http://image.iarchives.nysed.gov/images/bulk_images/NYSA_A3045-78_Dn_NjB-full.jpg (NYSA image of US customs at Niagara Falls, 1933)
Compare tone and words used in each poem
A Colony of Aliens – Benj. Franklin on the Germans Crisis! Pamphlet – quotes against foreign influence by past national leaders – 1840s – Nativism – Go to Harvard site and search: new york and immigration Aliens or Americans – 1906 missionary work depicting foreign influences (search “Italians” for page comparing Italian to other ethnic groups in pauperism, insanity, etc. Lots of maps and data figures – hand out (p. 113_ and discussion questions (p. 46). Also, describes passage from foreign shores to getting out of Ellis island – p. 47 Crime… - 1911 – looks at possible causes of crime, including climate, temperature, geography and race – refers to immigrant as most crimminal element (p. 63)
Media used to reinforce stereotypes – develop strong emotional reaction (prejudice) and result is social distance – discrimination – either authoritarian or benevolent. Result – policy changes – immigration restriction laws, national security, institutionalization, labor laws, and so on.
Role of media and print; contrast public policy and public opinion
Reinstein Collection – Bringing political ideology as well as traditional foods, dress, customs, etc.
Compare to today’s policies regarding homeland security and suspected terrorists Note: Milton Rogovin is interviewed
Benevolent and authoritarian approaches: Both separate out and institutionalize “the weak and infirmed”; “educate” the ignorant peasant, etc. Tells of “strange” or “intemperate” mannerisms of immigrants and need for them to change.
NYS Archives Digital Collections – New Little Citizen play, ca 1941 LOC Prints and Photos – immigrants living in Buffalo and working in rural areas Migrant Center – keeps ethnic histories of various groups and their traditions – Estamos Aqui book is part of summer sessions.
Poor House History site – search by state and then on county for description of poorhouse, inmates, etc. Also has state law, general background
Handbook for Immigrants – and NYPL images – what was it like to come here (now and then) and who came here (now and then)
Tenement Museum has images and lesson plans – relate to national Archives doc of letter to Pres. Taft from residents of Orchard Street in 1912 Click on Ntl Archives and under featured galleries, primary sources for students and teachers – click on Unit 6 – refine search “new york” for letter
Use of stats to graphically show students changes in populations across time and place.
Map from Social Explorer – can compare maps from several decades US Census Browser – create own charts of a single year (different ethnic groups in Orleans County in 1870) or across years (foreign born in 3 counties in different years) Immigration Explorer – color coded maps of ethnic densities
LOC site has Italian Heritage of Genesee-Orleans and Lake Ontario – Elba too? Folklife Center – click on right side – Resources for Educators – click on “subject” and “agriculture”, etc. for Barn Again, etc. Click on “more..” at right for heritage poster info (click on box at left) Polish American Heritage is online version of printed sheets
Show sample heritage sheets and click on “words” at left
The processes, tools, materials, designs, motifs, as well as functions, are closely followed. As time passes, some changes may occur, but the pursuit of tradition as a symbol remains important. The look of durability and the object’s ability to stand up to its intended use are important goals of the artist. They use forms, designs, colors, and motifs which clearly associate them and their work to others with a shared heritage. Great emphasis is placed on precise detail and the object&apos;s ability to capture a complete scene or event.In creating these objects, the artists choose forms and images that are clearly associated with particular religious traditions. An artist may experiment with forms, materials, and designs in response either to personal choices or to changing cultural influences in his or her life.
WNY Heritage Press – click on “photographs” and search for subject (“albion, ny”) – Austin Fox from McCracken family in Albion! NY Folklore Society – also a search by subject (“albion, ny” or “italian”) – Contact Lisa Overholser for mentoring info
Immigrants and Immigration in Social Studies Learning
Immigrants and ImmigrationImmigrants and Immigration
in Social Studiesin Social Studies
Essential QuestionsEssential Questions
What is “The American Dream”?What is “The American Dream”?
Why is it difficult for immigrants toWhy is it difficult for immigrants to
become accepted in society?become accepted in society?
How can “diversity” and “unity” bothHow can “diversity” and “unity” both
be valued in American culture?be valued in American culture?
Has the “immigrant experience” beenHas the “immigrant experience” been
common across time and nations?common across time and nations?
Why does the introduction of newWhy does the introduction of new
technologies often seem to create bothtechnologies often seem to create both
prosperity and poverty?prosperity and poverty?
Lesson IdeasLesson Ideas
Use “The American Dream” lesson to identifyUse “The American Dream” lesson to identify
different perceptions of what it means to bedifferent perceptions of what it means to be
“American,” as well as examine successive“American,” as well as examine successive
periods of significant immigration inperiods of significant immigration in
Compare contrasting attitudes towardsCompare contrasting attitudes towards
immigration, past and present: benevolentimmigration, past and present: benevolent
versus authoritarian.versus authoritarian.
Have students create “Community HeritageHave students create “Community Heritage
Sheets” based on their own culturalSheets” based on their own cultural
traditions, foods, music, dress, etc.traditions, foods, music, dress, etc.
Use immigrant stories from past and presentUse immigrant stories from past and present
times to describe “push” and “pull” elementstimes to describe “push” and “pull” elements
of immigration.of immigration.
The New Colossus.
Not like the brazen giant of Greek
With conquering limbs astride
from land to land;
Here at our sea-washed sunset
gates shall stand
A mighty woman with a torch,
Is the imprisoned lightening, and
Mother of Exiles. From her
Glows world-wide welcome; her
mild eyes command
The air-bridged harbor that twin
"Keep ancient lands, your storied
pomp!" cries she
With silent lips. "Give me your
tired, your poor,
Your huddled masses yearning to
The wretched refuse of your
Send these, the homeless,
tempest-tost to me,
I lift my lamp beside the golden
Whose Dream?Whose Dream?
A Colony of Aliens
Crime: Its Causes & Remedies
Aliens or Americans?
Teacher's Domain (WNED)Teacher's Domain (WNED)
Harvard Collection on Imm
NYPL Digital Gallery (immigration AND new york)
Foreign Immigration - Charitable Institutions of NYC (LOC and MOA)
Harvard Collection on Immigration
Domestic educator in home of steelworker family, Lackawanna Iron and Stee
Mothers care for their babies at Albion
State training School circa 1940.
History of Albion Correctional Fac
Geneseo Migrant Center
Prejudice, Social Distance and Familiarity with Mental Illness
Polish Study, Buffalo, NY 1926-28
Harvard Collection on Immigration
In Their Own Words…In Their Own Words…
Digital History’s “EthnicDigital History’s “Ethnic
America: ImmigrantAmerica: Immigrant
Immigration: TheirImmigration: Their
Stories (ThinkQuest)Stories (ThinkQuest)
Immigrant Letters (U ofImmigrant Letters (U of
Interviews with Today's ImmInterviews with Today's Imm
The New Americans (PBS IndThe New Americans (PBS Ind
Family Histories at Ellis IslanFamily Histories at Ellis Islan
Immigrant Life in NewImmigrant Life in New
The Lower East SideThe Lower East Side
Tenement Museum in NewTenement Museum in New
York City preserves andYork City preserves and
interprets America's urban,interprets America's urban,
immigrant, and working classimmigrant, and working class
experiences between 1863experiences between 1863
and 1935, when the Lowerand 1935, when the Lower
East Side was home to 7,000East Side was home to 7,000
people from more than 20people from more than 20
nations. The museum isnations. The museum is
located in a former tenementlocated in a former tenement
house at 97 Orchard Street.house at 97 Orchard Street.
In 1900, nearly two-thirds ofIn 1900, nearly two-thirds of
the city's population lived inthe city's population lived in
the Lower East Side area.the Lower East Side area.
Letter with ReportLetter with Report
Submitted by theSubmitted by the
Citizens CommitteeCitizens Committee
of Orchard,of Orchard,
Rivington, and EastRivington, and East
Houston Streets,Houston Streets,
New York City toNew York City to
President WilliamPresident William
Howard Taft:Howard Taft:
National Archives Digital Galleries
The 1850 decennial census was the first census in which data wereThe 1850 decennial census was the first census in which data were
collected on the nativity of the population.collected on the nativity of the population.
From 1850 to 1930, the foreign-born population of the United StatesFrom 1850 to 1930, the foreign-born population of the United States
increased from 2.2 million to 14.2 million, reflecting large-scaleincreased from 2.2 million to 14.2 million, reflecting large-scale
immigration from Europe during most of this period.1 As aimmigration from Europe during most of this period.1 As a
percentage of total population, the foreign-born population rose frompercentage of total population, the foreign-born population rose from
9.7 percent in 1850 and fluctuated in the 13 percent to 15 percent9.7 percent in 1850 and fluctuated in the 13 percent to 15 percent
range from 1860 to 1920 before dropping to 11.6 percent in 1930.range from 1860 to 1920 before dropping to 11.6 percent in 1930.
The highest percentages foreign born were 14.4 percent in 1870,The highest percentages foreign born were 14.4 percent in 1870,
14.8 percent in 1890 and 14.7 percent in 1910.14.8 percent in 1890 and 14.7 percent in 1910.
From 1930 to 1950, the foreign-born population of the United StatesFrom 1930 to 1950, the foreign-born population of the United States
declined from 14.2 million to 10.3 million, or from 11.6 percent todeclined from 14.2 million to 10.3 million, or from 11.6 percent to
6.9 percent of the total population. These declines reflected the6.9 percent of the total population. These declines reflected the
extremely low level of immigration during the 1930s and 1940s. Theextremely low level of immigration during the 1930s and 1940s. The
foreign-born population then dropped slowly to 9.6 million in 1970,foreign-born population then dropped slowly to 9.6 million in 1970,
when it represented a record low 4.7 percent of the total population.when it represented a record low 4.7 percent of the total population.
Immigration had risen during the 1950s and 1960s, but was still lowImmigration had risen during the 1950s and 1960s, but was still low
by historical standards, and mortality was high during this periodby historical standards, and mortality was high during this period
among the foreign-born population because of its old age structureamong the foreign-born population because of its old age structure
(reflecting four decades of low immigration).(reflecting four decades of low immigration).
Since 1970, the foreign-Since 1970, the foreign-
born population of theborn population of the
United States has increasedUnited States has increased
rapidly due to large-scalerapidly due to large-scale
immigration, primarily fromimmigration, primarily from
Latin America and Asia. TheLatin America and Asia. The
foreign-born populationforeign-born population
rose from 9.6 million inrose from 9.6 million in
1970 to 14.1 million in1970 to 14.1 million in
1980 and to 19.8 million in1980 and to 19.8 million in
1990. The estimated1990. The estimated
foreign-born population inforeign-born population in
1997 was 25.8 million. As a1997 was 25.8 million. As a
percentage of the totalpercentage of the total
population, the foreign-population, the foreign-
born population increasedborn population increased
from 4.7 percent in 1970 tofrom 4.7 percent in 1970 to
6.2 percent in 1980, to 7.96.2 percent in 1980, to 7.9
percent in 1990, and to anpercent in 1990, and to an
estimated 9.7 percent inestimated 9.7 percent in
US Census Bureau, HistoryUS Census Bureau, History (click(click
on “US Census Bureau” for 2000)on “US Census Bureau” for 2000)
The Foreign Born Population:The Foreign Born Population:
Census 2000Census 2000
US Census Browser (U of VA)US Census Browser (U of VA)
Immigration Explorer Interactive MapImmigration Explorer Interactive Map
Genesee County Department of HistorGenesee County Department of Histor
Orleans County Census InformationOrleans County Census Information
Social Explorer MapsSocial Explorer Maps (subscribe)(subscribe)
New York State Archives, Legacies Project
Polish-American Heritage in WNY
Local Legacies Project (LOC)
American Folklife Center (SI)
When immigrants and refugees leave their homelands,When immigrants and refugees leave their homelands,
they take with them a way of life—rich customs andthey take with them a way of life—rich customs and
traditions that sometimes become part of to the culturaltraditions that sometimes become part of to the cultural
fabric of their new countries. Over time, America hasfabric of their new countries. Over time, America has
soaked up the cultures of its immigrant populations andsoaked up the cultures of its immigrant populations and
has spun them into a uniquely American tapestry.has spun them into a uniquely American tapestry.
Sample some of theSample some of the artart,, foodfood,, musicmusic andand wordswords
brought to the United States from the homelands ofbrought to the United States from the homelands of
the people featured in The New Americans.the people featured in The New Americans.
Value of Heritage
Makes new learning
Educates people about other
Shows relationship of people
to each other in society
Provides orientation for
visitors to local area
Traces and documents growth
of a community
around topic of “heritage”
Simple to assemble and
Highly visible and easily
Rely on local resources and
Folk Art ValuesFolk Art Values
Keeping Traditions Alive: Some artists and their communities place high value onSome artists and their communities place high value on
adhering to family or group traditions, preserving them—and the way of life theyadhering to family or group traditions, preserving them—and the way of life they
represent—for the next generation.represent—for the next generation.
Making it Useful: Some artists and their communities place high value on theSome artists and their communities place high value on the
usefulness of the objects they create. The design, materials, and execution all contributeusefulness of the objects they create. The design, materials, and execution all contribute
to its function, an important aspect of the "aesthetic" in such things as folk furniture,to its function, an important aspect of the "aesthetic" in such things as folk furniture,
utensils, and crafts.utensils, and crafts.
Keeping Connected: Reinforcing a close identification with a group to which theyReinforcing a close identification with a group to which they
currently belong is the ambition of many folk artists. They may create objects for use bycurrently belong is the ambition of many folk artists. They may create objects for use by
members of the group or to sustain outsiders' views of the group and its traditions.members of the group or to sustain outsiders' views of the group and its traditions.
Re-creating Memories: An artist’s ability to recreate memories of shared groupAn artist’s ability to recreate memories of shared group
experiences is often personal but highly desired and encouraged by his or her group.experiences is often personal but highly desired and encouraged by his or her group.
Sustaining the Spirit: Some artists place great value on objects that are used asSome artists place great value on objects that are used as
integral parts of religious ritual or that hold special religious meaning for the audience.integral parts of religious ritual or that hold special religious meaning for the audience.
Being Creative: The ability to innovate within tradition is an attribute strongly admiredThe ability to innovate within tradition is an attribute strongly admired
in the shared group expressions of some folk communities. Resourceful use of found orin the shared group expressions of some folk communities. Resourceful use of found or
recycled materials is a challenge many contemporary folk artists relish.recycled materials is a challenge many contemporary folk artists relish.
– ——Varick Chittenden, Exhibit Curator. From the brochure of the folk arts exhibition,Varick Chittenden, Exhibit Curator. From the brochure of the folk arts exhibition, Out of the OrdinaryOut of the Ordinaryproduced by Galleryproduced by Gallery
Association of New York State (1995).Association of New York State (1995).
You, Whoever You Are
You, whoever you are!...
All you continentals of Asia, Africa, Europe, Australia, indifferent of
All you on the numberless islands of the archipelagoes of the sea!
All you of centuries hence when you listen to me!
All you each and everywhere whom I specify not, but include just the
Health to you! good will to you all, from me and America sent!
Each of us is inevitable,
Each of us is limitless—each of us with his or her right upon the earth,
Each of us allow'd the eternal purports of the earth,
Each of us here as divinely as any is here.