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  1. 1. Suburbanization --Suburbanization -- AP HumanAP Human GeographyGeography Patricia GoberPatricia Gober Department of GeographyDepartment of Geography Arizona State UniversityArizona State University Greg SherwinGreg Sherwin AP Human Geography TeacherAP Human Geography Teacher Adlai E. Stevenson High SchoolAdlai E. Stevenson High School
  2. 2. Definition of SuburbanizationDefinition of Suburbanization  Movement of upper and middle-classMovement of upper and middle-class people from core areas to surroundingpeople from core areas to surrounding outskirts. The process began in theoutskirts. The process began in the mid-nineteenth century but became amid-nineteenth century but became a mass phenomenon in the late-twentiethmass phenomenon in the late-twentieth century.century.
  3. 3. The U. S. suburban population grew fromThe U. S. suburban population grew from 26.7% in 1950 to 49.8% in 2000.26.7% in 1950 to 49.8% in 2000. 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 years Inmillionsofpeople 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 central cities suburbs nonmetro Pop. in Cities, Suburbs, and Nonmetro Areas 1950 to 2000
  4. 4. ClevelandCleveland’s changing density’s changing density
  5. 5. Suburbanization = sprawlSuburbanization = sprawl
  6. 6. Density changes in citiesDensity changes in cities 1990s
  7. 7. Chicago-Realms/Edge CitiesChicago-Realms/Edge Cities
  8. 8. SuburbanizationSuburbanization  Post-War suburbanization represents aPost-War suburbanization represents a huge change in the distribution of thehuge change in the distribution of the nationnation’s population.’s population.  It has important consequences for howIt has important consequences for how society uses its land resource.society uses its land resource.
  9. 9. Surburbanization is a land-Surburbanization is a land- hungry process (sprawl).hungry process (sprawl).
  10. 10. Suburbanization as a massSuburbanization as a mass phenomenon after 1950.phenomenon after 1950.
  11. 11. Phoenix grew by 1 millionPhoenix grew by 1 million between 1990 and 2000.between 1990 and 2000.
  12. 12. ChicagoChicago’s Development-1900’s Development-1900
  13. 13. ChicagoChicago’s Development-1950’s Development-1950
  14. 14. ChicagoChicago’s Development-1998’s Development-1998
  15. 15. Changes in ChicagolandChanges in Chicagoland  Population of Chicago peaks in 1950 at 3.7Population of Chicago peaks in 1950 at 3.7 millionmillion  1970: 48% of population lives in city; 60% of1970: 48% of population lives in city; 60% of all available jobsall available jobs  1990: 38% of pop and 37% of jobs1990: 38% of pop and 37% of jobs  Chicago left with economics, social andChicago left with economics, social and political problemspolitical problems  Suburban service businesses have problemsSuburban service businesses have problems too!too!
  16. 16. Families of influence and affluence moved further and further away from city centers, leaving lower-income populations behind. Without a healthy property tax base, city schools become underfunded. This pattern follows racial as well as economic lines. -Erik Howenstein, Northeastern Illinois University
  17. 17. ChicagoChicago’s problems’s problems Results in cities:  Poverty; deterioration  higher taxes  Those left in city can’t afford suburbs or kept out  Blockbusting; redlining  Public transportation
  18. 18. Why suburbs?Why suburbs?  TransportationTransportation  Housing productionHousing production  Landscape preferenceLandscape preference  Social and demographic trendsSocial and demographic trends
  19. 19. TransportationTransportation  Freeways and transport corridors increasedFreeways and transport corridors increased accessibility of the suburbs.accessibility of the suburbs.  Federal Highway Act of 1956: one of the mostFederal Highway Act of 1956: one of the most important government action in the 20thimportant government action in the 20th centurycentury  32 billion and 40,000 miles across USA32 billion and 40,000 miles across USA  ““The amount of concrete poured to form theseThe amount of concrete poured to form these roadways would build six sidewalks to the moon”roadways would build six sidewalks to the moon” IKE…but what was the original intent?IKE…but what was the original intent?
  20. 20. 4 stages of urban4 stages of urban transportation developmenttransportation development
  21. 21. TransportationTransportation •Freeways opened up large areas ofFreeways opened up large areas of cheap land for development of low-costcheap land for development of low-cost housing by developershousing by developers
  22. 22. Transportation againTransportation again • Cars became more affordable, greaterCars became more affordable, greater availability/access…shift from war to peaceavailability/access…shift from war to peace time productiontime production • 58 million cars sold in the 50s58 million cars sold in the 50s • -drive-thrus-drive-thrus • -curb-side service-curb-side service
  23. 23. Mass production of housing-Mass production of housing- housing supply issueshousing supply issues  Housing was produced by large developers on largeHousing was produced by large developers on large tracts of cheap land. 70% of new homes weretracts of cheap land. 70% of new homes were constructed by 10% of builders.constructed by 10% of builders.  Mass produced styles made housing cheaper andMass produced styles made housing cheaper and more affordable. (Levittowns)more affordable. (Levittowns)  Post-war mortgage programs. FHA (1934) and GI BillPost-war mortgage programs. FHA (1934) and GI Bill of Rights loans guaranteed creditors security on theirof Rights loans guaranteed creditors security on their loans by reducing down payments and extendingloans by reducing down payments and extending repayment period.repayment period.  Homeownership increased from 43.6% in 1940 toHomeownership increased from 43.6% in 1940 to 65.5% in 2000.65.5% in 2000.
  24. 24. Mass production of housingMass production of housing  The moving van became the symbol of AmericanThe moving van became the symbol of American mobility in the 1950smobility in the 1950s  Affordability improved due to “methods”: prefab, assembled on site, division of labor into crews that cut labor costs, speed of production  Financing easier to obtain - quick system, plus federal guarantees  Loan programs that favored new construction not repairs/upgrades).
  25. 25. Landscape preferencesLandscape preferences  An anti-big city feeling: escape the built environment and its density, pollution, congestion: rural idyll is the opposite  Desire for large home size - ranch style design as indicative of expansionist mood  Desire for single family (nuclear)  Suburbs as seen in popular culture (e.g. images in the media, “the American Way”)  So, suburbs are portrayed in the 1950s media as theSo, suburbs are portrayed in the 1950s media as the ideal American lifestyle -- Leave it to Beaver andideal American lifestyle -- Leave it to Beaver and Father Knows Best.Father Knows Best.
  26. 26. American DreamAmerican Dream
  27. 27. Leave it to Beaver (1957-Leave it to Beaver (1957- 1964)1964) The Cleavers lived in the generic suburb of Mayfield.
  28. 28. Father Knows Best (1954-Father Knows Best (1954- 1962)1962) The Andersons lived in Springfield.
  29. 29. What are the residential preferencesWhat are the residential preferences in todayin today’s TV shows? (Geographers’s TV shows? (Geographers can predict the future)can predict the future)  2000 shows2000 shows  Friends – New York CityFriends – New York City  Will and Grace – New York CityWill and Grace – New York City  ER – ChicagoER – Chicago  Providence – ProvidenceProvidence – Providence  Ed, Gilmore Girls, Everwood – mythicalEd, Gilmore Girls, Everwood – mythical small town idealsmall town ideal
  30. 30. TV shows todayTV shows today  Gossip Girl – N.Y. cityGossip Girl – N.Y. city  Two and a Half Men –Malibu (Sprawl)Two and a Half Men –Malibu (Sprawl)  Modern Family - SuburbsModern Family - Suburbs  Blue Bloods -CityBlue Bloods -City
  31. 31. Social and demographicSocial and demographic trendstrends  High fertility of the baby boom era raised theHigh fertility of the baby boom era raised the demand for housing.demand for housing.  Large families demanded large homes.Large families demanded large homes.  The nuclear family replaced the extendedThe nuclear family replaced the extended family as the as the ideal.  Prevailing model of male breadwinner andPrevailing model of male breadwinner and women as homemakers. Suburban locationwomen as homemakers. Suburban location gave them home, garden, and automobile –gave them home, garden, and automobile – cult of domesticity.cult of domesticity.
  32. 32. Fertility peaks at 3.77 in 1957.Fertility peaks at 3.77 in 1957.
  33. 33. ConclusionsConclusions  Between 1950 and 2000, the U.S.Between 1950 and 2000, the U.S. became a suburban nation. 50% ofbecame a suburban nation. 50% of population lives in suburbs.population lives in suburbs.  Growth of suburbs reveals societalGrowth of suburbs reveals societal forces – transportation technology,forces – transportation technology, residential preferences, housing policy,residential preferences, housing policy, and demographic change.and demographic change.
  34. 34. Discussion QuestionsDiscussion Questions  What are the consequences of massWhat are the consequences of mass suburbanization for N. American society?suburbanization for N. American society?  Plight of central citiesPlight of central cities  Urban sprawlUrban sprawl  Social fragmentationSocial fragmentation  Local, state, and national politicsLocal, state, and national politics  Will the trend toward suburbanizationWill the trend toward suburbanization continue? Think about the forces thatcontinue? Think about the forces that created mass suburbanization. Will theycreated mass suburbanization. Will they continue?continue?