Topic.09 The Great War


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  • Topic.09 The Great War

    1. 1. United States History Topic 09: The Great War Mr. Michael Meechin Celebration High School Social Science Dept.
    2. 2. United States Foreign Policy [ Topic 09: The Great War ]
    3. 3. Isolationism [ Topic 09: The Great War ] <ul><li>Washington’s Farewell Address had set the precedent for the US to pursue a policy of isolationism ; </li></ul><ul><li>Isolationism is the guiding force for US Foreign Policy throughout most of the nineteenth century… </li></ul>Now that you know what isolationism is, do you think this is the best foreign policy for the United States? Yes or No?
    4. 4. Imperialism [ Topic 09: The Great War ] <ul><li>However, as the US industrialized during the later 1800s, businessmen continued to look toward foreign markets; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This desire for more economic growth [money] will lead the US to expand it’s influence in the world at the end of the 1800s; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Historians often refer to this period as the Age of American Imperialism , as the US gained control of: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Puerto Rico </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hawaii </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Philippines </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Virgin Islands </li></ul></ul></ul>
    5. 5. United States Foreign Policy [ Topic 09: The Great War ] <ul><li>During the McKinley presidency, Sec. of State, John Hay proposed the Open Door Policy ; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It’s goal was to open trade with China to all countries equally, previously the US had been excluded; </li></ul></ul><ul><li>President Taft expanded on the Open Door Policy by advocating [calling for] Dollar Diplomacy ; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The aim was to encourage US investment in Latin American countries; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Taft also promised the US military would intervene if local unrest threatened US investments; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The two policies lead to the first era of a true “global economy”… </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Aloha Hawai’i [ Topic 09: The Great War ] <ul><li>While both the Open Door Policy and Dollar Diplomacy were US attempts at economic imperialism , the US also embarked upon political imperialism ; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In the early 1890s the United States marines helped US sugar planters depose (overthrow) the Hawaiian monarch Queen Liliuokalani; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In 1898 Congress agreed to annex Hawaii or add it to United States territory… </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Panama Canal [ Topic 09: The Great War ] <ul><li>The United States continued its policy of imperialism under President Theodore Roosevelt; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First, the United States encouraged Panama’s independence from Columbia; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Then it negotiated a treaty with Panama to build the Panama Canal; </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Since this canal provided a short cut between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, it benefited American trade and thereby also furthered economic imperialism… </li></ul>
    8. 9. Taking Over Countries 101 [ Topic 09: The Great War ] <ul><li>Since 1900, the United States has participated in over 100 regime changes in foreign countries; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This number includes 98 covert operations, but only 12 overt missions… </li></ul></ul>Is it okay for the United States to overthrow governments if it benefits us? Yes or No?
    9. 10. Bad Habits of American Intervention [ Topic 09: The Great War ] <ul><li>The American intervention followed a familiar pattern; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>After restoring order, the US would become involved in the internal political disputes; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Before leaving the US would fund and train a military and police force to keep order; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They would also sponsor an election to put a strong leader in power, one whom is supportive of American interests; </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Most of the leaders put in place by the US, will fall into oppressive dictatorships… </li></ul>
    10. 11. The Trouble Begins [ Topic 09: The Great War ] <ul><li>In 1904, Roosevelt issued the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine [ corollary means “what naturally follows from”]; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>South and Central American Countries were poor and often borrowed money from European countries then were unable to repay the loans; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To prevent European countries from attacking these countries in the Western Hemisphere and thereby violating the Monroe Doctrine, Roosevelt announced that “wrongdoing” by any Latin American nation entitled the United States to intervene in its affairs; </li></ul></ul><ul><li>This changed the Monroe Doctrine by allowing one Western Hemisphere nation the intervene in the affairs of another… </li></ul>
    11. 12. The Beginning of the End [ Topic 09: The Great War ] <ul><li>The United States truly started an internationalist foreign policy, when it entered “The Great War” in 1917; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internationalism is a foreign policy based on heavy involvement in world affairs; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>While US entry into World War I ensured Allied victory, the failure to conclude a lasting peace left a bitter legacy … </li></ul></ul><ul><li>For three years the United States remained neutral, and a strong isolationist feeling existed among Americans not to get involved in this European war… </li></ul>
    12. 13. The Players [ Topic 09: The Great War ] Allied Powers Great Britain France Russia Central Powers Germany Austria-Hungary Ottoman Empire Italy
    13. 14. The Spark [ Topic 09: The Great War ] <ul><li>In Europe, conflict was just waiting to happen; the pieces were already in place; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There were numerous territorial disputes in Europe; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nations throughout Europe were building up their militaries; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A formal system of alliances were set up throughout; </li></ul></ul><ul><li>M.A.I.N. Ideas of World War I </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Militarism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Schlieffen Plan , building up standing armies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alliances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Imperialism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nationalism </li></ul></ul>
    14. 15. The Spark [ Topic 09: The Great War ] <ul><li>World War I began when the Austro-Hungarian Archduke Ferdinand and his wife were assassinated ; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Occurred in Sarajevo by a member of the Serbian terrorist organization known as the “Black Hand”; </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Alliances were made between European countries supposedly to maintain a “balance of power” but proved dangerous when one member of an alliance was threatened… </li></ul>
    15. 18. The Stalled War [ Topic 09: The Great War ] <ul><li>Soon after fighting began, the two sides were at a stalemate in 1914; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Both fronts of the war were on lockdown; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contributing factor was trench warfare , where each side literally “dug” in; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Western Front : Between France and Belgium; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eastern Front : Between Germany and Russia… </li></ul></ul>
    16. 19. Why Did the US Enter? [ Topic 09: The Great War ] <ul><li>The decision to enter WWI resulted from German un- restricted submarine warfare ; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>American merchant ships became targets as the shipped to European countries; </li></ul></ul><ul><li>US neutrality was put to the test in May 1915, when the German sub U-20 sank the British luxury liner the Lusitania ; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The German embassy warned Americans that allied vessels in the war zone were fair targets, 128 Americans were killed… </li></ul></ul>
    17. 20. Why Did the US Enter? [ Topic 09: The Great War ] <ul><li>President Wilson responded to the attack on the Lusitania ; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wilson accused the Germans of brutality; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He demanded that they stop the use of unrestricted submarine warfare; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He refused to ban American passengers from Allied vessels… </li></ul></ul>Do you agree with President Wilson and his response to the Germans? Yes or No?
    18. 21. Why Did the US Enter? [ Topic 09: The Great War ] <ul><li>In March 1916, after another passenger vessel, the Sussex , was torpedoed, Germany finally agreed to apologize and promised not to attack passenger vessels; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This promise was known as the “ Sussex Pledge ”; </li></ul></ul><ul><li>President Wilson won the re-election of 1916 with the campaign slogan; “He kept us out of war.”; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>By 1917, Wilson asked Congress to join the war in Europe, and most Americans did not support U.S. involvement in the war… </li></ul></ul>
    19. 22. “ Sparks” Fly for the US [ Topic 09: The Great War ] <ul><li>The final blow with Germany came in the wake of two incidents; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First, the Germans announced they would begin the use of un- restricted submarine warfare, Wilson did nothing; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Second, in Feb.1917, the British revealed the contents of the “ Zimmerman Telegram ”; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Proposed a German-Mexican alliance under which Mexico would recover all territory it had lost to the US in the 1840s… </li></ul></ul></ul>
    20. 23. The Great War is Actually Not So Great [ Topic 09: The Great War ] <ul><li>By the time the American troops arrived in substantial numbers in the spring of 1918, British and French units had endured more than three years of increasingly costly trench warfare… </li></ul>
    21. 24. The Great War is Actually Not So Great [ Topic 09: The Great War ] Infiltration vs. Frontal Attack
    22. 25. The Great War is Actually Not So Great [ Topic 09: The Great War ] <ul><li>WWI will see more death than any other previous war; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The war combined old fashion strategies with new technologies; </li></ul></ul><ul><li>New weapons were introduced into the armies of World War I; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tanks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poison Gas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Machine Guns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Airplanes [ Dogfights ] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flamethrowers </li></ul></ul>
    23. 26. The Great War is Actually Not So Great
    24. 27. The Great War is Actually Not So Great [ Topic 09: The Great War ] <ul><li>By the end of the war, each side had dug at least 12,000 miles of trenches throughout Europe; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Snipers; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shelling; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rat Infestation; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trench Cycle ; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Morning Hate, Breakfast Truce; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No mans land , patrols; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trench Foot … </li></ul></ul>
    25. 28. The Great War is Actually Not So Great [ Topic 09: The Great War ] Trench Foot; Gangrenous Wounds
    26. 30. The Fourteen Points [ Topic 09: The Great War ] <ul><li>In 1918, President Wilson issued the Fourteen Points ; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Fourteen Points were Wilson’s statement of plans for peace after World War I; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They included plans to eliminate the causes of war; </li></ul></ul><ul><li>President Wilson said the US should “make the world safe for democracy.” It was the US that “ tipped the balance ” of WWI and led to German defeat in 1918… </li></ul>Do you think that war can ever be eradicated from Earth? Yes or No?
    27. 31. The Fourteen Points [ Topic 09: The Great War ] <ul><li>The key ideas of the Fourteen Points included the principles of: </li></ul><ul><li>National Self Determination </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each national group should be in charge of its own destiny [Polish people should live under a Polish government, if that was what they wanted]; </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Freedom of the Seas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All nations’ ships would be able to sail in international waters without threat of attack by another country’s ships; </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A League of Nations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An organization of nations established at the end of World War I to maintain world stability and peace… </li></ul></ul>
    28. 32. The Treaty of Versailles [ Topic 09: The Great War ] <ul><li>At the Versailles Peace Conference , the best route for peace would be discussed; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The conference was led by: Woodrow Wilson [US]; David Lloyd George [Great Britain]; George Clemenceau [France]; Vittorio Orlando [Italy]… </li></ul></ul>
    29. 33. The Treaty of Versailles [ Topic 09: The Great War ] <ul><li>The Treaty of Versailles ended World War I; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Differing from the Fourteen Points, it included a mandate system , which violated the idea of national self-determination; </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Under the terms of the Treaty of Versailles, a mandate was a region administered by another country until it was judged ready for independence; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Versailles Treaty divided the Ottoman Empire [Turkey] into mandates; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>These mandates would be supervised or governed by the Allies under the direction of the League of Nations; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>France received Syria, and Britain received Palestine and Iraq… </li></ul></ul>
    30. 35. The Treaty of Versailles [ Topic 09: The Great War ] <ul><li>The Treaty also provided for the punishment of Germany; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Against the wishes of President Wilson, Great Britain and France had insisted that the treaty hold Germany responsible for the war; </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Finally, the Treaty of Versailles redrew national boundaries in Europe, which created many new nations; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In short, the Treaty of Versailles recognized the principle of national self-determination in Europe, but nowhere else… </li></ul></ul>
    31. 36. The Treaty of Versailles [ Topic 09: The Great War ] <ul><li>The President is the nation’s top diplomat with the sole power to make treaties; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wilson sent the Treaty to the Senate, which must approve all treaties by a 2/3 majority for it to become law; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Congress in 1918, voted the Treaty of Versailles down arguing that the US should not take orders from an Int’l organization… </li></ul></ul>
    32. 37. The Treaty of Versailles [ Topic 09: The Great War ] <ul><li>The other Allied nations involved passed the Treaty of Versailles; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Because of the hesitation in the US approval the United States technically remained at war with Germany until 1921; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In addition, the US did not join the League of Nations… </li></ul></ul>
    33. 38. When All is Said and Done [ Topic 09: The Great War ] <ul><li>On the homefront the war had led to a growth of intolerance of German-Americans; </li></ul><ul><li>In 1917 the Espionage Act was passed, in 1918 the Sedition Act ; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>These laws imposed a prison sentence for any anti-war activities; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This included the speaking of any other language other than English; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The US Supreme Court ruled that the suppression of the 1 st Amendment was constitutional because of a “clear and present danger”… </li></ul></ul>
    34. 39. When All is Said and Done [ Topic 09: The Great War ] In Millions