HIST_1302_CH_19_World War I


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HIST_1302_CH_19_World War I

  1. 1. America and World war I (1916-1920)<br />Chapter 19<br />
  2. 2. American International Relations<br />Roosevelt Corollary<br />Roosevelt announced that the U.S. would intervene to ensure the stability and solvency of Latin American nations<br />Particularly the Dominican Republic, Panama, and Cuba<br />Many of these nations were in severe debt with Europe<br />Roosevelt also wanted to build a canal across the Isthmus of Panama<br />Opened in 1914<br />
  3. 3. American International Relations<br />Taft’s Dollar Diplomacy<br />Taft tried to substitute economic force for military power<br />Money over the military<br />Use economic investment and loans for persuasion<br />Worked in the Caribbean<br />However, it alienated China, Japan, and Russia<br />
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  5. 5. American International Relations<br />Wilson’s Moral Imperialism<br />Rescinded Dollar Diplomacy and announced that he would respect Latin America’s independence<br />Believed that the spread of manufactured American goods and investments would spread democratic ideals<br />In reality, Wilson got the U.S. more involved militarily in Latin America<br />More than any President before or since<br />Wilson also got involved with the Mexican Revolution<br />Mexicans viewed American soldiers as invaders instead of liberators<br />America’s presence complicated issues in Mexico greatly<br />
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  7. 7. Principles of Just War<br />War must be waged as a last resort<br />War must be waged by a legitimate authority against another legitimate authority<br />War must be waged to redress a wrong suffered<br />War must be waged with a reasonable chance of success<br />The ultimate goal of war is to reestablish peace<br />Violence must be used proportionally to the injury suffered<br />Combatants must discriminate between mutual combatants and non-combatants (civilians)<br />
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  10. 10. World War I<br />Phase 1 – Neutrality<br />Wilson urges Americans to stay neutral in regard to the conflict in Europe<br />In reality, he and most Americans were sympathetic to the Allies<br />Early in the war, a British luxury liner named the Lusitania was sank by German submarine<br />Germany sank a few other ships, but then pledged to not attack any more ships without warning<br />These events gave American commercial ships pause and concern over Germany’s neutrality toward the U.S. <br />
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  12. 12. World War I<br />Phase 1 – Neutrality<br />Diplomats, politicians, and military experts began to debate the role the U.S. would play in world affairs; especially the situation in Europe<br />Debates over neutrality<br />Immigrants wanted the U.S. to stay neutral because Americans had a long tradition of neutrality and immigrants did not potentially want to get involved in a war against countries they shared ethnic backgrounds with<br />Progressives wanted to get involved with the war as quickly as possible<br />They believed that Wilson’s reluctance to side with the Allies was controlled by big business interests <br />
  13. 13. World War I<br />Phase 2 – Preparedness<br />By the end of 1915, Wilson began promoting a policy of preparedness regarding the conflict in Europe<br />Wilson began to negotiation with an increasingly aggressive Germany and a hostile Mexico in 1916<br />Democrats champion him as the man “Who Kept Us Out of the War”<br />In the last months of 1916, Wilson appeals for the embattled nations to work towards a “Peace Without Victory” <br />
  14. 14. World War I<br />Phase 2 – Preparedness<br />Wilson initially wanted to run his reelection campaign on a platform of Americanism and preparedness<br />Better judgment called for him to run on a platform of neutrality and “Keeping the Country out of the War”<br />Wilson wins by only a ½ million votes despite a large turnout by women voters<br />Germany violated the U.S.’s neutrality agreement shortly afterwards<br />Germany reasoned that the U.S. had declared their intent to side with the Allies because the U.S. was frequently trading with England<br />
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  16. 16. World War I<br />Phase 2 – Preparedness<br />The Zimmerman Telegram<br />A telegram from Germany to Mexico indicating that Germany would wage unrestricted warfare on the seas against the United States<br />Germany wanted to offer Mexico financial support so Mexico could reclaim its lost territory in Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona<br />After the U.S. intercepted the message, Wilson orders all American merchant ships to arm themselves<br />He also ordered the U.S. Navy to sink any aggressive submarines<br />
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  19. 19. World War I<br />Phase 3 – Declaring War<br />Five U.S. merchant ships were sunk by German submarines in March 1917<br />This propels Wilson to declare war<br />Wilson’s Secretary of War, William Jennings Bryan quits because of his fundamentalist stance against war<br />Wilson formally declares war on 2 April 1917<br />
  20. 20. World War I<br />Phase 3 – Declaring War<br />Americans initially believed they would fight the war by sending supplies to the Allies<br />However, they quickly realize they would have to commit troops because of the high casualty rates due to trench warfare in Europe<br />Americans thought the war would be like a safari<br />Propaganda greatly portrayed it as such<br />The Wilson administration enacts the Selective Service Act<br />Drafts over 2 million soldiers<br />June 1917 – American troops land in France<br />Summer 1918 – American forces combined with Allied forces were strong enough to persuade the Germans to ask for peace<br />
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  23. 23. World War I Under Just War Standards<br />Wilson constantly portrayed America as an innocent nation<br />Free of self-interest and righteous in its cause; good vs. evil<br />Americans were fighting for the rights of mankind<br />Future peace and security in the world<br />Americans desire no conquest and see no dominion<br />Wilson effectively sets the tone for how Americans view foreign policy for the rest of the century and into the 21st century<br />
  24. 24. World War I Under Just War Standards<br />A tyrannical and total evil requires a total response<br />Everyone has to be involved in the war<br />Women and minorities become involved despite significant domestic issues<br />Wilson was ultimately biased<br />Believed Germans started the problem and Britain was the savior trying to fix it<br />
  25. 25. World War I Under Just War Standards<br />Wilson’s view on conducting business on the seas while remaining neutral<br />In reality, from 1897 to 1914, American overseas investments soared to over $2.6 billion dollars<br />Unrestricted German warfare on the seas definitely cuts into profits<br />The shipping industry was vital to America’s economic prosperity<br />
  26. 26. World War I Under Just War Standards<br />Was it a just war?<br />World War I destroyed an entire generation of European men<br />Europe never recovers from World War I spiritually<br />Most stop going to church, lose hope in the traditional sense of a benevolent God loving and protecting them<br />In contrast, Americans view themselves as the victors who saved the day<br />Europe could not have won without us<br />The American clergy gets a boost from their ardent support of the war<br />Fundamentalism grows throughout the next decade<br />
  27. 27. The Progressive Clergy’s War<br />Christian fundamentalist theologians saw the war as a chance to confront the timeless problems of Christian theology in the context of total war<br />Sort of a spin on the social gospel; Americans would be serving the kingdom of God by embarking on a religious war against a pagan nation (Germany)<br />Their goals required the war to be an epic battle between good and evil<br />
  28. 28. The Progressive Clergy’s War<br />Wilson’s administration becomes intimately tied with the Progressive clergy<br />National week of prayer after war broke out in Europe<br />Wilson becomes the poster boy for Southern Baptists who believed he was God’s chosen agent to fix the ills of the world<br />
  29. 29. The Progressive Clergy’s War<br />Unique blend of social service, personal salvation, and military service<br />Pastor William P. Merrill: “The best mark of a ‘saved’ man is not that he wants to go to heaven, but that he is willing to go to China, or the battle-field in France, or to the slums of the city, or to the last dollar of his resources, or to the limit of his energy, to set forward the Kingdom of God.”<br />
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  31. 31. The Progressive Clergy’s War<br />Even after the war is over, the clergy tried anything to keep the agenda of social service, personal salvation, and military service going<br />They wanted military conscription and training to be permanent features of America<br />Always willing and diligent to go forth as Christian soldiers<br />Beginning of a new American militarism<br />
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  33. 33. Prohibition: The 18th Amendment<br />Progressive agenda called for the banning of intoxicating liquors<br />Saw national legislation as the best strategy<br />A resurgence of the temperance movement<br />World War I gave this agenda backing<br />Progressive clergy at the forefront of the media and very willing to help the Progressives out<br />The amendment did not ban all alcohol, but made it extremely difficult to obtain<br />
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  35. 35. Prohibition: The 18th Amendment<br />One of the few amendments to have a time constraint on ratification<br />Only amendment to be repealed<br />21st amendment repeals the 18th amendment<br />The 18th amendment went into effect in January 1920<br />Organized crime and illegal liquor trafficking go up astronomically<br />
  36. 36. Women’s Suffrage: The 19th Amendment <br />The U.S.’s entry into World War I threatened the suffrage movement<br />The National Women’s Party militantly fought for suffrage despite World War I<br />Urged people to vote against Senators who would not recognize women’s suffrage in the 1918 mid-term elections<br />Women’s efforts during the war won them the respect they needed to get the 19th amendment passed<br />Wilson began to publically support the amendment in January 1918<br />In August 1920, the 19th amendment was certified<br />
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  39. 39. The Espionage and Sedition Acts<br />Espionage Act of 1917 – prohibited spying, interfering with the military draft, and making “false statements” that might impede military success<br />Sedition Act of 1918 – forbade Americans to use “disloyal, profane, scurrilous, or abusive language” regarding the U.S. government, flag, or armed forces during times of war<br />The act also allowed the Postmaster General to deny mail delivery to dissenters of government policy during wartime<br />
  40. 40. The Espionage and Sedition Acts<br />Wilson’s support from the Progressive Democrats and clergy allowed him to easily support these harsh policies that fostered a culture of paranoia<br />The passage of these acts turned World War I into a holy, righteous war<br />Opposite of the just war that the United States was committed to win<br />
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  42. 42. 100 Percent Americanism<br />Overall push to Americanize – make a more homogeneous national culture<br />This became the battle cry for the Ku Klux Klan in Texas during the 1920s<br />Anti-German sentiment<br />Germans were persecuted<br />German literature was destroyed, German teachers were fired, education was almost non-existent for German-Americans during the war<br />Germans became a symbol of total and ultimate evil during World War I<br />
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  44. 44. 100 Percent Americanism<br />Eugenics Movement<br />A very Progressive idea that combined Social Darwinism with Evolution<br />Selective breeding should be applied to humans in order to improve the species<br />Eugenics professionals studied the mental characteristics of different races extensively<br />Gave anti-immigration and racism a significant boost, making it seem ‘professional’<br />Eugenics festivals<br />Prizes for families with the best lineage; awarded on a point system<br />
  45. 45. 100 Percent Americanism<br />Black Protest<br />Roosevelt and Wilson both felt that blacks were unfit for suffrage<br />Largely ignored the 14th and 15th amendments<br />W.E.B. DuBois wrote the Souls of Black Folk<br />A Progressive attempt to investigate, expose, and reconcile conflicting ideals of American freedom for blacks and whites<br />DuBois also was a co-founder of the NAACP<br />
  46. 46. Spanish Influenza<br />What is a pandemic?<br />Virtually all parts of the world are affected by an illness<br />What was the Spanish Influenza?<br />Subtype of the H1N1 flu virus (similar to the Swine flu)<br />Lasted approximately from March 1918 to June 1920<br />Began as a strain that resembled typical flu symptoms<br />Mutated into a deadlier strain in the latter part of 1918<br />
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  48. 48. Spanish Influenza<br />What was the Spanish Influenza?<br />Troop movements in war zones probably hastened the mutation of the virus<br />Due to the poor conditions the troops were living in; trenches<br />Living and traveling in small quarters and in large groups<br />Troops became the most vulnerable to the virus<br />Civilians typically developed immunity to the lighter strain of the virus<br />
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  50. 50. Spanish Influenza<br />Mortality rate<br />Roughly 3 to 6 percent of the world’s population<br />25 million dead in the first 25 weeks alone<br />Spread to the Arctic and Pacific Islands<br />Affected healthy, young adults; made the immune system go into overdrive<br />
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  53. 53. Spanish Influenza<br />Why was it called the Spanish Influenza?<br />Spain was a neutral country during World War I<br />News and media was not censored like the rest of the world<br />Gave the disproportionate notion that Spain had the most cases of the virus<br />Led people to think that the virus originated there<br />No one really knows where the virus came from<br />Survivors of the virus<br />Woodrow Wilson, Walt Disney, and Gen. John J. Pershing<br />
  54. 54. The Strike Wave of 1919<br />Wartime rhetoric regarding economic democracy and freedom helped inspire the labor uprising<br />The uprising started world-wide<br />Socialism and Communism began to influence the United States again<br />The strike wave began in Seattle in January 1919<br />Great Steel Strike – striking for union recognition, higher waves, and an 8-hour work day<br />
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  56. 56. Wilson’s Fourteen Points<br />“It took God Ten Commandments, and it took Wilson Fourteen Points”<br />Basically, this was his outline for peace and to bring about a lasting peace<br />Copies of the speech were dropped behind enemy lines as propaganda<br />He was encouraged when the Germans asked for peace<br />He thought his Fourteen Points would prevail during the peace talks<br />Ultimately, they did not<br />
  57. 57. The Treaty of Versailles<br />Peace treaty for World War I<br />Wilson attends with Great Britain and France’s leaders<br />The terms of agreement definite are not what he wanted<br />The victors take a much harsher policy towards Germany<br />Germany has to pay back all the war debt<br />Has to acknowledge they are completely responsible for the war<br />
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  59. 59. The Treaty of Versailles<br />Wilson’s language of self-determination and hope does not apply to Britain and France’s point of view<br />Wilson has to accept these terms in order to convince France and Britain regarding his “League of Nations”<br />Got support to add this into the conditions of the treaty<br />
  60. 60. Wilson’s League of Nations<br />Goal: “Making the world safe for democracy”<br />Wilson saw this as the holiest of goals and the greatest potential legacy<br />Opponents saw it as a way for America to lose its freedom of action in times of war<br />Too much legislation and red tape to go through in order to act when needed<br />The League of Nations is essentially a precursor to the United Nations<br />
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  63. 63. The Red Scare<br />Alarmed by the violent acts of a few anarchists and Communists after World War I, the government resorted to the illegal roundups of innocent people and forcible deportation of aliens<br />Lasted roughly a year and a half<br />The government’s actions encouraged lynchings and other forms of terrorism against radicals and immigrants (blacks were still included)<br />
  64. 64. The Red Scare<br />The Secretary of Labor eventually secures the release of political prisoners arrested in the witch hunt<br />This effectively causes the Red Scare to collapse<br />Makes a resurgence in the 1950s with McCarthyism<br />Republican Warren G. Harding won the 1920 election by promising a return to “normalcy”<br />Everyone was getting tired of the Progressives, Democrats, and the Red Scare<br />
  65. 65. The Red Scare<br />The Red Scare quickly subsided, but nativism, bigotry, and fear of foreign influence left its mark on the country well into the 1920s<br />Legal restrictions on immigrants increased<br />