Contents/Areas: Trends & Issues• Issues & Trends: global, regional, national• Trends and issues & their effects on: - Nursing Education - Nursing Research - Nursing Management - Nursing Service• Ethics• Legal aspects of Nursing
Contents/Areas: Trends & Issues (continue):• Health care advocacy• Use of computer technology/ communication technology• Recent roles: nurse practionars, nurse specialist, clinical nurse, primary care etc• Future direction and factors affecting in: - Health care in Nepal/health care system - Nursing education system
Contents/Areas: Trends & Issues (continue):• Recording and reporting system• Professional organizations: ICN, NAN, NNC• Profession• Cultural influences• International nursing• Image of nursing• Future challenges of Nursing.
ISSUES AND TRENDS IN NURSING• Historical Overview• Evolution of nursing science and practice• Economics of health care• Social policy and health care delivery• Cultural influence on nursing• Legal aspects of nursing• Ethical aspects on nursing• Nursing education• Licensure and related issues in nursing
ISSUES AND TRENDS IN NURSING (Continue):• Continuing education for relicensure• Rural nursing• Urban nursing• International nursing• Image of nursing• The future challenges for nurses and nursing
Introduction:Nursing has been called the oldest of the art,and the youngest of the profession. As such, ithas gone through many stages and has been anintegral part of social movements. Nursing hasbeen involved in the existing culture, shaped byit and yet beeping to develop it. The trendanalysis and future scenarios provide a basis forsound decision making through mapping ofpossible futures and aiming to create preferredfutures.
The Future: A challenge for Nurses and Nursing• Expanding Technology• Computer assistance• New threats to health• Nurses enter private practice• Collegiality among health profession (Multidisciplinary Team Approach)• Educational preparation: building toward unity• Changing in Role Image• Unification of practice and education• Self-governance• Recruitment of the best candidates in to nursing• Lateral mobility for nurses
Trend analysis in Nursing: -1. Knowledge and Information being major source2. Technology more widely used: rapid changes3. Greater, faster, access to information4. Declining philanthropy (love of mankind)5. A more highly educated public6. Continued focus on evidence and value for money7. Access to care a key issues
8. More ethical dilemmas for the health system9. Human rights an ongoing concerns10. Better educated and more mobile health work force11. Greater use of information of communication technology12. Greater investment in research and development13. Increasing networking and working together14. Rising skill requirements
Trend analysis in Nursing: -10. Continuing misdistribution of providers11. Push to freer movement of professionals in pasting standards and regulation12. Role blurring and more shared competencies13. New areas of nursing specialization14. Growth of entrepreneurs, more to community and push for more autonomy in practice
15. Nursing shortage and graying workforce as key issues in many countries16. Nursing seen as a cost – effective approach to health17. Nursing positioned to lead health care and influential in health policy18. A new opportunities for nursing
The world health organization (WHO) hasbeen considering the future and predicts that by 2000 the world experiences:1. Major growth in the elderly population2. Decline in birthrate, especially in western countries.3. Increases in chronic illness4. Continuing social unrest5. AIDS a major problem6. Many infectious diseases under control7. Mental health a key issue8. Poverty continuing to plague mach of the world.
Emerging trends in Nursing:• Professional judgment• Defining "Care"• Information system / effective communication• Electronic network / computer link• Problem based learning• Marketing privatization• Nursing standard• Nursing audit• Nursing research
Emerging trends in Nursing (continue):• Multidisciplinary health team• Independent area of practice• Community based nursing• Holistic care approach• Specialized services (dialysis, Psychiatric etc.)• Problem based learning• Distance learning (open university system)• Self – directed learning• Continuing education• Use of advanced technology• Consumer protection act on action
Emerging trends in Nursing (continue):• Change in uniform and dress code• Utilization of married nurses• Specialization• Leadership of nursing in 21st century• Human relation in nursing• Disaster management• Marketing strategies for nursing• Computer application in nursing• Space nursing• Nurse patient relationship• Provision for nursing consultant / specialist.
TRANSITIONS TAKING PLACE: IN HEALTH CARE.• Curative – Preventive approaches• Specialized care – Primary health care• Medical diagnosis – Patient emphasis• Discipline stovepipes – Programme stovepipes• Professional identity – Team identity• Trial and error – Evidence based practice• Self – regulation – Questioning of professions• Focus on quality – Focus on costs
IN THE WORKPLACE• High tech – Humanistic• Competition – Cooperation• Need to supervise – Coaching, mentoring• Hierarchies – Decentralized approach
IN NURSING• Continued competencies – Competencies a condition• Hospital environment – Community environment• Quality as excellence – Quality as safe• Clear role – Blurring roles