Presentation 06 - Cellular and Plant Transport

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Presentation 06 - Cellular and Plant Transport

  1. 1. Transport and Circulation
  2. 2. We’ll be discussing <ul><li>Cellular Transport </li></ul><ul><li>Plant Tissues and Transport in Plants </li></ul><ul><li>Trends and Various Strategies Used by Animals to Transport Materials </li></ul><ul><li>Transport in Man </li></ul><ul><li>Disorders of the Circulatory System </li></ul>
  3. 3. Membranes and cellular transport
  4. 4. Active vs Passive Transport
  5. 7. Transport of large molecules
  6. 8. Summary of Transport Processes Diffusion Osmosis Facilitated Diffusion Pumps Endocytosis/exocytosis Direction High to Low High to Low High to Low Low to High N/A Transport Mechanism Pores Pores Channels Pumps Membrane Energy Required? No No No Yes Yes Type of particle Small, nonpolar Water Small-medium Ions Small-large Examples of particles CO 2 , O 2 H 2 O Glucose, fructose, Na + , Ca +2 Na + , K + , H + Food, waste
  7. 9. Transport within the eukaryotic cell <ul><li>Endomembrane system </li></ul><ul><li>Endoplasmic reticulum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>manufacturing and transport facility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>proteins produced in rough ER are packaged in vesicles </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Golgi apparatus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>modification and storage facility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>receiving end and shipping end </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Vacuole </li></ul><ul><ul><li>large membrane bound sacs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>usually stores undigested nutrients </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cyclosis/cytoplasmic streaming </li></ul>
  8. 10. TRANSPORT IN PLANTS
  9. 12. VASCULAR TISSUES: XYLEM AND PHLOEM <ul><li>Xylem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tracheids* </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vessel elements* </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parenchyma cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fiber </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Phloem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sieve-tube members </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Companion cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sclerenchyma fibers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parenchyma cells </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Both are continuous throughout the plant body </li></ul>
  10. 13. OVERVIEW OF TRANSPORT IN A VASCULAR PLANT
  11. 14. CELLULAR LEVEL TRANSPORT <ul><li>Plant cells can maintain an internal environment different from their surroundings </li></ul>
  12. 15. SHORT-DISTANCE H 2 O TRANSPORT IN THE ROOT
  13. 16. WATER AND MINERALS ASCEND THROUGH THE XYLEM ROOT PRESSURE TRANSPIRATION–COHESION–TENSION THEORY Tension – negative pressure
  14. 17. STOMATA HELP REGULATE THE RATE OF TRANSPIRATION <ul><li>Leaves – broad surface areas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase photosynthesis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase water loss through stomata (transpiration) </li></ul></ul>Turgid Flaccid Lower epidermal tissue Trichomes (“hairs”) Cuticle Upper epidermal tissue Stomata 100  m
  15. 18. Turgid Flaccid
  16. 19. ORGANIC NUTRIENTS ARE TRANSLOCATED THROUGH THE PHLOEM (PRESSURE – FLOW MODEL) <ul><li>Translocation – transport of organic molecules in the plant </li></ul><ul><li>Phloem sap </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mostly sucrose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sugar source  sugar sink </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Source is a producer of sugar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sink is a consumer/storage facility for sugar </li></ul></ul>Vessel (xylem) H 2 O H 2 O Sieve tube (phloem) Source cell (leaf) Sucrose H 2 O Sink cell (storage root) 1 Sucrose Loading of sugar (green dots) into the sieve tube at the source reduces water potential inside the sieve-tube members. This causes the tube to take up water by osmosis. 2 4 3 1 2 This uptake of water generates a positive pressure that forces the sap to flow along the tube. The pressure is relieved by the unloading of sugar and the consequent loss of water from the tube at the sink. 3 4 In the case of leaf-to-root translocation, xylem recycles water from sink to source. Transpiration stream Pressure flow

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