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  1. 1. Human GeographyUnit 5: Agriculture
  2. 2. What are the four sectors of economic activity?
  3. 3. Primary Sector Secondary SectorTertiary Sector Quaternary Sector
  4. 4. What sector does the President of the United States work in?
  5. 5. The Size of SectorsCountry Primary Secondary TertiaryChina 38% 46.9% 43%Iran 25% 31% 45%Mexico 13.7% 23.4% 62.9%Nigeria 70% 10% 20%Russia 10% 31.9% 58.1%United Kingdom 1.4% 18.2% 80.4%United States .7% 20.3% 79% What assumptions can be made from this graph?
  6. 6. What is agriculture?
  7. 7. Agriculture is the deliberatetending of crops and livestock in order to produce food and fiber.
  8. 8. The History of Agriculture
  9. 9. Hunters and Second Agricultural Gatherers Revolution (1600s) First Agricultural Third Agricultural Revolution(8000BCE) Revolution (Later 20th Century)
  10. 10. Hunters and Gatherers• Followed game and seasonal plants.• Left little imprint on the land.• Two Major Migrations: – Eastern Africa to Australia, the Middle East, Europe, and Asia – Asia across the land bridge to the Americas
  11. 11. The Neolithic Revolution
  12. 12. What is the Neolithic revolution?
  13. 13. The Neolithic Revolution was the drastic changes thatoccurred when people began to cultivate crops and domesticate animals.
  14. 14. Increase in Reliable Food Supply Rapid Increase in Human Population The Neolithic Revolution A divide between Job nomads and Specializationsettled people Larger Gender Differences (Patriarchal)
  15. 15. What is the difference between seed planting and vegetative planting?
  16. 16. Seed planting is theproduction of plants throughthe planting of seeds wherevegetative planting is wherenew plants are created from existing plants.
  17. 17. Vegetative Planting
  18. 18. Origin and Diffusion of Vegetative PlantingVegetative planting probably started in Southeast Asia withcrops such as the Taro and Yam as well as the banana andpalm. The first domesticated animals were dogs, pigs, andchickens.
  19. 19. Origin and Diffusion of Vegetative PlantingOther hearths were West Africa and South America.
  20. 20. Why would vegetative planting happen before seed planting?
  21. 21. Seed Planting
  22. 22. What caused seed planting to become more available?
  23. 23. Irrigation
  24. 24. Plowing
  25. 25. Fencing
  26. 26. Terraced Farming
  27. 27. Fertilizing
  28. 28. Origin and Diffusion of Seed Agriculture Northern China Western India (Millet) Eastern Hemisphere Ethiopia Southwest Asia(Millet and Sorghum (Rice)
  29. 29. Origin and Diffusion of Seed AgricultureSouthwest Northwest Europe Asia Africa
  30. 30. Origin and Diffusion of Seed Agriculture Northern Peru Southern Mexico(Squash, Beans, Cotton) (Squash, Maize, Potatoes) Western Hemisphere
  31. 31. What is the Columbian Exchange?
  32. 32. The Columbian Exchange iswhen products began to be exchanged between the western and eastern hemispheres.
  33. 33. What is an example of where a crop in the western hemisphere became important in the eastern hemisphere?
  34. 34. The Second Agricultural Revolution
  35. 35. What is the Second Agricultural Revolution?
  36. 36. The Second AgriculturalRevolution began in Western Europe in the 1600s. It intensified agriculture and promoted higher yield per acre.
  37. 37. What were some innovations seen during the Second Agricultural Revolution?
  38. 38. Crop Enclosure RotationJethro Tull’s Industrial Seed Drill Revolution Fertilizers, W eedRefrigeration Killers, Pestic ides
  39. 39. Major Agricultural Production Regions
  40. 40. What are the differences between subsistence and commercial agriculture?
  41. 41. Subsistence Agriculture is most prevelant in LDCs and produces no surplus.Commercial Agriculture is theproduction of surpluses with the intention to sell.
  42. 42. DifferencesSubsistence Commercial Small Farm Size Huge Farm Sizes Use Mechanized Use Hand Tools ToolsHigher percentage Low percentage of of farmers. farmers.
  43. 43. Subsistence Farming: Subregions
  44. 44. Yields Large Amounts of Output Per Acre Found in LargeLabor Intensive: Intensive Population Large number Concentrations: of people, low Subsistence East and South capital Asia Dominated by Wet or Lowland Rice
  45. 45. “Slash and Burn” Agriculture Major Crops: Found in Rain Forest Zones: Central and SouthMillet, Sorghum, Rice, Manioc, Sweet America, West Africa, Eastern and Central Asia, Southern Potatoes, Yams, Beans China, Southeast Asia Shifting Cultivation Involves farming large plots of land Involves Intertillage: Growing Various until nutrients are depleted and then Types of Crops moving on.
  46. 46. Nomadism: The practice of moving frequently from one place to anotherSheep, Goats, Camels, Cattle, Horses, Yaks Pastoral Herders follow their herds from pasture to pasture. Nomadism Central Eurasia, Arabian Peninsula, Sudan, North Scandanavia
  47. 47. IntensiveSubsistenceAgriculture Extensive Subsistence Agriculture
  48. 48. Commercial Agriculture: Subregions
  49. 49. Most Common Form in the US east of Appalachians Most Mixed Farmers growpractice Crop and crops and raise livestock Crop Livestock on the sameRotation land Farming Most money comes from the sale of animal products.
  50. 50. Located in areas outside of urban locations. Dairy Farming Labor ProduceIntensive Milk, Butter and CheeseExpensive
  51. 51. What is a milkshed?
  52. 52. A Milkshed is the ring of milkproduction that surrounds a major city.
  53. 53. Cincinnati Milkshed
  54. 54. Production is largely mechanized Grain Farming Labor is US produces concentrated the mostin planting and harvesting grain in the times. world.
  55. 55. Grain Farming LocationsThe United States: Winter Wheat• Kansas, Colorado, Oklahoma• Planted in the Autumn, Ripens in the SummerThe United States: Spring Wheat• Palouse Region of Washington, the Dakotas and Montana• Winters too severe for Winter WheatOther Countries• Canada, Australia, Argentina, France, and the United Kingdom
  56. 56. Def: The commercial grazing of livestock over an extensive area. Livestock Ranching Includes much of the Western Often practiced US, and the in arid or semi-Pampas (prairie) arid regions of Argentina
  57. 57. Def: Agriculture located on Western coasts, with mild winters and dry summers. Mediterranean Agriculture Grown through horticultureOlives, Grapes, Fr (growing of uits, Vegetables fruits, vegetables and flowers)
  58. 58. Def: Agriculture that relies on heavy equipment to grow bulk amounts of fruit and vegetables CommercialApples, Asparagus, Cherries, Lettuce, Mushrooms, Tomatoes, et Gardening Also known as “truck farming” because truck means to barter. c. and Fruit Farming Located in Southeast US
  59. 59. Def: Large farms that specialize in one or two crops.Cotton, Sugarcane, Tobacco, Coffee, Rubber Plantation Found in Latin America, Africa, and Asia Farming Called “Cash Crops” because they make money for their owners.
  60. 60. Rural Land Use and Settlement Patterns
  61. 61. What is a land-use model?
  62. 62. A Land Use Model shows thedifferent ways that people use the land that is available to them.
  63. 63. What is Von Thunen’s Model?
  64. 64. Von Thunen’s Model demonstrated the way that rural land use changed as aperson moved outward from the center of a city area.
  65. 65. Central City1. Market Gardeningand Dairy2. Forest3. Field Crops4. Animal Grazing
  66. 66. Market Gardening and Dairy• Nearest the town, farmers raised perishable products such as garden vegetables and milk.Forest• Towns from Von Thunen’s Day were surrounded by a ring of trees used for construction.Field Crops• Crops that are less perishable.Animal Grazing• Required a lot of space.Outside of these rings:• Transporation costs became to high for profitability.
  67. 67. Flat Terrain Thunen’s Model Assumed No significant barriers to Uniform Soiltransportation
  68. 68. Long Term Observations of Thunen’s Model• His model is still applicable to Organic Food Growth.• His model is applicable for understanding Broad Patterns of rural land use. – Farmers in areas away from major markets are less likely to grow perishable items.
  69. 69. Patterns of Settlements
  70. 70. Rural Settlement Patterns:• Dispersed Settlement: Individuals living in farms that lie far apart from one another.• Nucleated Settlement: Villages located close together with relatively small agricultural fields. – Hamlets: Small clusters of buildings – Villages: Slightly Larger buildings.
  71. 71. WoodWattle Brick Building Materials Grass and Stone Bush
  72. 72. Village Types
  73. 73. Land Ownership and Survey Techniques
  74. 74. Primogeniture• A practice where all land falls to the eldest son.• This results in land parcels that are large and controlled individually.Rectangular Survey System• Used in the US to encourage settlers to disperse evenly across the Midwest.Metes and Bounds System• Natural Features are used to mark irregular parcels of land.• Used on the US East CoastLong-Lot Survey System• Divides land into narrow parcels that extend from rivers, roads or canals.• One example are plantation plots of old Southern plantations.
  75. 75. Commercial Agriculture
  76. 76. HistoryModern commercial agriculture throughmercantillism.Mercantillism: Private companies were givencharters by the crown to conduct trade.
  77. 77. The Third Agricultural Revolution• Began in the late 20th century.• Characterized by the industrialization of agriculture, biotechnology, and the Green Revolution.
  78. 78. What is a the green revolution?
  79. 79. The Green Revolutioninvolved the practice of using higher yield seeds andexpanded use of fertilizers to increase production.
  80. 80. Praise• Agriculture now outpaces population.• Nitrogen-based fertilizers increase farm productivity.• Scientists continue to invent new food sources.• Higher productivity reduces dependency on imports in places such as China and India• New Irrigation have increased crop yields.• Agribusiness has increased the productivity of cash crops
  81. 81. Criticism• Poor countries cannot afford the machinery• Farmers in poor countries cannot afford the fertilizers – which also can lead to groundwater pollution.• Many fishing areas are over-fished.• In Sub-Saharan Africa, population is still growing faster than food.• Irrigation has led to serious groundwater depletion.• Agribusiness means that land is devoted to raising one crop.
  82. 82. ErosionChemicals Changes inin ground Water Impacts the Soil Content Depletion of Natural Vegetation
  83. 83. Expansion of Land Improved Future Increase inDistribution Productivity Food New Food Sources