabric surface according to a given colour design. In particular, the viscosity of a print paste is critical. It determines the volume of paste transferred to the fabric and the degree to which it spreads on and into the surface yarns. The paste must colour all the visible fibres on the printed surface, so it must penetrate somewhat into the yarn structure. If the paste is too ‘thin’, it will spread, giving poor print definition, and penetrate too far into the yarns decreasing the colour yield. The rapid development of CAD computer systems for print design has had a significant impact on this activity. The development of digitised textile printing using, for example, ink jet printers is well underway. Such computer assisted manufacturing will considerably influence the textile printing industry in the near future. Its other preoccupation, as for the dyeing industry in general, is that of reducing the amounts of biodegradable and potentially harmful chemicals in the effluent leaving the works so that its environmental impact is limited. Sample Preparation After getting work order from product development dept. Prepare design according to outwork Screen preparation Sample preparation
  52. 52. 52 | P a g e Approved Sample Bulk production Bulk Production: Screen Preparation Print Paste preparation Printing is done on the mc or manually Drying Curing Final Inspection Available Printing Style in Micro Fibre LTD In Micro fibre ltd 3 types of printing style are available. Which’s are Pigment printing, Discharge Printing, Reactive Printing. There are also Titanium printing, Glitter printing and Khari Printing. Mostly pigment printing is available there. Discharge printing is used for dyed fabric print and Reactive Printing is used for sharp and accurate design. Print paste recipe is given below as per Micro Fibre Group. Types of Printing in Micro Fibre Group: 1. Reactive printing 2. discharge printing 3. pigment printing
  53. 53. 53 | P a g e Reactive printing: Print steam(102o c) washing finishing(stenter) compacting Delivery Discharge printing: Print steam(102o c) curing(155-160o c) washing finishing(stenter) Delivery compacting Pigment printing: Print curing(155-160o c) finishing(stenter) compacting Delivery Print curing(155-160o c) washing finishing(stenter) compacting Delivery Recipe of Pigment paste:  Binder: 10.00%  Hi soft: 00.50%  Glycerin: 01.00%  Liquor Ammonia: 01.00%  Thickener(Lotacgol hit): 05.00%  Color: Required amount to match the color Recipe of Discharge paste:  Binder: 20.00%  Urea: 10.00%  Disgrason DS: 10.00%  Discharge gum: 03.00%  Glycerin: 01.00%  Antifoaming agent: 00.10%  Color: Required amount to match the color Recipe of reactive Paste:  Sodium Alginate: 04.40%  Sodium Bi-carbonate: 04.50%  H. agent: 10.00%  Ludigal: 01.20%  Kerosene(Fixing agent): 00.90%  NB: 03.00%  SF: 00.20%  Color: Required amount to match the color
  54. 54. 54 | P a g e Pollutants during printing process: Drying and fixing are another important emission source in printing processes. The following pollutants may be encountered in the exhaust air [179, UBA, 2001]:  aliphatic hydrocarbons (C10-C20) from binders  monomers such as acrylates, vinylacetates, styrene, acrylonitrile, acrylamide, butadiene  methanol from fixation agents  other alcohols, esters, polyglycols from emulsifiers  formaldehyde from fixation agents  ammonia (from urea decomposition and from ammonia present, for example, in pigment printing pastes)  N-methylpyrrolidone from emulsifiers  phosphoric acid esters  phenylcyclohexene from thickeners and binders. Finishing section Textile finishing , in a restricted sense , is the term used for a series of processes to which all bleached , dyed , printed and certain grey fabrics are subjected before they are put on the market . In fact , finishing includes the final treatment of every kind of fabric made from every kind of fiber . Objective of finishing: - Improving the appearance – Lustre , whiteness , etc . - Improving the feel , which depends on the handle of the material and its softness , suppleness , fullness , etc . - Wearing qualities , non – soiling , anticrease , antishrink , comfort , etc . - Special properties required for particular uses – water – proofing , flame – proofing , etc. . - Covering of the faults in the original cloth. - Increasing the weight of the cloth. Types of finishing: 1) Chemical finishing: Chemical reaction of auxiliaries with fibers. 2) Application of the handle modifying products / additives. 3) Mechanical finishing:  Mechanical treatment with machines.  Finishing effects  Easy – care  Crease recovery.  Dimensional stability.  Good abrasion resistance.  Improved tear strength.  Good sewability
  55. 55. 55 | P a g e Dyed Fabric from Dyeing Department Shade check Dewatering Slitting Stentering/Dryer Open compactor Final Inspection Packing Delivery Drying Calendering & compactor Final Inspaction Packing Delivery Dewatering Tubular formOpen with  Soft or stiff handle.  Shine or luster After dyeing knit fabric is required to finish. During eyeing all knit fabric are dyed in tubular form. According to buyer’s requirement knit fabric are finished in open form or tubular form. Flow chart of final process (knit fabric)
  56. 56. 56 | P a g e Finishing section is Divided into two section, they are: -Open line -Tube line The machines that are used in open line that are given bellow: 1. Slitting m/c 2. De-watering m/c 3. Stenter 5. Compactor The machines that are used in tube line that are given bellow: 1. De-watering m/c 2. Dryer 3. Calendering & Stentering Dewatering and Slitting unit Machine Specification: Machine name: Dewatering / Detwisting, Manufacturer: Ruckh Calator, Origin: Sweden Production capacity: 10 M. Ton / Day Quantity: 01 Machine name: Open Width De-watering + Slitting, BIANCO, ITALY Manufacturer: BIANCO, Origin: ITALY Serial Number: M03066-016261 Construction year: 2003 Max speed: 90m/min Production capacity: 10 M. Ton / Day Quantity: 02 After finishing the dyeing process from the dyeing machine then the fabrics are ready for de- watering . This is the process to remove the water from the fabric completely by squeezing. This is the main function of the de-watering machine.
  57. 57. 57 | P a g e Feature:  Used to remove excess water after pretreatment and dyeing  Delivered fabric is crease free state  Before squeezing ballon is formed with the help of compressed air passing by a nozzle  It can control the diameter of fabric and GSM and shrinkage by over feeding mechanism  To impart soft finish to the fabric  To open the fabric from tubular form to open width form  Fabric is cut according to the needle mark. During slitting: Controlling point S/J :50m/min to 60m/min Rib, interlock : 80m/min Max dia: 45inch
  58. 58. 58 | P a g e During Dewatering: Controlling point Maximum speed: 30-35 m/min Pressure required for RIB 3-3.5Kg Pressure required for Single jersy 2 Kg Pressure required for Lycra 2.5-3 Kg Chemical used: 1. Softener (10g/l) 2. Acetic acid (1g/l) Power consumption: Voltage: 400V Frequency: 50Hz Maximum power: 24kwatt Manpower Required: Worker: 02 Utilities: 1. Electricity 2. Processed air (to form the tube fabric into ballon with a view to remove crease) Control system: 1. Overfeed control 2. Pressure 3. Speed control 4. Width control Squeezer Machine: Object: 1. Reduce water content. 2. Apply chemicals specially to make the fabric soft. Chemical solution: 10% solution of softener 1% solution of soap For S/J  1KG softner in 9liter water and 500gm soap in 5 liter water to make solution For collar  Sequetering agent 0.5gm/l, anticreasing agent 1gm/l Control point: 1st Squeeze roller pressure: 700-1000PSI or 5-7Bar
  59. 59. 59 | P a g e 2nd Squeeze Roller pressure: 500-700PSI or 3.5-5Bar Hydro-extractor m/c Object: 1.Extract water content from fabric. Dryer m/c : Object: To dry the wet fabric High Production Dryer: Drying is defined as a process where the liquid portion is evaporated from the fabric. Functions: 1. To dry the fabric with the help of steam 2. To control the shrinkage 3. To prepare the fabric for next subsequent process 4. To dry fabric without tension Main parts of the machine: 1. Heating chamber 2. Blower 3. Synthetic blanket as a conveyor 4. Folder 5. Exhaust fan Heating system: 1. Gas fired Utility: 1. Gas (to make fire) 2. Electricity (to rum the machine) 3. Compressed air (to spread the fire) Setting according to fabric construction: Fabric type Speed m/min Temperature Over feed speed (%) Single jersey 15-17 140 20 Interlock 20 – 22 140 25 – 30 Rib 10 140 15 – 20 T/C P/C Viscose 20 – 23 130 40 – 45 Lacoste 30 140 40 – 45 Collar 20 140 40 – 45 Lycra 17 130 30 – 40 Checking parameters:
  60. 60. 60 | P a g e  Shade Check  Width check  Weight check  Compaction check  Edge check Find out the limitations and faults of the machine and advise for removing these. i) Selvedge drying system is not properly functioning. ii) Maximum over feed of the machine is +60%. iii) When the steam temperature is 1000 C-1200 C, then delivered fabric temperature is 45-500 C. But there is no cooling zone in this machine to reduce the excess temperature. So a cooling zone in delivery zone can be attached. Calendar M/C: It is a finishing process used on cloth where fabric is folded in half and passed under rollers at high temperatures and pressures. The calendering finish is easily destroyed, and does not last well. Washing in water destroys it, as does wear with time. calendering, a finishing process by which paper, plastics, rubber, or textiles are pressed into sheets and smoothed, glazed, polished, or given a moiré or embossed surface. The material is passed through a series of rollers; the resulting surface depends on the pressure exerted by the rollers, on their temperature, composition, and surface designs, and on the type of coating or glaze previously applied to the material to be calendered.Export oriented fabrics are not gone in calendering process.Compacting fabrics are gone in calendering process. Object of calendaring:  The fabric is run through rollers that polish the surface and make the fabric smoother and more lustrous. High temperatures and pressure are used as well. Fabrics that go through the calendering process feel thin, glossy and papery.  To improve attractiveness.  To cause a closing threads together by flattening and thus tending to fill up the inter stitches between warp and weft.  To produce smooth and glossy luster appearance on the surface of fabric. Width Compactor During fabric formation processes, stresses often are introduced into a textile. Such stresses can be controlled by drying the finished fabric on a stenter frame, which controls the width of the fabric and the tension on the fabric during the drying process. A second method involves compression the fabric structure, as in the Sanforizing process. In this process, the fabric and backing blanket (rubber or wool) is fed between a feed roller and a curved braking shoe, with the blanket being under some tension. The tension on the blanket is released after passing the fabric and blanket between the roller and braking shoe. The net result is compaction of the fabric being carried along in the sys· tem. Such a simple technique permits fabrication of the fabric of finished textile goods without fear of excessive shrinkage on laundering. Protein hair fibers such as wool, and thermoplastic fibers such as polyester, can be compacted by felting action.
  61. 61. 61 | P a g e The scale structures on protein fibers entangle and stick on agitation, particularly in the presence of moisture. The resulting "ratcheting" effect causes the fibers to compact and felt. Many processes for wool take advantage this effect, and nonwoven felt structures are produced by this method. Compaction of thermoplastic structure occurs when the fibers are raised to near their softening point. At a sufficiently high temperature the fibers shrink and contract, causing compaction of the textile structure. After drying the fabric from stenter, it is passed through compactor to control shrinkage. Knit fabrics have higher tendency to shrink so its compaction is very important to maintain the minimum quality. ln compactor the fabric is steamed to regain moisture and the introduced to the competing rolls. Here the feed roll turns faster than the second roll. An endless belt is fed over rollers in such a way that the belt can be elongated at stretch; the fabric is introduced between the belt and a heated drum. After passing from the contact of the drum the belt can shrink and compress the fabric, thus the compactor control the fabric shrinkage. Function: 1. To compact the fabric 2. To control the shrinkage 3. To maintain proper width and G.S.M Main parts of tube-tex machine: 1. Heating chamber 2. Blower 3. Synthetic blanket as a conveyor, 4. Folder 5. Exhaust fan Main Parts: (Lafer Compacting Machine)  Heat Padder: Control Motor Speed.  Heat Chamber: Three. 1. Lower Padder 2. Stenter 3. Compactor  Main Power  Blanket: For finishing Cloth.  Guide Roller  Clip: Straighten the fabric  Wheel raising  Steam Box: soften the fabric  Load Cell: Keep the delivery Roller for perfect tension.  Temperature: 1500 C (Highest)  Speed: 50 M/Min  Overfeed % Up: More the Overfeed % Up More the GSM.  Steam Pressure: Up to 10 Kg In Tube-tex compactor m/c fabric spread range:
  62. 62. 62 | P a g e Fabric dia (inch) Maximum spreading (inch) 14” 17” 16” 19” 17” 20” 19” 25” 22.25” 28.25” 26” 36.38” 34.75” 47” 45” 57” 48.25” 60” For different type of fabric speed and compaction (TUBE TEX): Fabric Type Speed ( r.p.m ) Compaction S/J 20 8-9 % Lycra S/J 25 7-10 % 1*1 Rib 30 8 -11 % Single lacoste 30 10 -14 % 2×2 Rib 30 -35 6-7 % Double lacost 30 -35 12 % Pk. Fabric 30 10 -12 % Interlock 30-35 9 – 12% Tube-tex consists of five major parts and these are – 1. Shaper : It looks like a ladder which straightens the fabric and passing through the pulley. Shaper 2. A pair of pulley : It controls the fabric width according to the buyer’s requirements . Fabric 3. Steam zone : It is given steam on the fabric surface for softness which helps in compacting zone to compact the fabric . Steam spray on fabric surface + +
  63. 63. 63 | P a g e 4.Compacting zone : It consists of edge roller, retard roller, steel plates and compacting shoe . Fabric’s shrinkage , finished G.S.M and dia permanent by compacting shoe & edge roller at 950 c. Steel plate remove the crease mark on the fabric surface and retard roller smooth the upper portion of the fabric surface at 950 c . Steel plate Compacting shoe Fa Fabric Edge roller Retard roller Fabric delivery Steel plate 5. Folding zone : Here fabric folding fan moving to and foe movement and fold the fabric evenly . Overfeed % Up Setup for Lafer compacting Machine: Overfeed % Up for Lycra Single Jersey:60 Overfeed % Up for Single Jersey: 35/40. Overfeed % Up for Lacost fabric :35/40 Overfeed % Up for Rib fabric :20/22 Overfeed % Up for CVC fabric:45 Utilities used:  Electricity  Steam  Compressed air Control Point : - Water pressure - Air pressure - Steam pressure Checking parameters:  Shade Check  Width check  Weight check  Compaction check  Edge line Checking  Fault check Stentering Machine
  64. 64. 64 | P a g e Stenter is a very important and essential machine. stenter plays a big role to achieve the desired width and GSM of the fabric and widely used for heat setting of fabrics containing lycra. Normally after dewatering most of the water is removed from the fabric but still a certain amount of water remains in the fabric. in stenter the remaining amount of water is removed by passing the fabric through a sufficient number of heated chambers. During drying in stenter the fabric attain its desired diameter and GSM Purpose of the m/c: i) Drying ii) GSM control: If overfeed increases,then GSM increases and vice versa. iii) Width control :The width is controlled by means of Spreader,Expander. iv) Shrinkage control v) Decrease sprirality vi) Decrease Bowing effect vii) Softener application viii) Surface coating for Teflon finish ix) Soil release chemical finish x) Heat set for cotton lycra fabric Main parts of the machine: i) Feed zone - Centering device ii) Chemical padding zone - Squeezing roller - Chemical tray iii) Bowing control zone - Bowing roller (rubber roller, no of roller -2) - Sensor (no of sensor -6) - Uncurling roller iv) Chain entry zone - Uncurling device (both side of the chain entry) - Sensor (both side of the chain entry) - Brush roller (for attaching the fabric with the pin of the chain, no of brush roller - Selvedge gumming device with gum box under the chain entry v) Drying zone - Gas rotamatic burner (10) vi) Cooling zone vii) Delivery zone viii) Relax R/r ix) Padder x) Pin roller xi) PLC profivassleeve converter. xii) Plaiter roller xiii) Take up roller xiv) Wheel
  65. 65. 65 | P a g e Heating system: Gas Burner Gripping system of fabric edges: pinning Utilities used:  Electricity  Gas  Steam Controlling points:  Fabric speed  Fabric width  Temperature  Overfeed % Checking parameters:  Shade Check  Width check  Weight check  Compaction check  Fault check : Operator checks -  Knitting faults  Spinning faults  Dyeing faults  Other faults Chemical used during finishing: For 250kg fabric: In 200ltr water  24kg FS(softener)  1.6kg EAS(silicon)  1.6kg PE40(silicon)  50gm acidic acid For 500kg fabric:  36kg FS(softener)  2.4 kg EAS(silicon)  2.4kg PE40(silicon)  75gm acidic acid For 1000kg fabric:  60kg FS(softener)  4 kg EAS(silicon)  4kg PE40(silicon)  130gm acidic acid
  66. 66. 66 | P a g e Procedure for Heat set for Lycra s/j fabric: GSM COLOR HEAT SET TEMP DELIVERY DIA OVER FEED SPEED m/min AFTER HEAT SET GSM LESS FROM REQUIRED GSM 240- 230 White & light 190O C +15% 40/18/25 20 185 20-25 Average 190O C +15% 40/18/25 20 180 20-25 R/black 190O C +15% 30/15/20 20 160 25 210- 220 White & ligh 180O C +15% 40/18/25 20 165 20-25 Average 180O C +15% 40/18/25 20 160 20-25 R/black 185O C +15% 30/15/20 20 140 25 190- 200 White & ligh 185O C +15% 40/18/25 20 150 20-25 Average 185O C +15% 40/18/25 20 145 20-25 R/black 185O C +15% 30/15/20 20 130 25 160- 170 White & ligh 185O C +15% 40/18/25 20 130 20-25 Average 185O C +15% 40/18/25 20 125 20-25 R/black 190O C +15% 30/15/20 20 120 25 150 White & ligh 190O C +15% 40/18/25 20 100 20-25 Average 190O C +15% 40/18/25 20 100 20-25 R/black 190O C +15% 30/15/20 20 100 25 Heat set for other fabrics: Lycra French terry: Temp: 190O C(depth color), 185O C (light color) Over feed: 40/18/25 GSM After heat set: 50-55 less Lycra viscose: Temp: 195O C Over feed: 40/18/25 Stretch: 40% Delivery dia: +32% to +37% Speed: 20m/min Lycra rib: Temp: 195O C Over feed: 40/18/25 Stretch: 35% Speed: 30m/min Rules for heat set fabric: 1. Temp constant(give in heat set process)
  67. 67. 67 | P a g e 2. Speed always constant 3. Over feed A. For white & average color i. Standard: 40/18/25 ii. Minimum: 30/15/20 iii. Maximum: 50/25/25 B. For black color iv. Standard: 30/15/20 v. Minimum: 20/12/18 vi. Maximum: 50/25/25 4. Stretch: i. Maximum: 35% to 40% ii. Minimum: 18% 5. After heat set fabric dia (delivery) i. Maximum: given in heat set procedure ii. Minimum: 14% of m/c dia 6. GSM i. White color: required GSM (less 50 to 55) ii. Average color: required GSM (less 60 to 65) iii. Black color: required GSM (less 75 to 80) Factor Consideration: Shrinkage control: -Shrinkage is controlled by proper over feeding. -To apply less or more over feed speed fabrics reduce along to length and increase along to width. Maximum 70 – 75% shrinkage is controlled by using it. GSM Control: -GSM is also controlled by applying proper over feeding speed. -If over feed is more then GSM is also more. -If Over feed speed is less then GSM is also is less. -If Dia is more then GSM of the fabric will less. -If Dia is less then the GSM of the fabric will more. N.B: If GSM of the fabric is OK then shrinkage is also OK. Dia Control: -Dia is controlled by dia controlling meter scale. -If any fault, GSM of the fabric is reduced then to increase the GSM of the fabric dia will have to be reduced (2 – 3) inch. -If Over feed speed is more then Dia of the fabric will be more. -If Over feed speed is less then Dia of the fabric will be less. -If length is more then width of the fabric is reduced.
  68. 68. 68 | P a g e -If length is less then width of the fabric is more. N.B: Fabric speed is controlled on the fabric dia. Here, Dia less or More fully depends on yarn count and buyer order. Dia is done less or more by using expander rod. Fabric Dia(Increase) Single jersey 1.5 – 2 ) inch +. Rib fabric 2 – 2.5 inch +. Interlock 3 – 3.5 inch +. Pique 3 – 3.5 inch +. Over feed: -GSM Control. -Shrinkage Control. -Dia Control. Depends on Dia: Fabric Over Feed Speed(m/min) Lycra 30 – 35 1×1 Rib 28 – 30 Single jersey 26 – 27 2×2 Lycra rib 23 – 24 Lacoste 23 – 24 Normal over feed speed 22/23/24/25
  69. 69. 69 | P a g e CHAPTER-6 Garments section Introduction Bangladesh is one of the leading readymade garments exporters of the world. Every year Bangladesh exports more than one third of the total garments requirement of the RMG market of the world. Every year Bangladesh earns more than 76% of its foreign currency from this sector. That is way the study of garments technology does deserve well practical practice. So our university provides 6 weeks industrial training in a RMG factory. The industrial attachment is the process, which builds understanding, skills and attitude of the performer, which improves his knowledge in boosting productivity and services. University education provides us vast theoretical knowledge as well as more practical attachment, in despite of all these industrial attachment helps us to be familiar with technical support of modern machinery, skill ness about various processing stages. It also provides us sufficient practical knowledge about production management, work study, efficiency, industrial management, purchasing, utility and maintenance of machinery and their operation techniques etc. the above mentioned cannot be achieved successfully by means of theoretical knowledge only. This is why it should be accomplished with practical knowledge in which it is based on. Industrial attachment makes us reliable to be accustomed with the industrial atmosphere and improve courage and inspiration to take self responsibility. As a student of Garments Manufacturing Technology we have got an opportunity to complete this training in Micro Fibre Ltd. The vision the Garment Division is to become the preferred partner for sourcing high quality value added garments from Bangladesh. Sample Section Introduction:
  70. 70. 70 | P a g e Sample section is the important section in Micro Fibre Ltd. Here all types of sample are developed. Sometime developing section help to develop a new type of sample. Here the operator and the managerial level are very much efficient than the other section. Here the operator is selected according to their work efficiency and also the experience. Skilled operator is allowed to work in this section. Because sample must has to be unique and the best quality, out looking also be very good. Without a skilled setup this is impossible. It is seen that an operator can make a whole garment. In the floor level one operator always to his/her job with one component all the time, for this to make that portion that operator need less time. But in sample section time required to make a garment, one operator need much more time than the floor level operator. This section must involve with the merchandising section. According to the buyer requirement on the basis of art work and the measurement list given by the buyer an operator can make a whole garment. If an operator cannot understand the technical term in the technical sheet, he/ she must consult with the manager/asst. Manager/ co-coordinator. Here the sewing machine sequence is not maintained. As per requirement operator can change the machine if that is available to use. There is a table for checking the ready sample before it sends to the merchandising section. Process Sequence: The pieces of the garment supply from the pattern section Pieces are sewn by the skilled operator. Attach the button as required Iron the garment Send to the merchandiser The Topic I was familiar with:  Types of machine.  Types of operation  Types of fabric  Measurement  Checking Procedure
  71. 71. 71 | P a g e  Types of print Types of machine:  Rib Cutter For Neck  Plain Machine  Over Lock Machine  Flat Bed Machine  Cylinder Bed Machine  Button Hole Machine  Button Attaching Machine  Steam Iron Types of Fabric:  Single jersey  Single jersey lycra  11 Rib  22 Rib  Verigated Rib  Interlock  Pique Polo IE (Industrial Engineering) INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING: T he main function of this department is to re-engineering the garments from the sampling stage so that it would be production friendly for the production as well helps to increase the productivity through machine layout, time and motion study. In the sewn problems industries we must continually ensure that we remain competitive and profitable whilst also striving to improve our personal and community's standard of living. Productivity improvements may be achieved through: Industrial Engineering Department:  To follow up the production process  Work process development  SMV calculation and line target
  72. 72. 72 | P a g e  Efficiency control  Time study  Capacity study  Workers training  M/C sequence lay out  Thread consumption  Operator interview Duties and Activities of a Work Study Officer:  Style details collect  SMV make  Layout make  Machine arrange  Attend P.P meeting  First week production plan  Line feeding  Work aid arrange  Method study and take video and record  Time study  Line capacity find out  Bottle neck operation find out  Individully follow up bottle neck operation and try to increase production  Capacity and efficiency wise target setting and try to achiving  Line balancing  Motivation the worker  Maximum time stay in production line and try to solve any kinds of production related problem  Monitoring the production achievement hourly and daily  Loss time record  Overally,try to increases the productivity. All work study techniques are classified into two main groups the specimen bellows by typical: METHOD STUDY ↓  Layout  Work flow  Machinery  Standardize method  Capital investment appraisal  Attachment  Sewing method specification
  73. 73. 73 | P a g e WORK MEASUREMENT ↓  Hourly targets  Production checks  Line balancing  Training curves  Maintain payment systems  Time standards Line balancing: Line balancing is the allocation of sewing m/c according to style and design of garments. It depends of that what type of garments we have produce. Objectives of line balancing:  Regular mtl flow  Maximum usage of man power and m/c capacity  Minimum process times  Minimizing workstations  Maximum outputs at the desired timed  Agreed quality maintenance of the garments CAD Section Introduction: In Echo Tex Ltd. Auto CAD (Computer Aided Design) is an important section. Here all the consumption is done. With the measurement of the different parts of a garment by the help of CAD system software pattern & marker can cut or make. Here with the combination of the parts of a garment efficient marker can make for cutting purpose. By creating grading from one size different size can create by the software. CAD System Software: Two systems are available 1. Lectra System, made in France 2. Garber System, made in USA Machines in CAD section: Purpose Machine Name Quantity Marker make Garber plotter (Width=72 inch) 1
  74. 74. 74 | P a g e Process Sequence: CAD section Pattern for a specific garment or manually sketch the different parts in the computer Keep those separately on digitizer board (for pattern) With the help of sensor system input the actual measurement of those parts Resize and give a shape for marker Grading Efficient format for making the marker Make marker with the help of Lectra or Garber system Efficiency Measure: Formula: Total marker efficiency = Area of pattern in the marker plan  100% Total area of the marker plan Efficiency (usually get) For Tank top - 75% For trouser - 78% For t shirt - 85% For polo shirt - 85% N.B.: If a garment consist smaller parts then there efficiency is higher than the larger parts of a garment.
  75. 75. 75 | P a g e Cutting Section Introduction: Cutting section is the most important and risky section in garment industry. For a little mistake full order may be cancelled. With the false measurement a big portion of garment may employed. With very care this section is handled. In Echo Tex Ltd. there consists 9 cutting table. From the CAD section marker comes out. For stripe & verigated rib fabric there is no marker use because if use the marker for stripe fabric, frequently don’t match the stripe of one side to the other. This is a buyer requirement to match the stripe. Manually the stripe fabric is spreader out on the cutting table. Only marker is used for the solid dyed fabric. Normally big marker length is 5.5 yards & thickness of lay is 4 inch. Straight Knife Cutting Machine: In Echo Tex Ltd. all the fabric is cut down with the Straight Knife Cutting Machine by the help of skilled operator. Here use a blade which is very sharp and change this on the basis of fabric quantity & composition, normally in every after 4 days. Here, in the below give a short description on this machine:
  76. 76. 76 | P a g e Fig: Straight Knife Cutting Machine (Km Cloth Cutting Machine) Machine Parts :  Base plate  Terminal Block  Plug  Crosshead Assay  Clamp Washer  Knife Clamp Stud  Presser Foot  Blade  Sharpener Pulley  S/Pulley – Right  Pulley Spring  On/Off Switch  Lift Handle
  77. 77. 77 | P a g e Fig: Straight Knife Cutting Machine Machine name: K.M. Company cloth cutting Machine Model : KM KS-AUV Producer : Made By K.M. Cutting Machine Co, JAPAN Price : US $189.00 Type : Heavy Duty Industrial Cloth Cutting Machine Self Sharpening. Dimension : 8" W x 11" L x 24" H (weight 33.5Lb) Current : A. C (3.3/2.6 amps) Speed : 3000/ 3600 Fig: Main Motor Portion Fig: Blade Portion
  78. 78. 78 | P a g e Short Note: Machine power up, Motor run smooth and powerful. Blade moved as it should, The sharpening mechanism came down. Machine is very well made, looks like a top of the line product. Is has a very good appearance and seems to be working fine. Advantages:  As it is comparatively cheaper, easy moveable and maximum lay height could be cut, used extensively in garment industries.  Could cut fabric at more curved line than the round knife.  Cutting could be done for up to 10 inch depth of the lay.  Quick fabric cutting.  Components could be cut out directly from the fabric lay.  Grinding could be done during cutting.  Could be cut at any angle. Disadvantages:  Knife deflection may result due to heavy weight of the motor.  Higher the depth of the lay, higher will be the deflection.  Possibility of accident is higher. REQUIREMENTS FOR FABRIC CUTTING The following points must be fulfilled in fabric cutting: 1. Precision of fabric cutting: Fabric cutting should be done accurately as per exact dimension of the pattern pieces in the marker. Accurate cutting depends on methods of cutting and marker planning. If manual cutting method is used, then cutting accuracy depends on sharpness of knife, skill of operator, and attentiveness of operator. Computer controlled cutting and die cutting have their self cutting accuracy. 2. Consistent cutting: Whatever be the cutting method used for fabric lay cutting, it should be ensured that the shape of the cut components from top to bottom lay are of exact size and shape, otherwise the garments produced will be defective.
  79. 79. 79 | P a g e 3. Infused edge: During fabric cutting, the friction between the fabric and the blade produces temperature in the blade; the temperature may be up to 3000 C. If the fabric contains synthetic fibres e.g. nylon, polyester, acrylic or their blends, then fused edge may result in the fabric. As because most of those fibres melt at around 2500 C. Therefore, sticking of cut edge of fabric will increase the fabric wastage. Moreover, the fused edge after cooling will form hard bid, which will be a problem of irritation during use of garments. To avoid the problem of fused edge formation, the following steps may be taken: 1. Reduce the height of the lay; 2. Reduce the cutting speed; 3. Use anti-fusion paper in the lay at regular interval; 4. Lubricate the knife during cutting. 4. Supporting of the lay: Surface of the cutting table depends on methods of fabric cutting. The table surface should be capable to support the lay as well as to ensure that all the plies are cut at a time during fabric cutting. In Micro Fibre Ltd. the sequence of the operation in Cutting Section is as follows - FLOW SEQUENCE OF CUTTING Fabric inspection Fabric send to store Fabric received from store Marker making Fabric spreading Setting marker on the fabric lay
  80. 80. 80 | P a g e Fabric cutting Numbering Prepared the bundling card Bundling Quality inspection & front part- back part are fold together Store Fabric inspection 1. GSM Check 2. Dia Check 3. Fault Check 4. Point Calculation 5. Four point system calculation 6. Prepared fabric inspection report 7. Prepared weight sheet 8. Send to store (With Weight Sheet) Fabric received from store Marker making Marker paper not used Fabric spreading Before fabric laying a thin paper as like as marker that is marker size and thin paper size is same, then thin paper attach with spreading table by gum tape then spread the fabric according to marker size. Setting marker on the fabric lay Spread down the marker paper over the fabric lay with gum tape.
  81. 81. 81 | P a g e Fabric cutting Fabric lay is cut ting by straight knife cutting machine then separated cutting part. Numbering In this stage sticker is attached with all part of cutting part for shade matching. The sticker number maintains cutting number, size number, serial number. Prepared the bundling card Prepared bundling card according to fabric lay report this card maintain 1. Program No 2. Cutting No 3. Size No 4. Pies 5. Roll No Bundling In this stage all number parts are bundled according to serial number. Quality inspection &front part-back part are fold together Here all part are checked according to following fault 17. Oil spot 18. Dirty spot 19. crease mark 20. needle mark 21. foreign yarn 22. slub 23. contamination 24. hole Then same number of sticker are matched fold & bundled After Cutting store All bundles are put in the input rack then send to sewing section LIMITATIONS OF CUTTING SECTION 1. Input problem.
  82. 82. 82 | P a g e 2. Scissor man cuts the tubular fabric to spread randomly and send to cutting floor and then find out the desired fabric to lay on the table. 3. There is may be no group for any table 4. Quality inspection & front part & back part are fold together. The faulty body parts are rejected but the rest ok body is not match by the same batch. 5. Cutting quality man may not be trained 6. Check, Varigated rib fabric lay quantity may be excess. As a result reject percentage may be increased. 7. Fabric spreading 8. There is may be no identification number to the rest of the cutting piece of the lay 9. There is no individual marker man for any unit. 10. Three cutting man cuts the fabric according to the marker. 11. Four man working with numbering m/c to sort out the cut fabric. 12. Two man preparing the bundle cards by writing on a piece of fabric 13. In this stage four men bundled the parts according to serial number.
  83. 83. 83 | P a g e Sewing Section Introduction: Sewing section is the crowdest section in Micro Fibre Limited. All day long there machines are ruined according to the plan. From the cutting section the cutting parts of different garment has brought in sewing section to sew. First of all machine is set out according to requirement. In this chapter I will try to give some flow chart of the different garment item sewing along with the machine lay out plan. In sewing machine normally the following machine is used: 1. Plain Machine (S/N) 2. Double Needle Machine (D/N) 3. Overlock Machine (O/L) 4. Flat lock Machine (F/L) 5. Kanshai Machine 6. Button Hole Machine 7. Button join Machine 8. Rib Cutter Machine 9. Bartack Machine (B/T), etc.
  84. 84. 84 | P a g e  Sewing Procedure Flow Chart:- Input taken and sample arrange ↓ Cutting ↓ Store ↓ Cutting ↓ Sewing ↓ Store ↓ In line work ↓ Lay out submit ↓ PP meeting ↓ Label check ↓ Sewing start ↓ During sewing ↓ Out put ↓ Finishing ↓ Ship the Goods  Sewing Procedure:
  85. 85. 85 | P a g e Input Taken and Sample arrange-  Input taken will provide by planning department with ensure the shipment date, size, break-down according to manpower of that line and confirm the checklist sheet of store is ok.  As per input taken planner will provide sample from sample department.  AQC will select the PP sheet and other necessary papers in the mentioned style. Cutting:  Input man collects size-wise information from cutting section for giving the requisition in store for accessories (label, button, twill-tape etc.) Store:  From store it has to ensure all the accessories if the mentioned style is in the house.  As per requisition store will start to arrange the accessories.  One requisition is given for thread. Cutting:  Input man will collect the size-wise input by counting which is confirmed by cutting section.  Pre-work, printing, embroidery and other parts have to give by accurate check and counting as per input quantity which will taken by sewing input man. Sewing:  Input man put the input in rack by size-wise. Store:  Store will provide all the accessories as per requirement of the inputted quantity and input man take accessories by counting.  Thread will collect by the sewing input man from ground floor. In line work:  After getting all necessary things Supervisor will start paper layout and take necessary actions to avoid the problems which can be affected during pick production line.
  86. 86. 86 | P a g e Layout submits:  Before start the production, supervisor submit the layout sheet in IE and maintenance department. PP meeting:  Before starting the sewing in the line of the new style it has to be conduct pp meeting to avoid the missing of buyer comments or requirement. Label check:  AQC check the label against trim card and give the permission to start the sewing. Sewing start:  It is mentioned that sewing will start by size wish which quantity is large. During sewing:  Supervisor and line-chief doing the major job during the sewing.  They always try to solve the up-coming problem.  Maintain the hourly production with right quality. Output:  After doing all processes and quality check garments will stored in output table.  Reporter will collect the garments from output table.  After collecting the garments, reporter will count and delivery the goods in finishing section by size wise. Finishing  Finishing will ensure that the size wise quantity is ok as per order quantity.  If there any size missing or size wise breakdown not accurate as per order quantity they have to inform the respective production officer. Ship the Goods  As per order quantity finishing will complete Carton and make as final inspection.  After final inspection goods will delivery for shipment. WORK AIDS IN SEWING
  87. 87. 87 | P a g e Experiment has proved that operators spend about 20% of their total time for sewing and the rest 80% time is spent for fabric handling i.e. fabric folding, positioning, cut threads, bundle transferring, etc. Scientists invented some components to reduce the fabric handling time, which are called work aids in sewing. Functions of these components used as work aids:  To help the operators to work easily;  To improve the quality and productivity;  To improve the production. Guide, compensating foot, specialized pressure foot, stitching jig, rack guide, light, folder, etc. SEAM In sewing, a seam is the line where two or more layers of fabric are held together by stitching. In other words, the line of joining of fabrics is called seam. The arrangement of fabric ends at the seam line called seam type. PROPERTIES OF SEAM Properties of seam are assessed on the following two aspects: Appearance After sewing, the sewn area is observed for any defects, if present which affects outlook. Normally it is expected that there will be no defective view of stitches, seam pucker, or unsightly view. Performance Performance of a seam is assessed according to following criteria:  Seam Strength: Strength of a seam should be equal to or slightly less than the fabric strength.  Seam elasticity: Elasticity property of a seam should be equal to or greater than the fabric elasticity.  Durability: Durability of a seam equal to or greater than the durability of the fabric. Especially during wear and washing, the seam should not fail or damage due to frictional forces and tension.
  88. 88. 88 | P a g e  Security: During normal use of apparels, the seam should not fail due to simple reason. Confidence of normal stability of seam is the security of the seam. If the seam fails due to normal reason the situation might be unexpected.  Comfort ability: Apparels, during normal use should not create any irritation or problem to body and health as well.  Special property: If clothing has any special property like water proof, fire proof, chemical resistant, etc then in manufacturing this apparel the seam should be produced in such away that the seams have also such special property. TYPES OF SEAM Seam types in the apparel industry are used to categorize seams according to their structure. Each is classified by the abbreviated seam type (example: Superimposed Seam = SS). There are more than 100 types of seams and all those seams are grouped under 8 (eight) classes, called seam classes. Each seam class is useful for different construction methods. The seam classes are discussed below: Seam class- 1 (Super imposed seam) Seams under this class have a general characteristic and all the fabric ends are lying in one side of the seam. This type of seam is used for general sewing, trouser side seam etc. purposes. Seam class- 2 (Lapped seam) This class of seaming has the largest number of variations. A lapped seam is achieved with two or more pieces of fabric overlapping each other. LS commonly, but not always, have one ply of fabric fold under itself for a finished edge. Lapped seams are common when working with leather and sewing side seams on jeans and dress shirts. Fabric ends lie at both sides of the seam line. Seams under this class are very strong.
  89. 89. 89 | P a g e Seam class- 3 (Bound seam) The purpose of a bound seam is to finish an edge of a garment. A common example of this would be a neckline of a t-shirt. A bound seam is one piece of fabric encompassing the raw edge of another piece of fabric. There are 18 variations of a bound seam. Seams under this class are produced with at least two pieces of fabric. One piece of fabric bounds the open end of other piece of fabric. A B
  90. 90. 90 | P a g e Seam class- 4 (Flat seam) Flat seams are constructed by having two pieces of fabric meet precisely at their edges. A cover stitch is used to sew the two pieces of fabric together. This stitch has multiple needles and creates a stitch perpendicular to the seam line. This creates a flat seam which is commonly used on garments that fit closely to the body such as underwear. The purpose is to create a seam that will be flat throughout the duration of the garment life. Seams under this class are produced by keeping the fabric plies side by side i.e. without overlapping of plies of fabrics. Hence seams can be produced without increasing the thickness of the seam. Seam class- 5 (Decorative seam) Seams under this class are produced only for decoration purpose with single piece or multi-pieces of fabrics.
  91. 91. 91 | P a g e Seam class- 6 (Edge neatening) Seams under this class are produced in such a way so that the fabric ends from cut area can not come out during use. Over lock sewing is frequently used for this purpose. Seam Class- 7 These are sometimes called applied seams because they are mainly used to apply a decorative material to an edge of seam, such as the lace ending on a nightdress sleeve. Seam class- 8 Constructed from one ply of fabric only, this class is commonly used for belt loops and waist belt.
  92. 92. 92 | P a g e STITCH Stitch may refer to: A method of securing thread into textiles in embroidery and sewing or creating fabrics in knitting. It may also be a method of medical care to close wounds known as sutures or stitches. In garments technology, loop or loops of one or more threads when bind with each other either by interlacing or inter-looping or by combination of these two and perform sewing, then each unit of such configuration is called stitch. Interlacing: When one thread passes over another thread to perform sewing, then such binding is called interlacing. Interloping: When a loop of one thread passes through a loop of another thread to perform sewing, then such binding is called inter-looping.
  93. 93. 93 | P a g e Intra-loping: When a loop of a thread passes through another loop of the same thread to perform sewing, then the binding is called intra-looping. STITCH TYPE Seam and stitch are inter-related because without seam, stitch can not be produced and seam can not be produced without stitch. There are about seventy (70) types of stitch can be seen but among them 18 to 20 types of stitch are used in garments manufacturing industries. In tailoring purposes there are only two to three types of stitch are used. All stitches are classed in six (6) groups: Stitch class – 100 (Single thread chain stitch) Stitches under this class are produced with single thread by intra-looping technique. All the stitches under this class are unsecured and used for temporary purposes. Starting and finishing end of the stitch under this class needs bar taking or back stitching to secure the stitches. Most common uses in blind stitching, hemming, button attaching, button holing, gathering, temporary positioning of garment components, etc. purposes. Stitch class – 200 (Hand stitch) Stitches under this class are also produced with single thread but by the use of special type of sewing machine. Stitch class – 200 can not be produced for longer length sewing. This class
  94. 94. 94 | P a g e of stitches is used very rarely in the Ready Made Garments (RMG) sector as because they are very expensive to produce. They are used mainly for coat manufacturing. Stitch type – 209 is shown in diagram which is used in the lapel area. Stitch class – 300 (Lock stitch) Stitches under this class are produced by interlacing technique with two threads. The upper thread is called needle thread and the lower one is called bobbin thread. Stitch type – 301 is shown in diagram which is extensively used in domestic sewing machine, tailoring sewing machine, RMG sector sewing machine, for general sewing for attaching pocket, collar, cuff, etc components. Stitches under this class are naturally secured and shows good frictional resistance property. Its extensibility is about 30%, hence used extensively in Ready Made Woven Garments products. Stitch class – 400 (Multi thread chain stitch) Stitch class – 400 is produced by interlacing and interloping technique. The upper thread is called the needle thread and the lower one is called looper thread. Stitch class – 400 is stronger than stitch class – 300, hence used for joining heavy fabrics, side seam of trouser, etc purposes.

×