AP Human Geography: Unit 6: Industrialization

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  • Have students identify which countries would fall into various stages.
  • Think of examples that might support this.
  • The core and semi-periphery gets cheap labor and raw materials from the periphery. The periphery and semi-periphery buy goods for high profit from the core.
  • AP Human Geography: Unit 6: Industrialization

    1. 1. Unit 6: Industrialization and Development 1
    2. 2. Key ConceptsIndustrialization Growth and and the Diffusion of Environment Industry Industrialization The Evolution of Global Economic Cores Inequalities and Peripheries Contemporary Patterns 2
    3. 3. Part One: Key Concepts 3
    4. 4. A) Introduction 4
    5. 5. What is economic geography? 5
    6. 6. Economic Geography studies the impact of economic activities on the landscape and investigates reasons behind the locations of economic activities. 6
    7. 7. Agriculture Others Industry Economic Geography Transport and InternationalCommunication Trade Resources 7
    8. 8. A Day in the LifeWhat might an average worker be doing on an average day in the Spring of 1553? 8
    9. 9. A Day in the LifeWhat might an average worker be doing on an average day in the Spring of 1893? 9
    10. 10. A Day in the LifeWhat might an average worker be doing on an average day in the Spring of 1973? 10
    11. 11. A Day in the LifeWhat might an average worker be doing on an average day in the Spring of 2012? 11
    12. 12. What is industrialization? 12
    13. 13. Industrialization is theprocess by which economic activities evolved fromproducing primary goods tofactories that mass-produce goods. 13
    14. 14. Agriculture Primary Economic Activity VS.Secondary Economic Activity Industry 14
    15. 15. Primary Secondary Tertiary Quaternary Sector Sector Sector Sector 15
    16. 16. •Agriculture •Services •Animals •PetroleumPrimary Secondary Tertiary •Post-Industry Quaternary •Research •Fishing •Metals Sector Sector Sector •Late 20th Sector •Administration •Forestry •18th Century Century •10,000 Years 16
    17. 17. Societies Pre- Post Industrial Industrial IndustrialMost Countries Some Countries Few Countries 17
    18. 18. What is the difference between an LDC and MDC? 18
    19. 19. Less Developed Countrieshave not developed industry. More Developed Countries are often post-industrial countries. 19
    20. 20. 20
    21. 21. B) Economic Indicators of Development 21
    22. 22. What is Gross Domestic Product? 22
    23. 23. Gross Domestic Product isthe value of the total output of goods and services produced in a year. 23
    24. 24. US GDP: 14,526,550 Million Dollars 24
    25. 25. Per Capita GDPGDP / Total PopulationUS Per Capita: $48,800 25
    26. 26. How MDCs and LDCs Differ: Consumer GDP Types of Jobs Productivity Raw Materials Goods• $20,000 in • MDC – Fewer • Value Added • MDCs have • MDCs can MDC Primary Per worker is greater afford• $1000 in LDC Sector higher in access to Raw Consumer • LDC – More MDCs Materials goods and Primary have more Sector access to them. Economic development is often accompanied by social development. 26
    27. 27. C) Theories of Economic Development 27
    28. 28. What is the Modernization Model 28
    29. 29. The Modernization Model says that the Industrial Revolutionwas spurred by a combination of prosperity, trade connections, inventions, and natural resources. 29
    30. 30. Western European Nations and the US Britain followedIndustrializes Britain Wealth became a sign of virtue instead of kinship. 30
    31. 31. A few key points:• According to the M.M., any country can reap the benefits of modernization.• Tradition is the greatest barrier to economic development. 31
    32. 32. A few key points:• Culture can discourage people from adopting new technologies that would raise standards of living.• High-Income countries can help poorer countries by encouraging them to control population, increase food production, and take advantage of industrial technology. 32
    33. 33. Rostow’s Stages of Development 33
    34. 34. • Industry expands. High Mass • Luxury items become necessities. Consumption • High Incomes, a majority of workers involved in the service sector. • Economic growth is widely accepted. Drive to • The economy diversifies. • Poverty is greatly reduced and material goods much Technological more common. Maturity • Cities grow, and modernization is evident in the core. • International trade expands. • People begin to experiment with producing goods for trade with others for profit. Take-Off Stage • A state industrial revolution takes place. • Urbanization, technology, and production increases. • Life is built around families.Traditional Stage • Very Limited Wealth. • Subsistence Farmers. 34
    35. 35. Rich nations often block the path of poor. Poorer nations A justification have to for capitalismto exploit non- Criticisms develop from a position of capitalism. weakness. Suggesting that poverty is the fault of the victims is wrong. 35
    36. 36. What is Dependency Theory 36
    37. 37. Dependency Theory says thatthe economic development of many countries is blocked by industrialized nations that exploit them. 37
    38. 38. A Few Key Points.• Dependency theory blames MCDs that control or who once controlled LDCs through colonialism.• Argues that political liberation from colonialism has not translated into economic health.• Dependency theory is largely an outgrowth of Marxism. 38
    39. 39. Wallerstein’s Capitalist World Economy Model 39
    40. 40. Core Countries• Rich nations that fuel the world’s economy.• Take raw materials from around the world and channel them to North America, Europe, Australia, and Japan.Periphery Countries• Low-Income countries brought about through colonialism.• Support rich countries by providing inexpensive labor and a large market for industrial products.Semiperiphery Countries• The rest of the world.• More powerful than periphery, but still dominated in some way by the core. 40
    41. 41. 41
    42. 42. Treats wealth as a “0 Sum Theory” No country Ignore willinglycultural issues that affect Criticisms blocks another from poverty. success. Places blame on countries that have helped others. 42
    43. 43. Part Two: Growth and Diffusion of Industrialization 43
    44. 44. A) Before the Industrial Revolution 44
    45. 45. Before the Industrial Revolution There were industrial centers before the late18th Century but it was isolated. Most industries were cottage industries. Examples: Chinese Silk Factories Metal Workshops in India 45
    46. 46. What is a cottage industry? 46
    47. 47. Cottage Industries are home- based manufacturers wherepeople manufacture tools andagriculture equipment for their own communities. 47
    48. 48. B) The Start of the Industrial Revolution 48
    49. 49. The Early 18th Century Early factories in Great Britain during the 18th Century were run by water running down slopes. 49
    50. 50. The Most Important Invention In 1769, James Watt built the first efficient steam engine. This was the most important invention to the Industrial Revolution. 50
    51. 51. What is the Industrial Revolution? 51
    52. 52. The Industrial Revolution was the process of technologicalchange that started in the late 1700s that transformed how goods were produced and obtained by the people. 52
    53. 53. Social Changes Effects ofPopulation the Economic Changes Industrial Changes Revolution Political Changes 53
    54. 54. Iron Food CoalProcessing Industries affected by the Industrial RevolutionChemicals Transportation Textiles 54
    55. 55. C) Diffusion of the Industrial Revolution 55
    56. 56. Diffusion of the Industrial Great Britain Revolution Belgium/France (late 1700s) Most of Europe came late to the party The United States (1790s) because of revolution and strife (ie. French Revolution, Napoleonic Wars) Italy, Netherlands, Russia, Sweden (late 1800s)The United States entered the IR laterthan Belgium and France butexpanded more rapidly.The Middle East and Africa Asia, Middle East and Africa (Mid 20th Century)entered the IR because of WWIand the need for oil. 56
    57. 57. Part Three: The Evolution of Economic Cores and Peripheries 57
    58. 58. A) Introduction 58
    59. 59. Why do you think that some placeswere affected by industrialization while others were not? 59
    60. 60. Location Theory Locational Independence Theory 60
    61. 61. A) Location Theory 61
    62. 62. What is Location Theory? 62
    63. 63. Location Theory explains the locational pattern of economic activities by identifying factors that influence this pattern. 63
    64. 64. SecondaryPrimary Industry Industry• Develops around • Develops as natural resources. transportation improves. • Less dependent on location 64
    65. 65. Variable Costs Secondary Industry Locations FrictionDistance of Decay Distance 65
    66. 66. Core• Primary and Secondary IndustriesSemi-Periphery• Secondary IndustriesPeriphery• Neither 66
    67. 67. What is the Least Cost Theory? 67
    68. 68. Alfred Weber’s Least Cost Theory is a theory that explains the location of industries based ontransportation, labor, and agglomeration. 68
    69. 69. TransportationThe site chosen must entail the lowest possible cost of A) moving raw materials to thefactory, and B) finished products to the market. 69
    70. 70. Weight (Bulk) Weight (Bulk) LosingGaining • Copper• Soft Drink • Timber Manufacturing • Most Agriculture 70
    71. 71. 71
    72. 72. Location Triangle The location triangle is used to determine thebest place to locate a manufacturing plant based on Weber’s Model. Resource 2 Market Resource1 72
    73. 73. 73
    74. 74. A) Least Cost Theory Continued 74
    75. 75. I am the CEO of a A Case Studyrubber companylooking for aplace to locate mynew plant whichwill purifypetroleum intothe rubberproducts beforesending it on toHouston, Texasfor furtherprocessing. Iimport petroleumfrom the MiddleEast. 75
    76. 76. What is the Break of Bulk Point? 76
    77. 77. The Break of Bulk Point is where the transfer of goodsamong transportation modes is possible. 77
    78. 78. Product per Case Cost/Rail Cost/RoadFuzzy Mice .05 .01Concrete 1.00 2.00Oil .50 .60 Town 10M 11M 5M 3M 6M Resource 1 Resource 2 78
    79. 79. What is theLocation Interdependence Theory? 79
    80. 80. Location Interdependence Theory is a theory that explains the location of industries based on thelocation of their competition. 80
    81. 81. Variable Revenue AnalysisThe ability of a firm to capture a market that will earn it more money and customers than the competition. 81
    82. 82. The BeachHow would Locational Inderdependence Theory play a part in where A and C would choose to locate? 82
    83. 83. Situation Factors•Transportation Issues•Bulk-Gaining, Bulk LosingSite Factors•The cost of Land, Labor, and Capital•Climate•Access to Amenities 83
    84. 84. Part Four: Contemporary Patterns in Industrialization 84
    85. 85. A) Globalization and Infrastructure 85
    86. 86. How Does Globalization Affect Industrialization?• Every country’s development is dependent on the rest of the world. – With the increase of Space-Time Compression, it is possible to locate businesses in places not before considered. – The Internet has made it possible for markets to exist where they have not before. – In order to accommodate global industrialization a country must develop infrastructure. 86
    87. 87. What is infrastructure? 87
    88. 88. Infrastructure includes services that support economic activities. It provides fortransportation, communication, education, and other external needs of a company. 88
    89. 89. B) Primary Industrial Regions 89
    90. 90. Western and Central Europe Primary EasternEastern North Asia Regions America Russia and the Ukraine 90
    91. 91. Western and Eastern Europe• Expanded greatly after WWI.• Was largest in Germany until WWII.• Rebuilt with the help of America after WWII.North America• The North American Manufacturing Belt extends from Boston and New York through Philadelphia and Baltimore.• The Southeastern District: Birmingham, Alabama to Richmond, Va.• Another: Oklahoma to Dallas, Houston, and New Orleans.• Northern California: San-Fransisco• Southern California: Los Angeles to San-Diego• Pacific Northwest: Portland, Oregon through Seattle, Washington and Vancouver in Canada. 91
    92. 92. 92
    93. 93. Russia and the Other Soviet Republics• Much manufacturing up through the 1930s followed the Volga River.• Other regions followed the Trans-Siberian Railroad. 93
    94. 94. 94
    95. 95. Asia The Four Tigers (Export Japan Oriented China Industrialization)• The Kanto Plain • South Korea • Northeast District in• Tokyo • Taiwan Manchuria • Hong Kong • Beijing, Shanghai, Hon • Singapore g Kong • The Pacific Rim 95
    96. 96. C) Secondary Industrial Regions 96
    97. 97. Southeast Asia Northern AfricaSecondaryIndustrial Regions Mexico Brazil 97
    98. 98. What is the maquiladora? 98
    99. 99. The Maquiladora is amanufacturing zone createdin the 1960s in Mexico that mostly produces American products. 99
    100. 100. What is the NAFTA? 100
    101. 101. NAFTA is the North AmericanFree Trade Agreement which eliminated barriers to free trade in North America. 101
    102. 102. Part Five: Global Inequalities 102
    103. 103. A) Challenges for More Developed Countries 103
    104. 104. Protection of Markets MDCs are having to work to protect theirmarkets from newly developing countries. They often do this by establishing Trading Blocs. 104
    105. 105. What is a trading bloc? 105
    106. 106. A Trading Bloc is aconglomeration of trade between regions. 106
    107. 107. Little to No Taxes Benefits of Trading Blocs Ease inCooperationEncouraged crossing borders 107
    108. 108. NAFTA 3 Important Blocs EuropeanEast Asia Union 108
    109. 109. Most cooperation and competition betweentrading blocs take place between transnational corporations which are also conglomerate corporations 109
    110. 110. DeindustrializationIn many MDC economies, tertiary development is replacing secondary development. Growth of LDC industry is taking This is a natural progress jobs away from of society. Service jobs is MDCs. the mark of a developed society. 110
    111. 111. B) Challenges for Less Developed Countries 111
    112. 112. Distance from Market Challenges of LDCs Competition Inadequate with Existing InfrastructureManufacturers 112
    113. 113. The New International Division of LaborThe selective transfer of some jobs to LDCs. 113
    114. 114. Part Five: Globalization and the Environment 114
    115. 115. Industrialization and Fossil Fuels As more and more countries become revolutionized, the need for fossil fuels grows exponentially. While we know how many proven reserves wehave, we do not know how many potential reserves we have. ¼ of the world’s population consumes ¾ of the world’s fossil fuels. 115
    116. 116. Environmental Impact Concerns Global Acid RainWarming 116
    117. 117. Prevention TechnologicalCompensation Solutions Change Mitigation 117
    118. 118. The End. 118

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