For a review of spelling rules addressing how to add –ed and –ing to verbs, see eslprintables PowerPoints http://www.eslprintables.com/powerpoint.asp?id=15583#thetop And http://www.eslprintables.com/powerpoint.asp?id=15342#thetop
Blah, blah, blah… …Mmmmmmm Tom Bob• What is happening in this picture?• What do you think Tom is thinking? And Bob?
I am SO not interested! Wow, I’m so interesting! He is boring me to death! What I’m saying is really interesting! Would someoneplease just He’s interestedget me out in what I’m of here?! saying! Tom Bob Have you ever been in a situation like this?
Emotion Verbs and Adjectives• There are many verbs which communicate emotions or feelings, such as: excite interest amaze irritate horrify• Many of these verbs can be modified to form adjectives.
-ing and –ed adjective pairsThere are many pairs of adjectives derived from such verbs, for example: exciting excited interesting interested amazing amazed irritating irritated horrifying horrifiedCan you think of others?
So… What’s the difference? When we talk about emotions or feelings, we divide people or things into two categories, based on whether they• produce the emotion (the “Cause”) or• experience the emotion (the “Experiencer”)
The cause• The cause can be a thing or a person.• In this case, we use the –ing form ofthe adjective. The contortionist was amazing.
The experiencer• Usually, an experiencer is a person, who experiences the emotion or feeling.• The experiencer is affected by the cause that produces the emotion/feeling.• In this case, we use the –ed form of the adjective.
The children were amazed by the contortionist. Cause Experiencers
Compare the two adjectives: The contortionist was amazing; as a result, the children were amazed!
frightenThe movie is ________________.The girls are ________________.
frighten• The movie is frightening . (Cause)• The girls are frightened . (Experiencers)
entertainThis family is ________________.The TV show is ______________.
entertainThis family is _entertained_. (Experiencers)The TV show is _entertaining_. (Cause)
frustrateThe woman is _______________.The computer is _____________.
frustrateThe woman is frustrated . (Experiencer)The computer is frustrating . (Cause)
boreThis teacher is ________.These students are _________.
boreThis teacher is boring . (Cause)These students are bored . (Experiencers)
Your turn!Make up a pair of sentences using this verb and picture: confuse
Your turn!Make up a pair of sentences using this verb and picture: terrify
Your turn!Make up a pair of sentences using this verb and picture: relax /rɪˈlæks/
Your turn!Make up a pair of sentences using this verb and picture: embarrass /ɪmˈbærəs/
Click here to watch thisvideo to learn more about the differences between these adjectives