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 Movement of upper and middle-class
people from core areas to surrounding
outskirts. The process began in the mid-
ninete...
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
years
Inmillionsofpeople
1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000
central cities
suburbs
nonmetro
Pop. in...
1990s
 Population of Chicago peaks in 1950
at 3.7 million
 1970: 48% of population lives in city;
60% of all available jobs
 ...
 Transportation
 Housing
 Baby Boom
 TV
 WHICH ONE IS THE MOST IMPORTANT?
Why has the development of suburbs in North American
metropolitan areas greatly accelerated since the 1950s and
1960s?
Fou...
 Freeways and transport corridors
increased accessibility of the suburbs.
 Federal Highway Act of 1956: most
important g...
 Housing was produced by large developers
on large tracts of cheap land. 70% of new
homes were constructed by 10% of buil...
• Cars became more affordable, greater
availability/access…shift from war to peace
time production
• 58 million cars sold ...
 1st
people move to the suburbs
› Federal Highway Act of 1956
 Then services move to the suburbs
› Non-basic jobs: dry-c...
Two patterns:
-Edge suburbs
-Chicago
 Public transport-where? Why?
How accessible? Why?
 Affordable housing-where? Why?
 “We’re not moving to mass transit”
 Why?
› Governed by 272 municipalities and 6 counties
(Political geo.)
› Fear of Cit...
 NIMBYism
 Local govt control/ voters
 Local low income housing
developer
Home Alone House for sale in Winnetka
 "I don't want us to become another suburb made up of
McMansions who are only here for the time it takes to put their kid...
 Suburbanization (1950s)
› Government stimulus package
 FHA loans and Federal Highway Act
 Solves affordable housing fo...
 Great Migration of African Americans (WWI)
› Race Riot of 1919
› Covenants
› Race Riot of 1951 (Cicero)
› Redlining and ...
Great Migration brings changes
› Before 1916, 2% of Chicago’s population
› After 1970, 33%
› 2000, 36.77%
› 2010, 36.8%
 ...
 Why?
› Racism in the South
› Jobs in the North
 Why Chicago?
› Transportation networks
› the Chicago Defender
 violence: Lynching
and murders
 Black Codes
 Jim Crow Laws
 Plessy v. Ferguson 1896
 The boll weevil infestation of Southern cotton fields in the late
1910s.
 World War I and the Immigration Act of 1924 e...
 Black owned newspaper
 The newspaper was read extensively in the South.
 Massive campaign in WWI
 1st
wave: Over 1.5 ...
 South side: Chain migration and then racism.
 Nearby were areas dominated by ethnic Irish, who were
especially territor...
 Started on Lake Michigan
 Swelling African
American population
 Nowhere to go
 Racism, tension, lack of
police enforc...
Racial Spaces in Chicago
Sunday, July 27, 1919, dawned hot in Chicago. As the
day wore on, city dwellers crowded onto the ...
The African American teenager was
unaware of a confrontation earlier that
day when black Chicagoans had walked
onto a spac...
 Rare before 1919, huge after
 Supreme Court: Public residential
segregation illegal, but...
 IF you have a private gro...
 In Chicago
 They've got covenants
 Restricting me—
 When I move
 Into a neighborhood
 Folks fly.
 Even every forei...
 Between July 10 and 12, 1951, approximately two
to five thousand white Cicero residents attacked
an apartment building h...
 48.27% White American
 1.12% African American
 0.89% Native American
 0.97% Asian
 44.71% from other races, and 4.01...
 Open Housing March, 1966
 Decides against going to Cicero (too
violent)
 Goes to Marquette Park “Chicago
Lawn”
Source: Chicagohistory.org
The last way to keep “them” out
Mike Royko's 1971 biography
of Mayor Richard J. Daley,
Boss, claims that the Dan
Ryan Expressway route was
shifted to rein...
 Maps
› Northeastern Illinois Planning
Commission (nipc.org)
› Chicago Metropolis 2020
 Video clips
› Chicago Matters se...
Urbanization and Race
Urbanization and Race
Urbanization and Race
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Urbanization and Race
Urbanization and Race
Urbanization and Race
Urbanization and Race
Urbanization and Race
Urbanization and Race
Urbanization and Race
Urbanization and Race
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Urbanization and Race
Urbanization and Race
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Urbanization and Race

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Urbanization and Race

  1. 1.  Movement of upper and middle-class people from core areas to surrounding outskirts. The process began in the mid- nineteenth century but became a mass phenomenon in the late-twentieth century.
  2. 2. 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 years Inmillionsofpeople 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 central cities suburbs nonmetro Pop. in Cities, Suburbs, and Nonmetro Areas 1950 to 2000
  3. 3. 1990s
  4. 4.  Population of Chicago peaks in 1950 at 3.7 million  1970: 48% of population lives in city; 60% of all available jobs  1990: 38% of pop and 37% of jobs  2000: 2/3rds of jobs (suburbs)  2000: 90% low income jobs (suburbs)
  5. 5.  Transportation  Housing  Baby Boom  TV  WHICH ONE IS THE MOST IMPORTANT?
  6. 6. Why has the development of suburbs in North American metropolitan areas greatly accelerated since the 1950s and 1960s? Four main reasons: (1) Transportation (2) Housing production (3) Landscape preference (4) Social and demographic trends
  7. 7.  Freeways and transport corridors increased accessibility of the suburbs.  Federal Highway Act of 1956: most important government action in the 20th century › 32 billion and 40,000 miles across USA › “The amount of concrete poured to form these roadways would build six sidewalks to the moon” IKE…but what was the original intent?
  8. 8.  Housing was produced by large developers on large tracts of cheap land. 70% of new homes were constructed by 10% of builders.  Mass produced styles made housing cheaper and more affordable. (Levittowns)  Post-war mortgage programs. FHA (1934) and VA (1948) loans guaranteed creditors security on their loans by reducing down payments and extending repayment period.  Homeownership increased from 43.6% in 1940 to 65.5% in 2000.
  9. 9. • Cars became more affordable, greater availability/access…shift from war to peace time production • 58 million cars sold in the 50s • -drive-thrus • -curb-side service
  10. 10.  1st people move to the suburbs › Federal Highway Act of 1956  Then services move to the suburbs › Non-basic jobs: dry-cleaning; fast food › Then industrial jobs › Then service jobs: Sears; Motorola; Walgreens
  11. 11. Two patterns: -Edge suburbs -Chicago
  12. 12.  Public transport-where? Why? How accessible? Why?  Affordable housing-where? Why?
  13. 13.  “We’re not moving to mass transit”  Why? › Governed by 272 municipalities and 6 counties (Political geo.) › Fear of City folk? › NIMBYism (Not in My Backyard!)
  14. 14.  NIMBYism  Local govt control/ voters  Local low income housing developer
  15. 15. Home Alone House for sale in Winnetka
  16. 16.  "I don't want us to become another suburb made up of McMansions who are only here for the time it takes to put their kids through school and then leave," Tucker said.  Rick McQuet, a Winnetka resident, said at the meeting that the affordable housing plan is intended to help young families and recent college graduates. "That young family was me about 15 years ago, a new degree in hand and aspirations of becoming a member of a truly great community," he said.  Northfield resident June O'Donoghue received applause after she said she opposes the proposal because it interferes with the housing market. "Housing is affordable to the people who can afford it. That is a simple thing," O'Donoghue said. "I think you need a referendum for people to vote to see if they want to go through all this social engineering."
  17. 17.  Suburbanization (1950s) › Government stimulus package  FHA loans and Federal Highway Act  Solves affordable housing for some  2001 FRQ › Landscape preferences, New construction trends, Social/Demographic trends also
  18. 18.  Great Migration of African Americans (WWI) › Race Riot of 1919 › Covenants › Race Riot of 1951 (Cicero) › Redlining and Blockbusting › Martin Luther King and Open Housing March › Today and Flight
  19. 19. Great Migration brings changes › Before 1916, 2% of Chicago’s population › After 1970, 33% › 2000, 36.77% › 2010, 36.8%  Push and Pull Factors
  20. 20.  Why? › Racism in the South › Jobs in the North  Why Chicago? › Transportation networks › the Chicago Defender
  21. 21.  violence: Lynching and murders  Black Codes  Jim Crow Laws  Plessy v. Ferguson 1896
  22. 22.  The boll weevil infestation of Southern cotton fields in the late 1910s.  World War I and the Immigration Act of 1924 effectively put a halt to the flow of European immigrants to the emerging industrial centers of the Northeast and Midwest, causing shortages of workers in the factories  The Great Mississippi Flood of 1927 displaced hundreds of thousands of African-American farmers and farm workers
  23. 23.  Black owned newspaper  The newspaper was read extensively in the South.  Massive campaign in WWI  1st wave: Over 1.5 mil southern blacks migrating to the North between 1915-1925. › At least 110,000 came to Chicago alone between 1916- 1918, nearly tripling the city's black population.  2nd wave: During WWII until 1970, north but also West (where munitions and other jobs were)
  24. 24.  South side: Chain migration and then racism.  Nearby were areas dominated by ethnic Irish, who were especially territorial in defending against incursions into their areas by any other groups.  In 1910 more than 75 percent of blacks lived in predominantly black sections of the city.  As the population grew, African Americans became more confined to a delineated area, instead of spreading throughout the city. (NOT ALLOWED TO MOVE OUT)
  25. 25.  Started on Lake Michigan  Swelling African American population  Nowhere to go  Racism, tension, lack of police enforcement (who were mostly ethnic Irish)
  26. 26. Racial Spaces in Chicago Sunday, July 27, 1919, dawned hot in Chicago. As the day wore on, city dwellers crowded onto the beaches lining Lake Michigan seeking relief from the heat. Late that afternoon, 17-year-old Eugene Williams dove off a raft that had wandered toward the 29th Street beach.
  27. 27. The African American teenager was unaware of a confrontation earlier that day when black Chicagoans had walked onto a space conventionally limited to whites. Spotting him in the water, a group of bathers began throwing stones at Williams, who struggled, disappeared, and drowned. As news of his death spread, further violence erupted on the beach and extended out from it. Four days of rioting followed, engulfing large sections of the city. When the violence subsided, 38 persons were dead, 537 were injured, and over 1,000 were left homeless.
  28. 28.  Rare before 1919, huge after  Supreme Court: Public residential segregation illegal, but...  IF you have a private group in an area, they can agree on rules: landscaping, sidewalks, fences, and segregation
  29. 29.  In Chicago  They've got covenants  Restricting me—  When I move  Into a neighborhood  Folks fly.  Even every foreigner  That can move, moves.  Why?
  30. 30.  Between July 10 and 12, 1951, approximately two to five thousand white Cicero residents attacked an apartment building housing a single black family. Ultimately, 450 National Guardsmen and 200 Cicero and Cook County police officers were called in to control the fires, looting, and destruction.  The Cicero riots became news across the United States and the world.
  31. 31.  48.27% White American  1.12% African American  0.89% Native American  0.97% Asian  44.71% from other races, and 4.01% from two or more races.  77.44% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race, with 68.4% of Mexican descent
  32. 32.  Open Housing March, 1966  Decides against going to Cicero (too violent)  Goes to Marquette Park “Chicago Lawn”
  33. 33. Source: Chicagohistory.org
  34. 34. The last way to keep “them” out
  35. 35. Mike Royko's 1971 biography of Mayor Richard J. Daley, Boss, claims that the Dan Ryan Expressway route was shifted to reinforce the border between Daley's native Bridgeport and the Black Belt to the east.
  36. 36.  Maps › Northeastern Illinois Planning Commission (nipc.org) › Chicago Metropolis 2020  Video clips › Chicago Matters series (WTTW, Channel 11, 2003)

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