III YR BSC. NURSING
The Teratogenic property of
the infection was documented
by an Australian
McAlister Gregg, in 1941
Rubella, commonly known as German
measles, is a disease caused by Rubella virus.
The name is derived from the Latin, meaning
Rubella is also known as German measles
because the disease was first described by
German physicians, Friedrich Hoffmann, in the
Rubella is a disease caused by the rubella virus.
Also known as German Measles or 3 day
Rubella is usually a mild illness.
Most people who have had rubella or the
vaccine are protected against the virus for the
rest of their lives.
Because of routine vaccination against rubella
since 1970 , rubella is now rarely reported
Rubella virus is single
stranded RNA virus
Diameter 50 – 70 nm
Virus multiply in the
cytoplasm of infected cell
• Caused by an RNA virus of the togavirus
• It can be propagated in cell culture
• Large no of rubella infections are Sub- clinical.
• It is much less communicable than measles.
• It probably extends from a week before
symptoms to about a week after rash appears.
•Disease of childhood (3-10 years)
•One attacks results in life long immunity;
second attacks are rare.
• 40 % of women of child bearing age are
susceptible to rubella in India,
Disease usually occurs in a seasonal
pattern i.e. in temperate zones during
the later winter and spring, with
epidemics of every 4-9 years
The virus is transmitted directly from person to
person by droplet nuclei from nose and throat.
The portal of entry is via the respiratory route.
The virus can cross the placenta and infect the
foetus in uterus, leading to congenital rubella
in new born
Low grade fever
Rash starts on Face
Rarely lasts more than 5
No features of the rash
give clues to definitive
diagnosis of Rubella.
"Rubella infection in
pregnant women during
the first three months of
pregnancy may result in
the baby being born with
birth defects or
Occurs in Neonates and Childhood
Lasts for 13 – 15 days
Leads to development of antibodies
The appearance of antibodies
coincides the appearance of
suggestive immulogic basis for the
In 20 – 50 % cases of primary
infections are subclinical
Congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) refers to
infants born with defects secondary to
It occurs if the infant has IgM rubella
antibodies shortly after birth or IgG antibodies
persist for more than 6 months, by the time
maternally derived antibodies would have
the most common and major defects are
deafness, cardiac malformations and cataracts.
deafness cataracts PDA
Other defects includes
Intrauterine growth retardation
Mental and motor retardation
Throat swab culture for virus isolation and
Haemagglutination inhibition test (HAI)
Others includes ELISA test and radio-immune
There is no specific treatment for Rubella;
management is a matter of responding to
symptoms to diminish discomfort.
Rubella vaccine is given to children at 15
months of age as a part of the MMR (measles-
Isolation of the patient.
Strict avoidance of close contact with patient.
Vaccination to girls(11-14 years), duration of
immunity pffered being 10 years.
Other precautionary measures are needed as
applied to air borne infection.
The MMR vaccine is a mixture of three live
attenuated viruses, administered via injection
for immunization against measles, mumps
It is generally administered to children around
the age of one year, with a second dose before
starting school (i.e. age 4/5).
The second dose is not a booster; it is a dose to
produce immunity in the small number of
persons (2-5%) who fail to develop measles
immunity after the first dose.