Compiler Construction


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Translation of a program written in a source language into a semantically equivalent program written in a target language

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Compiler Construction

  1. 1. Lecture 5
  2. 2. The Context of a Compiler • In addition to a compiler; several other programs may be required to create an executable target program. • A source program may be divided into modules stored in separate files. • The task of collecting the source program is sometimes entrusted to a distinct program called a preprocessor.
  3. 3. The Context of a Compiler • The target program created by compiler may require further processing before it can be run. • The compiler creates assembly code that is translated by an assembler into machine code and then linked together with some library routines into the code that actually runs on the machine.
  4. 4. Preprocessors, Compilers, Assemblers, and Linkers Preprocessor Compiler Assembler Linker Skeletal Source Program Source Program Target Assembly Program Relocatable Object Code Absolute Machine Code Libraries and Relocatable Object Files 5
  5. 5. Analysis of the source program Linear analysis: • In which the stream of characters making up the source program is read from left to right and grouped into tokens that are sequences of characters having a collective meaning. • In compiler, linear analysis is also called LEXICAL ANALYSIS or SCANNING
  6. 6. Analysis of the source program Hierarchical Analysis: • In which characters or tokens are grouped hierarchically into nested collections with collective meaning. • In compiler, hierarchical analysis is called parsing or syntax analysis.
  7. 7. Analysis of the source program Semantic analysis: • In which certain checks are performed to ensure that the components of a program fit together meaningfully.
  8. 8. Semantic Analysis – Complications • Handling ambiguity – Semantic ambiguity: “I saw the Habib Bank Plaza flying into Karachi”
  9. 9. Lexical Analysis • For example in lexical analysis the characters in the assignment statement position := initial + rate * 60 would be grouped into the following tokens. 1. The identifier position 2. The assignment symbol := 3. The identifier initial 4. The plus + sign 5. The identifier rate 6. The multiplication sign * 7. The number 60
  10. 10. Syntax Analysis • It involves grouping the tokens of the source program into grammatical phrases that are tied by the compiler to synthesize output. • Usually the grammatical phrases of the source program are represented by a parse tree.
  11. 11. Parse tree := identifier identifier identifier + * 60 Assignment statement position : = initial + rate * 60 position expression expression expression expression initial expression rate number
  12. 12. Parse tree tokens • In expression position: = initial + rate * 60 the phrase rate * 60 is a logical unit. • As multiplication is performed before addition. • The expression initial + rate is followed by a *, it is not grouped into a single phrase by itself.
  13. 13. Rules to identify an expression Rule 1. Any identifier is an expression Rule 2. Any number is an expression Rule 3. If expression1 and expression2 are expressions, then so are expression1 + expression2 expression1 * expression2
  14. 14. Explanation of rules • Rule (1) and (2) are (non-recursive) basic rules, while (3) defines expression in terms of operators applied to other expressions. • By Rule (1), initial and rate are expressions • By Rule (2), 60 is an expression • By Rule (3), we can first infer that rate*60 is an expression & finally that initial + rate * 60 is an expression
  15. 15. Rule to identify a statement • If identifier1 is an identifier, and expression2 is an expression then identifier1 : = expression2 is a statement
  16. 16. Lecture 6
  17. 17. Context free grammar • Lexical constructs do not require recursion, while syntactic constructs often do. • Context free grammars are a formalization of recursive rules that can be used to guide syntactic analysis.
  18. 18. Context free grammar • For example recursion is not required to recognize identifiers, which are typically strings of letters and digits beginning with a letter. • We would normally recognize identifiers by a simple scan of the input stream, waiting until a character that was neither a letter nor a digit was found • And then grouping all the letters and digits found up to that point into an identifier token. • The characters so grouped are recorded in a table called a symbol table, and remove from the input so that processing of the next token can begin.
  19. 19. Phases of Compiler Syntax Analyzer Lexical Analyzer Semantic Analyzer Intermediate code generator Code optimizer Code generator Target Program Source Program Symbol table Manger Error Handler
  20. 20. Symbol table Management • An essential function of a compiler is to record the identifiers used in the source program and collect information about various attributes of each identifier. • These attributes may provide information about the storage allocated for an identifier, its type, its scope (where in the program it is valid) etc
  21. 21. Symbol table • A symbol table is a data structure containing a record for each identifier, with fields for the attributes of the identifier. • The data structure allow us to find the record for each identifier quickly and to store or retrieve data from that record quickly. • When an identifier in the source program is detected by the lexical analyzer, the identifier is entered into the symbol table.
  22. 22. Error detection and Reporting • Each phase can encounter errors. • After detecting an error, a phase must somehow deal with that error, so that compilation can proceed, allowing further errors in the source program to be detected. • A compiler that stops when it finds the first error is not as helpful as it could be.
  23. 23. Error detection and Reporting • The syntax and semantic analysis phases usually handle a large fraction of the errors detectable by the compiler. • The lexical phase can detect errors where the characters remaining in the input do not form any token of the language. • Errors where the token stream violates the structure rules (Syntax) of the language are determined by the syntax analysis phase.
  24. 24. Error detection and Reporting • During semantic analysis the compiler tries to detect constructs that have the right syntactic structure but no meaning to the operation involved. • For example if we try to add two identifiers, one of which is the name of an array and the other the name of a procedure.
  25. 25. The Analysis Phase position : = initial + rate * 60 • The lexical analysis phase reads the characters in the source program and groups them into a stream of tokens in which each token represents a logically cohesive sequence of characters, such as an identifier, a keyword (if, while etc), a punctuation character or a multi-character operator like := • The character sequence forming a token called the lexeme for the token.
  26. 26. The Analysis Phase (Cont..) • Certain tokens will be augmented by a “lexical value”. • For example when an identifier like rate is found, the lexical analyzer not only generates token, say id, but also enters the lexeme rate into the symbol table, if it is not already there.
  27. 27. Intermediate code generation • After syntax and semantic analysis, some compilers generate an explicit intermediate representation of the source program. • This intermediate representation has two important properties; – It should be easy to produce – Easy to translate into the target machine
  28. 28. Intermediate code generation • The intermediate representation can have a variety of forms. • It may called as “three address code”, which is like the assembly language for a machine in which every memory location can act like a register.
  29. 29. Intermediate code generation • Three address code consists of a sequence of instructions, each of which has at most three operands. • The source program might appear in three address code as temp1 := inttoreal (60) temp2 := id3 * temp1 temp3 := id2 + temp2 id1 := temp3
  30. 30. Intermediate code generation := + * id 1 id 2 id 3 nu
  31. 31. Intermediate code generation • The intermediate form has several properties. • First each three address instruction has at most one operator in addition to the assignment. • Thus when generating these instructions, the compiler has to decide on the order in which operations are to be done.
  32. 32. Intermediate code generation • In our example the multiplication precedes the addition in the source program. • Second the compiler must generate a temporary name to hold the value computed by each instruction. • Third, some “three address” instructions have fewer than three operands for example the first and last instruction in our example.
  33. 33. Code Optimization • The code optimization phase attempts to improve the intermediate code, so the faster running machine code will result.
  34. 34. Code Optimization temp1 := id3 * 60.0 Id1 := id2 + temp1 • There is nothing wrong with this simple algorithm; since the problem can be fixed during the code optimization phase. • The compiler can deduced that the conversion of 60 from integer to real representation can be done once and for all at compile time; so the inttoreal operation can be eliminated. • Besides temp3 is used only once, to transmit its value to id1. • It then becomes safe to substitute id1 for temp3, whereupon the last statement of intermediate code is not needed and the optimized code results.
  35. 35. Code Optimization • There is a great variation in the amount of code optimization different compiler performs. • In those that do the most, called “optimizing compilers” • A significant fraction of the time of the compiler is spent on this phase
  36. 36. Code generation • The final phase of the compiler is the generation of target code, consisting normally of relocatable machine code or assembly code. • Memory locations are selected for each of the variables used by the program. • Intermediate instructions are each translated into a sequence of machine instructions that perform the same task. • A crucial aspect is the assignment of variable to register.
  37. 37. Code generation • The first and second operands of each instruction specify a source and destination respectively. • The F in each instruction tells us that instructions deal with floating point numbers
  38. 38. Code optimization & Code generation