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CH_22_World War II


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CH_22_World War II

  1. 1. Chapter 22
  2. 2. Good Neighbor Policy  US continued to dominate Latin America politically and economically  Beginning to rely less on direct military intervention  FDR differs from his predecessors by substituting cooperation for coercion  “US would be a good neighbor to Latin America”  However, domination of this area would remain unchallenged  The Monroe Doctrine still lived on in many ways
  3. 3. U.S. Isolationism  Business-minded people in America did not want to give up profitable overseas markets like Germany and Japan just because Europe was hacked off  US refuses to recognize the Soviet Union and quarrels with England and France over repayment of loans they had received in World War I
  4. 4. U.S. Isolationism  US was too afraid to get involved in another “meaningless war” after World War I  Neutrality Acts typified the 1930s as the US was gripped with depression and scared to commit to its allies in Europe
  5. 5. War in Europe  Germany invaded Poland on 1 September 1939  For nearly two years, Britain stood virtually alone in fighting Germany  Battle of Britain  First major campaign in World War II  Fought entirely by air forces  Britain prevailed against almost overwhelming odds  Germany’s loss was the significant and was one of the first turning points in the war  FDR wanted to help Britain, but public support limited him
  6. 6. The Road to Intervention  FDR runs for an unprecedented third term as he pushes the country to “keep someone with experience” in office if the US gets brought into the war (1940)  Lend Lease Act (1941)  US begins shipments of war material to Great Britain  Also freezes Japanese assets
  7. 7. The Road to Intervention  Atlantic Charter  FDR signs on with his good friend, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill  The blueprint for the world after WWII; sets the foundation for international treaties and organizations that would bring the world back to its feet economically
  8. 8. War Breaks Out in Europe  Germany invades Poland on 1 September 1939  German Blitzkrieg (Lightning War) appeared unstoppable  It was definitely getting Britain’s attention  For almost two years, Britain is alone in the fight against German aggression  FDR wants to help Britain, but public opinion in the US greatly limited him during this time period
  9. 9. U.S. Relations with Japan  Japan had long been interested in an Asian empire and occupied Korea and key parts of Manchuria before 1920  When Japan sought to gain supremacy in China, the US protested with the “Open Door Policy”
  10. 10. U.S. Relations with Japan  Open Door Policy  Basically stated that the US and all European nations could trade with China, free to use their treaty ports  Within the spheres of influence in China  China’s power as a nation is declining during this period  The theory had been that trade was a basic right of all nations, even though sovereign countries could counter with isolationist attitudes
  11. 11. U.S. Relations with Japan  Open Door Policy  Isolationism would essentially be unnatural for trade and communication; based in the arguments of John Locke  Ironic as the US had no problem promoting isolationism during the Great Depression
  12. 12. U.S. Relations with Japan  Japan’s utter disregard of the Open Door policy  Leads to the Washington Conference in 1922  The conference again declares the independence of China via the Open Door Policy; helped through the “Nine Power Treaty” ○ Yet the treaty lacked any enforcement regulations
  13. 13. U.S. Relations with Japan  Japan’s utter disregard of the Open Door policy  Japan violated these agreements by seizing Manchuria, but the US did not respond  After war breaks out in Europe, the US begins to realize where Japan stands…taking sides with the fascists  US responds by limiting exports to Japan ○ Strategic materials such as oil
  14. 14. U.S. Relations with Japan  Japan’s utter disregard of the Open Door policy  This did not restrain Japan, but make the country angry ○ So, they side with Germany and Italy ○ Push further into Indochina
  15. 15. U.S. Relations with Japan  The US response – end all trade with Japan  Sounds a lot like how we got into the War of 1812  Japan tries to negotiate with the US ○ Plan B was to attack if their demands were not granted
  16. 16. U.S. Relations with Japan  The US response – end all trade with Japan  Japan wanted a large stake in China for restoration of normal trade patterns  The US demanded that Japan withdraw its troops  Negotiation fails and Japan attacks
  17. 17. Pearl Harbor  December 7, 1941  “FDR’s Date that Will Live in Infamy”  This attack in the Pacific greatly changes Americans’ minds about neutrality  everyone’s angry and ready to go to war
  18. 18. Pearl Harbor  FDR finally asks for a declaration of war  The US suffered significant early defeats after entering the war because the country was unprepared for a naval and air war halfway across the world
  19. 19. The War in the Pacific  The first few months of American involvement witnessed an unbroken string of military disasters  The tide turned with the battles at Coral Sea and Midway  May and June 1942
  20. 20. D-Day  6 June 1944  Allied invasion of Normandy, France (Operation Neptune)  2 phases of Allied attack  Air assault by the Americans, British, and French shortly after midnight  Amphibious landing of Allied infantry and armored divisions on the coast of Normandy, France at 0630
  21. 21. D-Day  Significance  The absolute largest amphibious invasion of all time (175,000 troops)  195,700 Naval personnel involved overall  Established the much needed second front in Western Europe ○ A majority of the fighting was fought initially in North Africa and Italy
  22. 22. The Home Front  Mobilizing the War  World War II transformed the role of the national government  The government built housing for war workers and forced civilian industries to retool for war production
  23. 23. The Home Front  Business and War  FDR offered incentives to business to spur production ○ Low interest loans ○ Tax concessions ○ Contracts with guaranteed profits  Americans produced an astonishing amount of wartime goods and utilized science and technology
  24. 24. The Home Front  Business and War  The West Coast emerged as a focus of military-industrial production ○ Nearly 2 million Americans moved to California for jobs in defense-related industries  The South remained very poor despite the influx of manufacturing
  25. 25. The Home Front  Labor in Wartime  Organized labor entered a three-sided arrangement with government and business that allowed union membership to soar to unprecedented levels  Unions became firmly established in many sectors of the economy during World War II
  26. 26. The Four Freedoms  To FDR, the Four Freedoms expressed deeply held American values worthy of being spread worldwide
  27. 27. The Four Freedoms  Freedom of Speech  Gold standard for the Constitution (democracy)  Freedom of Religion  Gold standard for the critique of the Holocaust  Even though most Americans and politicians at the time considered it a farce and could not believe humans would treat each other so poorly
  28. 28. Freedom of Speech
  29. 29. The Four Freedoms  Freedom from Want  The gold standard for economic policies for the rest of the 20th century  Elimination of barriers to international trade ○ Protecting the standard of living from falling after the war  Freedom from Fear  The gradual disarmament of the entire world  Help prevent tyranny (Italy, Germany) from happening again  “human security” paradigm  the gradual shift from the collective to the individual, Rockwell’s painting shows this very well
  30. 30. Freedom from Want
  31. 31. Freedom from Fear
  32. 32. The Fifth Freedom  The war witnessed a burst of messages marketing advertisers’ definition of freedom  The emergence of free enterprise
  33. 33.  Audience  Slogans  Ideas  Energy & Capital
  34. 34.  Gum  Lingerie  Grease  Juke Boxes  Toasters  Blenders  Cars  Toothpaste  Shoes  Coffee  Kettles  Nylon hose  Erasers  Glass jars  Tin cans  Tea
  35. 35.  Right to work.  Right to fair pay.  Right to adequate food.  Right to security.  Right to live in a society of free enterprise.  Right to come and go.  Right to speak or be silent.  Right to equality before the law.  Right to rest.  Right to an education.
  36. 36.  Right to work, if you are white.  Right to fair pay, if you are male.  Right to adequate food, if you register for and comply with food rationing programs.  Right to security, if you were not drafted.  Right to live in a society of free enterprise, if one excludes the government’s price and wage ceilings and orders that halted production on all the common items one needs to live.  Right to come and go, if the person does not need new shoes, more gasoline, decent tires, a new car, or a new bicycle.  Right to speak or be silent, as long as one speaks positively about the war, and is silent about the legitimacy of rationing claims.  Right to equality before the law, if it is “Separate but Equal” before the law.  Right to rest, but only on Christmas Day.  And a right to an education, if the cotton is not in bloom and ready to be picked by child laborers.
  37. 37. Women at War  Women in 1944 made up over 1/3 of the civilian labor force  New opportunities opened up for married women and mothers  Women’s work during the war was viewed by men and the government as temporary  The advertisers’ “world of tomorrow” rested on a vision of family-centered prosperity
  38. 38. The American Dilemma  Patriotic Assimilation  World War II created a vast melting pot, especially for European immigrants and their children ○ Roosevelt promoted pluralism as the only source of harmony in a diverse society  Government and private agencies eagerly promoted group equality as the definition of Americanism and a counterpoint to Nazism
  39. 39. The American Dilemma  Patriotic Assimilation  By the war’s end, racism and nativism had been stripped of its intellectual respectability ○ However, intolerance hardly disappeared from American life
  40. 40. The American Dilemma  Asian-Americans in Wartime  Asian-Americans’ war experience was filled with paradox  Chinese exclusion was abolished  Japanese were viewed by American as a detested foe  The American government viewed every person of Japanese ethnicity as a potential spy
  41. 41. The American Dilemma  Japanese-American Internment  The military persuaded FDR to issue Executive Order 9066  Internment revealed how easily war can undermine basic freedoms ○ Hardly anyone spoke out against internment ○ The courts refused to intervene  The government marketed war bonds to the internees and drafted them into the army
  42. 42. Blacks and the War  The wartime message of freedom ushered a major transformation in the status of blacks  The war spurred a movement of black population from the rural South to the cities of the North and West  Detroit race riot  During the war, over 1 million blacks served in the armed forces  Black soldiers sometimes had to give up their seats on railroad cars to accommodate Nazi prisoners of war
  43. 43. Birth of the Civil Rights Movement  The war years witnessed the birth of the modern civil rights movement  March on Washington  Black labor leader A. Philip Randolph called for the march in July 1941  Executive Order 8802  Prohibited government contractors from engaging in employment discrimination based on race, color, or national origin
  44. 44. Birth of the Civil Rights Movement  The Double V  The double-V meant that victory over Germany and Japan must be accompanied by victory over segregation at home  What the Negro Wants  During the war, a broad political coalition on the left called for an end to racial inequality in America ○ The status of blacks becomes an issue at the forefront of enlightened liberalism  CIO unions made significant efforts to organize black workers and win access to skilled positions  The South reacts by attempting to preserve white supremacy
  45. 45. The End of the War  The Atomic Bomb  One of the most momentous decisions ever confronted by an American president fell to Harry Truman  The bomb was a practical realization of the theory of relativity  The Manhattan Project developed an atomic bomb
  46. 46. The End of the War  The Dawn of the Atomic Age  On 6 August 1945, an American bomber dropped an atomic bomb that detonated over Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan  Because of the enormous cost in civilian lives, the use of the bomb remains controversial ○ Allied military forces reasoned the use of the bomb saved roughly half a million Allied soldiers’ lives  The dropping of the atomic bombs was the logical culmination of the war World War II had been fought ○ A total threat requires a total response