Cultural geography

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Cultural geography

  1. 1. Cultural Geography
  2. 2. Culture <ul><ul><li>Culture: shared set of meanings that are lived through the material and symbolic practices of everyday life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3 elements: that we have invented and passed on to subsequent generations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ideas: </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Language, music, belief systems, and moral and gender codes </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Materials </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Living and inert items that humans use: clothing, houses, office buildings, factories, domesticated plants and animals etc. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Institutions </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Formal and informal associations that help us get along together </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Formal: religious organizations, governments, corporations, NGO’s </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Informal: family, community and society </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Culture <ul><li>Cultural traits: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A single aspect of the routine practices of a particular cultural group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>e.g., Sikhs can be identified by their </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>turbans, beards, or steel bracelets on their right wrists </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May not be unique to one group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prohibition on eating pork is shared by Muslims and Jews </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Combination of traits is a cultural complex </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Culture and cultural groups <ul><li>Culture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>easily defined broadly but difficult to tie down </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cultural Group </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People with shared </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>identity, beliefs, a way of life, and often same territory </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Still difficult e.g., </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sikh farmer in the Punjab </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sikh lawyer in London </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How much truly in common? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Cultural Regions/Landscape <ul><ul><li>The direct and indirect expression of culture on the landscape forms the CULTURAL LANDSCAPE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Seen in agricultural patterns, settlement patterns, architectural form and various other changes that we have made to the natural environment </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Religion
  7. 7. 4 major religions
  8. 8. Islam <ul><li>Islam </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emerges 7 th century </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rapidly spreads (and unifies the Arabian Pensinula) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Continues to spread beyond Saudi Arabia </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Iran (Persia) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>North Africa </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Spain </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Eastern Europe </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pakistan </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>South East Asia </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>~One billion (1/6 of world population) adherents </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Islam
  10. 10. Islam <ul><ul><li>Islam=“Submission” to the will of Allah </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Allah is the Arabic word for God. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Muslim=“one who submits” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Archangel Gabriel reveals the principles of the religion to the Prophet Muhammad </li></ul></ul>Mecca, Saudi Arabia
  11. 11. Islam <ul><li>Muslim belief </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allah begins to reveal himself </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To Adam, Abraham, Moses & others (Old Testament) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Jesus, John the Baptist (New Testament) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Muhammad (ultimate revelation) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Muslims see a direct linkage between the peoples of the holy book (Bible) and Islam </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>But Islam is the correct religion because </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ultimate revelation </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Islam <ul><li>3 theological “foundations” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Qur’an: revelations from Archangel Gabriel to Muhammad i.e., words of God </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hadith: Muhammad’s words </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>9 th century: Scholars codify into six recognized collections of tradition </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accounts of Muhammad’s deeds </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sunna: ‘the beaten path’ or custom of Islam </li></ul>
  13. 13. Islam <ul><li>5 central principles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Belief in Allah </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>As the only God and Muhammad as his prophet </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Daily prayer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dawn, noon, mid-afternoon, sunset, evening </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Public calls to prayer from the Mosque </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Islam <ul><ul><li>Fasting (Ramadan) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fast from sunrise to sunset for one month each year </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No food or water </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Purpose: Purification and family/community </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Iftar: Breaking the fast </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Exceptions: for sick, traveling –may substitute days </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. North Africa and Southwest Asia <ul><ul><li>Charity (Zakat) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>At least 2.5% of wealth to be given to the ppor </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Progressive –higher % if wealthy </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Based on the recognition of the injustice of economic inequity </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pilgrimage (Hajj) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mecca -- birth place of Muhammad </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Medina – site of Muhammad’s Mosque and burial place </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Note: Jerusalem also holy to Muslims </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Where Muhammad ascended into Heaven </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. North Africa and Southwest Asia <ul><li>Shar’ia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Islamic religious law </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Guides life according to the Qur’an </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some Muslims believe no other law is necessary </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Islam does not recognize a separation of religion and the state </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some Islamic countries are Theocratic (Government controlled by religious authority) States </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>e.g., Saudi Arabia, UAE, Oman, Iran </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Other Islamic countries are secular </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>e.g., Egypt, Morocco, Iraq, Turkey, Tunisia </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Great diversity of practices and observation in Islamic Countries </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. North Africa and Southwest Asia <ul><li>Two major groups of Muslims </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Division goes back to death of Muhammad in 632 and who should be the successor </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sunni (~90%) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Clerics choose who succeeds Muhammad </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shia (Shi’ite) (10%) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Blood relative to succeed </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ali, Muhammad’s son in law </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Geography of: see next slide. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conflict and cooperation, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Intermarriage, mixed tribal groups, mixed regions </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><ul><ul><li>Shia: Iran, southern Iraq and southern Lebanon. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Smaller Shiite communities in Saudi Arabia and Syria, Afghanistan, Pakistan and India as well. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Geography of Shia and Sunni
  19. 19. Islam <ul><li>Islamic Fundamentalism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Object to Western Culture: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Liberalization of women’s roles </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Globalization of western culture </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Open sexuality, consumerism, hedonism, economic inequality </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>undermining important Islamic values </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Family, community </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seek reaffirmation of traditional values </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Islam <ul><li>Most Muslims share this view: (3 groups) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Moderates: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some contradictions here also </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Elements of western culture also “consumed” in Islamic countries—especially by moderate Muslims </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fundamentalists: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>strict interpretation of Qur’an </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Simple, prayerful life </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on family, community </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Traditional gender roles and respect for elderly </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Insolate themselves from the West </li></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Islam <ul><li>Islamists: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Violent revolution against </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>All powerful and insensitive West </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Islamists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Greatest threat to the stability of the Middle East? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Only country overthrown by Islamists was (arguably) Iran </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>But significant presence in a number of countries (e.g., Egypt, Algeria, Iraq, Afghanistan </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Were traditionally “nationally focused” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Metastized into global movement with Al-Qaida and arguably Iraq. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Islamism and conflict <ul><li>Complex issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not all Islamic “terrorists” are Islamists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Terrorist versus Freedom Fighter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Who chooses the label? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>State sponsored terrorism? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Terror as tactic </li></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Islam <ul><li>Attractiveness of Islamist philosophy for violent overthrow </li></ul><ul><li>Economic and Political Injustice in these countries </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Recruits : </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>young urban men from poor neighborhoods </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>descendents of displaced farmers and nomads </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Refugees from various conflicts </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Living in crowded, polluted, chaotic conditions in largest cities </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t believe in their governments </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>See their governments being helped by the U.S. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Islam <ul><li>Attractiveness of Islamist philosophy for violent overthrow </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Economic and Political Injustice in these countries </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Leaders </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Educated </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Disenfranchised politically/economically </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>unless they go along with the system </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Frustrated with inability to fix the system </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Islamism --Philosophy <ul><li>Poor conditions in Arab world because </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Governments have moved away from Islam </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Governments have become secular </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>West hates Islam </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>You have moved away from Islam </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Return to Islam </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Return to the “Glory Days” when Islam was a major influence in Global Affairs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Corruption will disappear </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Life will be good </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>You will be respected </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Need to destroy the West because the West doesn’t want this to happen </li></ul>
  26. 26. Hinduism <ul><ul><li>Hinduism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a way of life </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a religious belief </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>900m adherents </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>800m in India </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Broad range of beliefs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Little tradition </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rooted in one region and linked to localized folk traditions </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Great Tradition </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Classic central beliefs </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Hinduism <ul><li>Great Traditions based on combination of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Harappa people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Original inhabitants </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>~ 4,500bc </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arya </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>~ 1,500 B.C. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1 st invaders </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Texts written in ancient sanskrit </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>Most Hindu’s worship a number of gods and goddesses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>But some difference between </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shiva </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Creator and destroyer of universe </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vishnu </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Preserver of universe </li></ul></ul></ul>
  29. 29. <ul><li>Hindu concepts of Divinity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Somewhat flexible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ all gods are merely illusory manifestations of the ultimate divinity which is formless and infinite” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some very devout Hindus don’t worship any gods for this reason </li></ul></ul></ul>Ganesha God of Knowledge
  30. 30. <ul><li>4 central tenets </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Belief in reincarnation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If you desire the illusionary pleasures (and pains) of life you will be reborn after you die </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inevitability of a hierarchical life and afterlife </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rigid social structure defined through the caste system </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Hinduism <ul><ul><li>Goodness of holy men and their rejection of material things </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All creatures are ranked with human on the top </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One’s condition in life (plant animal, human) is determined by Karma </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Deeds done in previous lives </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ultimate goal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Liberation from the cycle of rebirth and re-death </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>achieve salvation and eternal peace through union with the Brahman , the universal soul </li></ul></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Caste <ul><li>Humans are divided into Castes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>System for dividing society into hereditary hierarchal classes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>One is born into a given subcaste (jati) and that largely defines one’s experience for life </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Where you will live </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Where and with whom you can eat and drink </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>With whom you will socialize </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Who you marry </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Type of job </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If one conforms to the prescribed social and ritual duties and observes the rules of conduct for the assigned caste </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Better chance of promotion to a higher caste in the next life </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  33. 33. <ul><li>A caste </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Represents a group of Jati’s tied together by a set of associated characteristics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jati’s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Often linked to particular places </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Eg., village, neighborhood (often with a particular language or dialect) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Segregated </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Higher caste” Jati’s will not be ritually polluted by sharing water or food. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  34. 34. <ul><li>Castes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brahmins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Priestly caste ; most privileged in rituals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Must conform to “ritually purer practices (e.g., strict vegetarianism) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kshatriyas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Warriors and rulers </li></ul></ul></ul>
  35. 35. <ul><ul><ul><li>Vaishyas </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>landowning farmers and merchants </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sudras </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Low status laborers and artisans </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Harijans (Dalits) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Untouchables (technically considered so low as to not be a caste) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Do the “dirty work”; killing animals, tanning hides, sweeping and cleaning </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Caste <ul><li>Caste is different from class </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ie., class differences within caste groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Just because you are lower caste doesn’t mean you are poor </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Often is the case, however </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Caste: banned from 1947 constitution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Affirmative action programs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increase participation of lower castes in higher education </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Places set aside in parliament for lower castes </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Slowing declining as a force in society </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Especially in cities were people can separate from their ancestral Jati </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bustees </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Slum (immigrant) neighborhoods in Cities that have strong Jati identity </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Buddhism <ul><li>Founded in 6 th century BC in part as a rejection of Hinduism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Siddhartha Gautama </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the Buddha (enlightened one) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A moral philosophy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>offers an explanation for evil and human suffering </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rather than a formal religion </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  38. 38. Buddhism <ul><li>4 noble truths </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Existence involves suffering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suffering is the result of desire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pain ceases when desire is destroyed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The destruction of desire comes through knowledge of correct behavior and thoughts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Borobudur, Indonesia largest Buddhist Monument in the World </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. Buddhism <ul><ul><li>Also maintains the concept of Karma </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ultimate goal: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nirvana </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a condition of perfect enlightenment and the cessation of successive rebirths </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Buddhist missionaries instructed to carry his message but open to all castes, creeds, and peoples </li></ul></ul>

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