AP Human Geography: Unit 1 - Introduction to Geography


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Here is the Advanced Placement Human Geography Unit1 Powerpoint I will be using to teach my classes this year. It includes the sections "Introduction to Geography", "Tools Geographers Use", and "The Five Themes of Geography". You can find the guided notes for this presentation here: http://www.slideshare.net/deilands/ap-human-geography-unit-1-13583828

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  • Geography answers this question.
  • Teachers: Have students identify which map is which.
  • Teachers: Ask students to define relative location based on other areas.
  • What do you notice about this map?
  • CC Image Courtesy of robynejayon Flickr
  • AP Human Geography: Unit 1 - Introduction to Geography

    1. 1. Human Geography Unit 1: Basic ConceptsCreated by Daniel Eiland | http://www.mreiland.info
    2. 2. Introductions Unit Geographic ToolsOutline The Five Themes
    3. 3. Introduction to Geography
    4. 4. What is a geography?
    5. 5. “Geography is thesystematic study of thespatial patterns of allphenomena on or nearthe Earth’s surface.”
    6. 6. Geography is:A scientific and descriptive study ofthe Earth’s surface.
    7. 7. Geography is:Interactions between people and their environment
    8. 8. Geography is: A study of spatial and local variation.
    9. 9. Geography is: A Study Of Spatial Patterns.
    10. 10. What is the why Of where?
    11. 11. What is the above a picture of? Why might it have been built the way that it was?
    12. 12. In this night picture of the earth, why are some areas brighter than others? How would it have looked 200 years ago?
    13. 13. Who are some important Geographers?
    14. 14. Aristotle (384 BCE – 322 BCE) I was the first person to demonstrate that the Earth was spherical.
    15. 15. Eratosthenes (3rd Century BCE) I accurately calculated the circumference of the earth using geometry and was the first known person to use the word geography.
    16. 16. Claudius Ptolemy (CE 90 – CE 168) I wrote a book called Geography and designed the forerunner to longitude and latitude lines.
    17. 17. Abu Abd Allah Muhammad al-Idrisi al-Qurtubi al-Hasani al-Sabti Al Idrisi (1099–1165) I’m an Arabic geographer who worked for the King of Sicily to create an accurate representation of the world.
    18. 18. Abraham Ortelius (1527 – 1598) I designed the first modern atlas: Theatre of the World.
    19. 19. George Perkins Marsh (1801-1882) I first described how natural systems are impacted by human actions. I am considered the first modern environmentalist
    20. 20. Carl Sauer (1889-1975) In 1925, I argued that cultural landscapes, the interactions between people and their environment, should be the focus of geographic study.
    21. 21. How did the maps change between Eratosthenes and Ortelius? Why?
    22. 22. What fields of study exist in Human Geography?
    23. 23. What are W.D. Pattinson’s four traditions?
    24. 24. The Earth-Science Tradition
    25. 25. The Culture-Environment Tradition
    26. 26. The Locational Tradition
    27. 27. The Area-Analysis Tradition
    28. 28. What are the differences betweenHuman and Physical geography?
    29. 29. What characteristics of this image woulda human geographer notice? A physical geographer?
    30. 30. What characteristics of this image woulda human geographer notice? A physical geographer?
    31. 31. Human Geographers ask: Where are people located?
    32. 32. Human Geographers ask: What are people like?
    33. 33. Human Geographers ask: What are their interactions over space?
    34. 34. Human Geographers ask: What kind of landscapes do they build?
    35. 35. What kinds of data do geographers use?
    36. 36. Qualitative Data Examines cultural or regional Uses rigorous mathematical geography. techniques to examine hard Gathered through numerical data. observations, interviews, and the interpretations of texts. Quantitative Data
    37. 37. Idiographic Facts and Concepts that figures unique are universally to a particular applicable place or region Nomothetic
    38. 38. Develop a qualitative, nomothetic question about the populace of our school.
    39. 39. Develop a quantitative, idiographicquestion about the populace of our school.
    40. 40. AGeographersTools
    41. 41. What is cartography?
    42. 42. “Cartography isthe science ofmaking maps.”
    43. 43. What is a map-scale?
    44. 44. “A map-scale shows therelationship of a feature’s sizeon a map to its actual size onEarth.”
    45. 45. Ratio or 1:24,000 1/100 Fraction Map Scale Graphic Written Scale scale0|----------------|100km 1 inch equals one mile
    46. 46. Which would be a good scale for viewing aclassroom, a school, a parish, a country? A) 1in:1000miles C) 1in:100miles D) 1in:10feet E) 1in:100ft
    47. 47. What is resolution?
    48. 48. “Resolution is a map’s smallestdiscernable unit. In otherwords, it is the smallest itemyou can see on a map.”
    49. 49. What is projection?
    50. 50. “Projection is the scientificmethod of transferringlocation on Earth’s surface toa flat map.”
    51. 51. ShapeDistance orDirection Relative Size Distortion
    52. 52. Mercator Projection Distortion:Size and Shape The standard map projection for nautical purposes.
    53. 53. Mollweide Projection Distortion:Shape and Angle Primarily used where accurate representation of area takes precedence over shape
    54. 54. Robinson Projection Distortion: Everything in small amounts. Primarily used to create visuallyappealing maps of the entire world.
    55. 55. Azimuthal Equidistant Projection Distortion: Shape and distance as one gets farther from the center.Used when drawing Polar maps.
    56. 56. Fuller Projection Distortion: Maintains the accurate shape and size but rearranges direction.
    57. 57. Peters Projection Distortion: Retains the accurate size of landmasses but sacrifices shape.Often seen as a politically driven map.
    58. 58. A) B)C) D)
    59. 59. What is a reference map?
    60. 60. “A reference mapshows locations ofplaces and geographicfeatures.”
    61. 61. What is relative location?
    62. 62. “Relative location is the positionon Earths surface relative toother features.”
    63. 63. Where is Caddo Parish located relatively?
    64. 64. What is absolute location?
    65. 65. “Absolute location is a pointon the earths surfaceexpressed by a coordinatesystem such as latitude andlongitude.”
    66. 66. What is longitude?
    67. 67. “Longitude is the numberingsystem that enumeratesmeridians, arcs that aredrawn between the northand south pole.”
    68. 68. Longitude 0° Longitude runs through Greenwich, England and is known as the Prime Meridian
    69. 69. What is latitude?
    70. 70. “Latitude is the numberingsystem that enumeratesparallels, circles drawn aroundthe globe parallel to theequator and at right angles tothe meridians.”
    71. 71. Latitude 0° Latitude is the equator. 90° north latitude is the north pole. 90° south latitude is the south pole.
    72. 72. What are time zones?
    73. 73. “A Time zone is a region onEarth that has a uniformstandard time for legal,commercial, and socialpurposes.”
    74. 74. What is the international date line?
    75. 75. “The International Date Line is animaginary line on the surface of theEarth, that runs from the north tothe south pole and demarcates onecalendar day from the next.”
    76. 76. A traveler crossing theInternational Date Lineeastbound subtractsone day, or 24 hours, sothat the calendar dateto the west of the lineis repeated.
    77. 77. What is a thematic map?
    78. 78. “A thematic map is a typeof map or chart especiallydesigned to show aparticular theme connectedwith a specific geographicarea.”
    79. 79. Choropleth MapsUses differences in shading, , or the placing of symbols.
    80. 80. Dot Maps Uses dots in a specific area. Each dot is a specific quantity.
    81. 81. Isoline MapsUses continuous lines joining points of the same value.
    82. 82. Mental Maps Shows an person’s internal perception of space.
    83. 83. Cartograms Expands or shrinks the area of locations to demonstrate different types of data.
    84. 84. The World PopulationWhat does this map show you about the world’s population?
    85. 85. What is GIS?
    86. 86. “GIS or a GeographicInformation System is acomputer system thatstores, organizes, analyzes, anddisplays geographic data.”
    87. 87. Identify the feature above.
    88. 88. Identify this feature above.
    89. 89. Identify this above feature.
    90. 90. For Your ConsiderationImagine that you are a researcher using GIS todetermine information. What is a question that you might be able to answer using the technologies available?
    91. 91. What is GPS?
    92. 92. “GPS or a Global PositioningSystem determines the preciseposition of something on Earththrough satellites, trackingstations, and receivers.”
    93. 93. What is remote sensing?
    94. 94. “Remote sensing is theacquisition of data about theEarth’s surface from a satelliteorbiting the planet or fromother long distance methods.”
    95. 95. What is a geographic model?
    96. 96. “A Geographic Model is asimplified way to explaincomplex patterns, makeinformed decisions and explainfuture behaviors.”
    97. 97. Part 3: The Five Themes of Geography
    98. 98. Theme 1: Location
    99. 99. What is site and situation?
    100. 100. “Site is describing a location ofa place based on its physicalcharacteristics. Situation is thelocation of a place relative toother places.”
    101. 101. Describe your town or city only bydiscussing its location relative to other places.
    102. 102. Describe your town or city only bydiscussing its physical characteristics.
    103. 103. Is it Site or Situation?
    104. 104. Much of South Louisiana is made up of swamp-land.A. SiteB. Situation
    105. 105. Baton Rouge is next to the Mississippi River.A. SiteB. Situation
    106. 106. The first Woodlawn High School was built on a fault line.A. SiteB. Situation
    107. 107. The new Woodlawn High School was built next to a church.A. SiteB. Situation
    108. 108. What is a Toponym?
    109. 109. “A Toponym is the name ofsomething on the Earth.”
    110. 110. Theme 2: Region
    111. 111. What is a region?
    112. 112. “A region is an area of Earthdefined by one or moredistinctive characteristics.”
    113. 113. “The physicalfeatures, economicfeatures, and cultural featuresthat make up a region arecalled its cultural landscape.”
    114. 114. What types of regions are there?
    115. 115. Formal Regions Everyone shares in common one or more distinctive characteristics.
    116. 116. Formal Regions Borders are easy to track and slow to change.
    117. 117. Formal Regions Examples: Political regions and long lasting economic regions.
    118. 118. Functional Regions Organized around a central node.
    119. 119. Functional RegionsTied to the point by transportation and communicationsystems or by economic or functional associations.
    120. 120. Functional RegionsExamples: Subway Systems, Newspaper Distribution, Store Distribution
    121. 121. Perceptual RegionsA place that people believe exists as part of theircultural identity.
    122. 122. Perceptual RegionsInformal and varies dependent on who is definingthem.
    123. 123. Perceptual RegionsExamples: “The South” “The Country”
    124. 124. The next 10 slides ask you to identify if the region shown isformal, functional, or vernacular.
    125. 125. The Corn BeltA. FormalB. FunctionalC. Vernacular
    126. 126. The SouthA. FormalB. FunctionalC. Vernacular
    127. 127. KentuckyA. FormalB. FunctionalC. Vernacular
    128. 128. A county in KentuckyA. Formal Breckenridge CountyB. FunctionalC. Vernacular
    129. 129. Eastern KentuckyA. FormalB. FunctionalC. Vernacular
    130. 130. Eastern KentuckyA. FormalB. FunctionalC. Vernacular
    131. 131. Chicagoland (Chicago and all the areas served by the city)A. FormalB. FunctionalC. Vernacular
    132. 132. The Deep SouthA. FormalB. FunctionalC. Vernacular
    133. 133. Theme 3: Movement
    134. 134. What is movement?
    135. 135. “Movement is the way thatpeople, products, informationand ideas move from one placeto another.”
    136. 136. Compare how long it would take you to get from school to the mall (6.2 Miles) using the following forms of transportation.1) Walking (3.1 MPH)2) Horse (15 MPH)3) Car (45 MPH)4) Helicopter (100 MPH)
    137. 137. How has the time it takes to travelchanged through the years? Why?
    138. 138. What is distance-decay?
    139. 139. “Distance Decay is thelessening interaction betweenplaces as the friction ofdistance increases.”
    140. 140. What is friction-of-distance?
    141. 141. “Friction of Distance is theeffect of distance oninteraction between places.”
    142. 142. Distance-Decay Models for Stores
    143. 143. What is space-time compression?
    144. 144. “Space-Time Compression isthe reduction in time it takesfor something to reach anotherplace because of a change intechnology.”
    145. 145. 1500-18401850-1930 1950s 1960s 1980s
    146. 146. What determines the interaction between places?
    147. 147. Proximity The nearness to important features.
    148. 148. Connectivity Directness of routes linking pairs of places.
    149. 149. AccessibilityThe relative ease with which a destination may be reached from other locations.
    150. 150. What is the Gravity Model?
    151. 151. “The Gravity Model says thatthe interaction between twoplaces is equal to the productof the places’ populationdivided by the square of theirdistance apart.”
    152. 152. The Gravity Model
    153. 153. Insights from the Gravity Model1) Larger cities have greater gravitational pullthan small ones.2) Two large cities like Los Angeles and New Yorkcan still pull on each other even with thedistance between them.
    154. 154. What is diffusion?
    155. 155. “Diffusion is the process bywhich a characteristic spreadsacross space from one place toanother over time.”
    156. 156. What is the a Cultural Hearth?
    157. 157. A hearth is the placewhich an innovation orcultural changeoriginates.
    158. 158. How do cultural elements diffuse?
    159. 159. Core: The “most pure” areathat possesses all culturaltraits used to define a region.Domain: The area in which theculture is dominant but lessintense.Sphere: The zone of outerinfluence where people withthe culture traits can even be aminority in another region.
    160. 160. Relocation Diffusion: The diffusion of a characteristic as people move from place to place.
    161. 161. The rapid, widespreaddiffusion of a characteristicthrough the population.
    162. 162. Can you tell where the cholera outbreak started?
    163. 163. The spread of an ideafrom persons or nodesof authority or power toother persons or places.
    164. 164. Stimulus Diffusion:Spread of an idea afterreestablishing it afterinitial failure.
    165. 165. For Your Consideration:The next few slides will ask you to identify what type of diffusion is being discussed.
    166. 166. Fashion Trends from cities to surrounding areas.A. ContagiousB. HierarchicalC. StimulusD. Relocation
    167. 167. Christianity not being adopted by its initiating group (the Jews)A. ContagiousB. HierarchicalC. StimulusD. Relocation
    168. 168. The serving of Lamb Burgers at McDonalds in IndiaA. ContagiousB. HierarchicalC. StimulusD. Relocation
    169. 169. When missionaries try to convert kings first to spread their religion.A. ContagiousB. HierarchicalC. StimulusD. Relocation
    170. 170. The spread of Islam from Mecca from individual to individualA. ContagiousB. HierarchicalC. StimulusD. Relocation
    171. 171. Italians teaching Americans to make pizza when they moved to North America.A. ContagiousB. HierarchicalC. StimulusD. Relocation
    172. 172. Theme 4: Place
    173. 173. “Place is an area that is definedby everything in it.”
    174. 174. How do geographers analyze space?
    175. 175. How does the big affect the small? Whatcharacteristicsof the small are Scale How does the small affect thecharacteristics of the big? Asks big? What characteristics of the big are part of the small?
    176. 176. How does your perception of cancer rates changewhen you look at a country and state level map?
    177. 177. What is distribution?
    178. 178. DensityHow many things are in one square unit of space?
    179. 179. Concentration How closely are things related to one another in a space?
    180. 180. PatternHow are things arranged in a space?
    181. 181. How does this imagedemonstrate the properties of density, concentration, and pattern?
    182. 182. Describe this classroom using the words density, concentration, and pattern.
    183. 183. Theme 5: Human/Environment Interaction
    184. 184. “Human-EnvironmentalInteraction is how humansmodify, adapt to, and dependon their environment. CulturalEcology is the study of human-environment relationships.”
    185. 185. Environmental Determinism How a People have physical the ability to environment adjust to causes social their development. environment. Possibilism
    186. 186. End of Unit 1