I. Europe at War A. Invasion of Poland took just four weeks. 1. Germany used the blitzkrieg. 2. Germany and Soviet Union divided Poland. B. Spring 1940, Hitler invaded Denmark and Norway. 1. In May, Germany attacked the Netherlands, Belgium, and France. 2. Germans broke through the French lines. a. Germans surprised the French by going around their fortified border.
C. The Germans trapped the entire British army and French forces on the beaches of Dunkirk. 1. The British navy was able to evacuate 338,000 Allied troops, barely averting a complete disaster.D. On June 22, the French signed an armistice with the Germans. 1. Set up Vichy France led by Marshal Henri Petain. 2. Only Britain remained undefeated.
E. The British asked the U.S. for help. 1. U.S. had a foreign policy of Isolationism. Neutrality acts passed in the 1930s. 2. The U.S. will do nothing at first.F. Roosevelt wanted to repeal the neutrality acts and help G.B. 1. Over time the U.S. began to send food, ships, planes, and weapons to G.B.
G. Germany couldn’t attack Britain by sea unless they first controlled the air. 1. Luftwaffe began bombing British targets. 2. The British fought back but suffered critical losses.H. September, Hitler retaliated to a British attack on Berlin by shifting attacks from military targets to British cities. 1. He hoped to break British morale. 2. Actually allowed G.B. to rebuild their air power and inflict crippling losses. a. Hitler postponed the invasion of Britain indefinitely.
I. Hitler believed the way to defeat the British was to smash the Soviets. 1. He thought that the British were resisting only because they were expecting Soviet support.J. Hitler invaded the Soviet Union in June 1941. 1. Attack stretched over 1,800 miles. 2. German troops quickly captured two million soldiers by Nov. 3. Germans moved 25 miles of Moscow and then winter came.
II. Japan at War A. December 7, 1941, the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor. 1. Attacked other islands in the Pacific Ocean at the same time. 2. By spring 1942, Japan controlled most of S.E. Asia and the Pacific. B. The Japanese created the Greater East- Asia Coprosperity Sphere. 1. Their intention was to liberate the colonial nations in S.E. Asia. a. They really wanted their natural resources.
C. Japan thought that the attack at Pearl Harbor would destroy the U.S. Navy. 1. Americans would then have to accept Japanese domination in the Pacific. 2. Had the opposite effect, the American people wanted war with Japan.D. Hitler thought that the U.S. would be too involved in the Pacific to fight in Europe. 1. Four days after Pearl Harbor, he declared war on the U.S. 2. WWII was now a global war.
III. The Allies Advance A. Grand Alliance- G.B., Soviets, and the U.S. 1. Agreed to focus on military operations and ignore political differences. 2. Agreed to fight until the Axis powers surrendered unconditionally. B. Beginning of 1942, Germans continued to fight against Britain and the Soviet Union. C. By the fall of 1942, the war turned against the Germans. 1. Germans in North Africa were defeated.
D. Eastern Front, Hitler attacked Stalingrad. 1. Soviets counterattacked and surrounded the Germans. a. Cut off their supplies and forced the Germans to surrender. b. Lost some of their best troops. Hitler realized he couldn’t defeat the Soviet Union.E. 1942, Allies had their first success in the Pacific. 1. June, Battle of Midway Island- Turning point of the war. 2. Destroyed 4 Japanese carries and est. naval superiority.
F. By the fall of 1942, Allied forces were about to begin two operations against Japan. 1. 1st would move into S. China from Burma. 2. 2nd would move across the Pacific capturing some of the Japanese controlled islands. 3. Following the attacks Japanese power was diminishing.
IV. Last Years of the War A. Early 1943 Allies captured Sicily, Mussolini was removed from office. 1. New government offered to surrender. 2. Germans set Mussolini as dictator of a puppet state in N. Italy. B. Germans est. a strong defense south of Rome. 1. Allies suffered heavy losses as they advanced north. 2. They did not take Rome until June 4, 1944.
C. Normandy Invasion led by Eisenhower created a second front in Europe. 1. Allies landed two million men and a half million vehicles. a. Allies will eventually break through the German lines.D. Allies began to move to the east into France. 1. French resistance fighters rose up in Paris. 2. Paris liberated by the end of August.
E. Soviets were also pushing west towards the U.S. led army. 1. Soviet army swept through Hungary, Romania, and Bulgaria.F. January 1945, Hitler moved into an underground bunker in Berlin. 1. April 30, he committed suicide. 2. Two days later Italian partisans shot Mussolini. 3. May 7, 1945, German commanders surrendered, and the war in Europe was over.
G. War in Asia continued, but Allies were getting closer to Japan. 1. Harry Truman decided to drop atomic bombs on Japan. 2. He hoped this would avoid an invasion of Japan. 3. Hiroshima then Nagasaki was both targets of atomic attacks. a. Both cities were completely destroyed. b. Thousands died and more died later of radiation sickness. i. Japan surrendered on August 14.
H. WWII was over. 1. 17 million people had died in battle. 2. Including civilian losses, as many as 50 million people died.