AP Human Geography: Unit 4: Political Geography - Part 1: Territoriality and Statehood

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This is a sample of Part one of my AP Human Geography: Unit 4 slideshow. The full slideshow can be purchased at http://www.teacherspayteachers.com/Store/Mr-Eiland

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  • Discussed more in an upcoming section.
  • Discussed more in an upcoming section.
  • AP Human Geography: Unit 4: Political Geography - Part 1: Territoriality and Statehood

    1. 1. AP® Human Geography Unit 4: Political Geography Part 1: An Introduction to Territory and Statehood Copyright © 2014 - All rights reserved - Daniel L. Eiland AP and Advanced Placement are registered trademarks of the College Entrance Examination Board which was not involved in the production of and does not endorse this presentation.
    2. 2. Overview Unit 4 An Introduction to Territory and Statehood Borders, Geopolitics, and Internal Governance
    3. 3. Part 1: An Introduction to Territory and Statehood
    4. 4. Sections Territory and Sovereignty States, Nations, and Nations States Modern Challenges to the State Colonialism
    5. 5. How does where you are from and where you live identify who you are?
    6. 6. What is Political Geography?
    7. 7. Political Geography is the study of the relationship between people, political units, and territory at various scales.
    8. 8. Predict: How does scale manifest itself in Political Geography?
    9. 9. Supranational Scale– Geographers study organizations that include many countries such as the European Union.
    10. 10. Country Scale– Geographers study how a country’s government is organized and interacts with it’s people.
    11. 11. Local Scale– Geographers study how a country geographically distributes power to it’s people; such as establishing voting districts.
    12. 12. Section A: Territory, Sovereignty, Legitimacy
    13. 13. What is territoriality?
    14. 14. Territoriality is the effort to control pieces of the earth’s surface for personal, political, or social ends.
    15. 15. Discuss: Why could it be said that territory is the most basic form of power?
    16. 16. What are examples of territoriality?
    17. 17. Personal Space – Areas we claim as our own psychological territory.
    18. 18. Owned Space– Areas we claim as our territory because of personal ownership.
    19. 19. Political Space– Areas we claim as our territory because of political ownership.
    20. 20. What do governments need to control territory?
    21. 21. Sovereignty Legitimacy The power that a government has to control its own territory. Recognition of that power by other countries.
    22. 22. Some countries exercise sovereignty in ways others don’t like but are still considered legitimate.
    23. 23. Some countries are considered legitimate by some and not by others.
    24. 24. Countries are considered to be internally legitimate when their people allow the government to rule.
    25. 25. Debate: Does any state (country) have complete sovereignty?
    26. 26. Section B: States, Nations, Nation-States
    27. 27. What is a state?
    28. 28. A Permanent Population Sovereign territory Legitimacy by other States An effective government and working economy A State is a political unit with:
    29. 29. History of the State
    30. 30. What did ancient political systems look like?
    31. 31. Up until the 1500s most political power was contained in large, borderless empires, city- states, tribal systems and feudal areas.
    32. 32. The first example of true states were ancient city-states in Mesopotamia like Sparta in Greece.
    33. 33. Large, land-based empires were common in South America and in Asia.
    34. 34. Much of Africa and North America were controlled by individual tribal groups.
    35. 35. Much of Europe was comprised of Feudal or Monarchial empires.
    36. 36. What caused the rise of the modern state?
    37. 37. The Westphalian State System In 1648, the Peace of Westphalia, a number of treaties signed by many European states, established what we know of as the modern “state system” defined by sovereign states with specific borders instead of Empires. Before that, a territory was defined by a society, afterwards, a territory defined the society.
    38. 38. The rise of nationalism changed the attitudes of citizens towards what constituted the state.
    39. 39. The European Impact on the non-European world helped shaped how states formed world-wide.
    40. 40. The overthrow of colonial powers, called decolonization, has created more states than any other reason.
    41. 41. A shared cultural heritage or belief. Loyalty towards one another and to the nation as a whole. A distinct homeland (even if everyone is not living there) Self-Determination, or the ability or desire to form their own sovereign state. A Nation is a group of people with:
    42. 42. Discuss: What is the difference between a state and a nation?
    43. 43. How do nations and states interact?
    44. 44. Multinational States
    45. 45. A multinational state is a state that includes more than one nation within its borders.
    46. 46. The Russian Federation is the largest multinational state in the world.
    47. 47. Canada is a multinational state with at least two nations; French-Canadians and English-Canadians.
    48. 48. The Nation-State
    49. 49. A nation-state is a state with primarily only one nation within its borders.
    50. 50. Iceland is one of the best examples of a nation-state where only 6.66% of the population are of a different nationality.
    51. 51. Discuss: Why would a nation-state be considered the most cohesive type of state?
    52. 52. The Stateless Nation
    53. 53. A stateless nation is a nation that has no territory of its own but whom it is implied should.
    54. 54. The Kurdish people are a stateless nation that live in contiguous areas of Iran, Iraq, Syria, and Turkey.
    55. 55. Many Kurds advocate for the establishment of their own state to be created from the parts of the other states that they live in. This is also known as irredentism.
    56. 56. For centuries, the Jewish people were a stateless nation that was scattered throughout the world. This diaspora of people retained their national identity, even though separated across multiple countries.
    57. 57. Buffer States and Zones
    58. 58. A buffer state is a state located between two larger conflicting countries.
    59. 59. Mongolia acts as a buffer state between Russia and China who have had border conflicts for centuries.
    60. 60. Eastern Europe acted as a buffer zone between the Soviet Union and Western Europe after WWII
    61. 61. Satellite States
    62. 62. A satellite state is a state that is formally independent but under heavy military, economic, and political control by another.
    63. 63. Poland was a satellite state of the USSR until the iron curtain fell in the 1990s.
    64. 64. Shatterbelts
    65. 65. A shatterbelt is a state or group of states that are influenced by other larger competing states. They are often culturally, economically, and politically fragmented.
    66. 66. Southeast Asia lies between the powerful states of India and China. These smaller states experience much turmoil when the two larger states are aggressive.
    67. 67. Section C: Modern Challenges to the State
    68. 68. Discuss: How can a state help maintain unity within itself? What are some things that could tear a state apart?
    69. 69. What are centripetal and centrifugal forces?
    70. 70. Centripetal Forces • Forces that unify states. Centrifugal Forces • Forces that fragment states.
    71. 71. Unifying institutions such as compulsory education, holidays, and military service all help promote nationalism – a key centripetal force.
    72. 72. Strong transportation and communication systems such as roads, phone systems, banking networks, and rail systems can integrate the state as centripetal forces.
    73. 73. Ethno-regionalism, or when a minority nation exists within a state region without control, can result in turmoil in a state and often acts as a strong centrifugal force.
    74. 74. Economic difficulties, such as hyperinflation or depression can also act as a centrifugal force.
    75. 75. Challenge: What are some other centripetal and centrifugal forces?
    76. 76. How does a state deal with strong centrifugal forces?
    77. 77. Some states transfer power from the central government to different regions of the country. This is called devolution.
    78. 78. Mikhail Gorbachev, the last leader of the Soviet Union, ceded power from the USSR to individual states such as Latvia, the Ukraine, and others.
    79. 79. Section D: Colonialism
    80. 80. What is colonialism?
    81. 81. Colonialism is the practice of establishing political dominance over a people outside of your state for economic, political, and territorial gain.
    82. 82. Prior Knowledge: List as many historical colonies as you can. What happened to these colonies?
    83. 83. Why did Europeans colonize?
    84. 84. Some colonized for wealth. Wealth came in the form of resources, land, labor and trade.
    85. 85. Some colonized for religion - seeking to make converts and establish missions, or escape because of persecution.
    86. 86. Some colonized for glory – expanding their powerbase and bringing fame and control to their state.
    87. 87. The Age of Discovery
    88. 88. The Age of Discovery, also known as the first wave of European colonization, lasted from the early 15th century until the early 19th century. It included the colonization of North and South America as well as India and Southeast Asia.
    89. 89. Africa was generally only used as a place to establish trading posts, especially for the slave-trade to maintain the triangle trade route.
    90. 90. Most North and South American colonies had gained their independence by the early 19th century and ended the Age of Discovery. Americas Independence Map
    91. 91. Imagine: You are a British Citizen after losing the North American colonies. How do you feel?
    92. 92. New Imperialism
    93. 93. What is imperialism?
    94. 94. Imperialism is the policy of extending a country’s influence through diplomacy or military force to areas already developed by an indigenous society.
    95. 95. New Imperialism was the movement by European countries in the mid 19th to early 20th century to colonize South and Central Asia, Africa, and Polynesia.
    96. 96. What was the Scramble for Africa?
    97. 97. The Scramble for Africa was the process of invasion, occupation, colonization and annexation of African territory by European powers in the late 19th century.
    98. 98. Reasons for the Scramble for Africa 1. A renewed interest in exploration by the European Powers. 2. New technology such as the steam engine allowed for easier travel and medical advances made it safer. 3. The Industrial Revolution called for even greater resources – which were found in inner-Africa. 4. A greater work-force and military force could be had via the population of Africa. 5. More land made European Countries feel more powerful in comparison to their neighbors.
    99. 99. France (36%) Great Britain (32%) German (8%) Belgian (8%) Portuguese (7%) Italian (5%) Independent and Other (4%) Who owned what in Africa?
    100. 100. After World War I, Germany was stripped of its colonies, and after World War II, most other countries could not afford to maintain theirs. This caused the end of direct colonization.
    101. 101. What were the effects of New Imperialism?
    102. 102. Borders established by European powers were left as they were – not based on cultural groupings but based on resource availability.
    103. 103. A result of the mixing of national groups in a now independent state was often great tension and ethnonational conflicts such as in Sudan.
    104. 104. Many colonies were left with inadequate finances or infrastructure and were forced to rely on their former colonizers for financial support – this is also called neocolonialism.
    105. 105. Dependency Theory argues that the reason that many periphery countries are poor is that they have become dependent on the powers that colonized them.
    106. 106. End of Unit 4: Part 1

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