Middle East Vocabulary• PLO- • Terrorism-Palestinian Liberation Orgization Use of fear and violence to gain• Jihad- controlReligious War • Extremist-• Shi’ite- Religion to extreme, uses terrorismExtremist religious sect • Islamic• Hamas- Fundamentalism-Islamic/Muslim resistance group Diverse political/social movements in Muslim countries• Ayatollah-Most educated shi’ite.Legal Expert • Shah- Leader of Iran,(Muslim)• R.Khomeini-Lead resistance in Iran • Hejab- Traditional Islamic Woman Dress• Al Queda- • Taliban-Extremist group, use terror tactic Strict Islamic Regime
Dessert GoldAdding trouble to turmoil in the Middle East
The Trouble with Power• What are the two most important resource in the Middle East?• What is the land/geography of the Middle East?• What is the culture of the Middle east?• What are some middle eastern countries?
The Trouble with Power• Oil and Water• Limited rain fall, desserts, mountains, densely populated near water reserves, scarcely populated further away• Culturally diverse, 30+ different languages, ties to tradition and independence, long lasting territory disputes• Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Afghanistan, Israel, Palestine, Saudi Arabia
Middle East Tensions• How did the Arab-Israeli conflict affect US relations with the Middle East?• Who are some members of OPEC?• What is the common form of government in the Middle East?• What type of economic policies did some middle eastern countries try in the 1950’s?
Middle East Tensions• Tensions between which side the US stands on, causes a tangle of alliances. (US supports Israel, but has trade agreements with other nations who are against Israel which causes tension)• Iran, Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Kuwait• Authoritarian, single party, dictator or monarch• Socialism
Whoever controls the Water controls Life• Why is water such an important resource?• Why is control of the rivers so important in the Middle East?• How can this control add to the tensions in the Middle East?
Whoever controls the Water controls Life• Water is vital to live and limited in most Middle Eastern territories and population is growing• Control of water gives a country power and control over other area’s• Countries will become dependant and resentful and dispute the control if the river flows through numerous areas/ country in control and shut off water supplies
Black Gold• Why is oil considered to be “black gold”?• Why is oil currently more important then water, in the Middle East?• How does oil add to the “Have/Have Not’s” tensions?• Why do you think that most Middle Eastern territories have authoritarian governments ruling their country?
Black Gold• For the amount of foreign money it brings the country• Right now, the whole world and major superpowers are dependent on oil• Countries that have oil have money to modernize and survive. Countries that don’t, struggle and are still backwards• Need a tight control of resources, greed, safety of their country’s survival
Black Gold Problems• How does religion play a role in the fight to control oil, water and peace?• Why do you think countries, such as the United States have a strong military presence in the Middle East?• How do foreign relations play a role in oil trade?
Black Gold Problems• Belief that you have the ancient right to live and control your area, but everyone claims the same spot• Maintain peace, ensure safety of oil reserves, follow UN policies to protect human rights• If Middle Eastern country does not get along with foreign country, shut off oil trade
Islamic Revival• What is the Islamic Revival?• How does it affect foreign relations?• How does this revival affect extremist groups in the Middle East?• Are all extremists terrorists?
Islamic Revival• Bringing back traditional religious values• Does not like western influence, increase tensions between Islamic reformists and the west• They used the revival as justification for terrorist acts• No. There are terrorists that claim to be reformists.
Creation of Israel1. What is Zionism?2. What was the Balfour Declaration?3. How did the Balfour Declaration impact the Zionist movement?
Creation of Israel1. What is Zionism?Zionism is the ideology holds that the Jews are a people or nation like any other, and should gather together in a single homeland. Zionists were in support of creating Israel.2. What was the Balfour Declaration?The Balfour Declaration, a letter from British Foreign Secretary Arthur James Balfour to Lord Rothschild in which the British made public their support of a Jewish homeland in Palestine.3. Gave foreign support to Zionism
Your Turn• Using your knowledge of the Middle East, research 3 current event issues within the last 3 days. Who was involved, what was the issue, what was the US/UN response?