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hydrogen fuel cell vehicle ppt


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a short and sweet ppt on hdrogen fuel vehicle

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hydrogen fuel cell vehicle ppt

  2. 2. DEFINATION OF HYDROGEN • Simplest element in the universe – one proton and one electron • Occurs naturally as a gas • Can be used to create energy through combustion or use in fuel cells
  3. 3. • Most hydrogen is bonded to oxygen in the form of water (H2O) • Can be produced through the use of nuclear, solar, wind, and other renewable sources • Diversity of sources make hydrogen available alternative fuel • Steam methane reforming (CH4 )
  4. 4. CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF HYDROGEN Makes up 75% of the mass of all visible matter Nontoxic and nonpoisonous Rarely found alone (H2) – usually bonded to oxygen in water (H2O) Highly buoyant – lighter than air, rises and diffuses when leaked Hydrogen Colour Hydrogen smell Hydrogen flame identification
  5. 5. BASIC HISTORY OF HYDROGEN • 1820s – Rev. W. Cecil developed hydrogen- fueled engine • 1876 – Nicolaus Otto invented four-cylinder engine; • 1885 – Gottleib Daimler invented modern ICE • 1920s – first testing of the hydrogen ICE • Rudolf Erren used hydrogen ICEs in submarines and land vehicles
  6. 6. • General Motors coined the phrase “hydrogen economy” during the fuel crisis of the 1970s • As fuel prices returned to normal, interest in hydrogen vehicles diminished • Rising fuel prices, environmental concerns, and energy security sparked interest again in the twenty-first century
  7. 7. ALTERNATE FUEL CELL VEHICLE HYBRIDS ETHANOL/E85 – Here now, but still require gas Pushed by GM More expensive, just as dirty?
  8. 8. HYDROGEN FUEL CELL • Fuel cells are similar to batteries, but designed for continuous replenishment of energy via external fuel • Many different types of fuel cells, most common will likely be the PEM FC • Hydrogen and oxygen in, water vapor and liquid water out • Typical output is about .8 volts
  10. 10. TYPES OF FUEL CELL VEHICLE Hydrogen Internal Combustion Engine Dual-Fuel Hydrogen Vehicles Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles Concept Vehicles
  12. 12. • Cooling at atmospheric Pressure= -253 c • Std heating value H2 gas =12.1 MJ/cu m • Std heating value of liquid H2 = 120 MJ/Kg
  13. 13. HYDROGEN FUEL CELL VEHICLE INFRASTRUCTURE • Hydrogen Production – Almost all of the hydrogen produced in the U.S. today is by steam reforming of natural gas – Produce hydrogen directly from new nuclear power reactors? – R&D into several new methods: • Biological Water Splitting • Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting • Reforming of Biomass and Wastes • Solar Thermal Water Splitting • Renewable Electrolysis
  14. 14. THE HYDROGEN HIGHWAY -World’s first hydrogen refueling station opened in Iceland in 2003 – California & Florida have both approved funding – BC Hydrogen Highway will link Vancouver & Whistler by start of 2010 Winter Olympic Games
  15. 15. HYDROGEN STORAGE • Compressed gas storage • Liquid storage(cryogenic storage) • Line pack system • Under ground storage • Storage as metal hydride
  16. 16. APPLICATION Automobiles • Although there are currently no fuel cell cars available for commercial sale, over 20 FCEVs prototypes and demonstration cars have been released since 2009. Automobiles such as the GM HydroGen4,Honda FCX Clarity, Toyota FCHV- adv and Mercedes-Benz F-Cell are all pre- commercial examples of fuel cell electric vehicles. Fuel cell electric vehicles have driven more than 3 million miles, with more than 27,000 refuelings.
  17. 17. Buses  There are also demonstration models of buses, and in total there are over 100 fuel cell buses deployed around the world today.  Most of these buses are produced by UTC Power, Toyota, Ballard, Hydrogenics, and Proton Motor.  UTC buses have already accumulated over 970,000 km (600,000 mi) of driving.  Fuel cell buses have a 30-141% higher fuel economy than diesel buses and natural gas buses.
  18. 18. Motorcycles and bicycles  In 2005 the British firm Intelligent Energy produced the first ever working hydrogen run motorcycle called the ENV (Emission Neutral Vehicle).  The motorcycle holds enough fuel to run for four hours, and to travel 160 km (100 mi) in an urban area, at a top speed of 80 km/h (50 mph).  In 2004 Honda developed a fuel-cell motorcycle which utilized the Honda FC Stack. There are other examples of bikes and bicycles with a hydrogen fuel cell engine.  The Suzuki Burgman received "whole vehicle type" approval in the EU.
  19. 19. Airplanes  Boeing researchers and industry partners throughout Europe conducted experimental flight tests in February 2008 of a manned airplane powered only by a fuel cell and lightweight batteries.  The Fuel Cell Demonstrator Airplane, as it was called, used a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell/lithium-ion battery hybrid system to power an electric motor, which was coupled to a conventional propeller.  In 2003, the world's first propeller driven airplane to be powered entirely by a fuel cell was flown.
  20. 20. ADVANTAGES • Created from water, can be recycled to produce more hydrogen • Cleanest fuel available when combusted – produces carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, or hydrocarbon emissions • Leaks/spills will quickly evaporate and do not pose any threats to the environment • Domestic production will allow for energy independence
  21. 21. DISADVANTAGE • Conceptually, replacing the current oil-based infrastructure with hydrogenwould cost billions, maybe trillions, of dollars. • Although abundant in the universe, hydrogen is fairly rare in our atmosphere, meaning that it has to be extracted (for example through electrolysis, as explained above) and currently, the process is cost prohibitive and inefficient. • It is a very flammable gas (think of the Hindenburg), which further adds to the on-board storage problems. • its production at energy plants creates excessive carbon dioxide.
  22. 22. Hydrogen Technology Development In India • Production of hydrogen by photo electrolysis of water using solar energy • Production of hydrogen by blue green algae & by certain bacterial species • Storage of hydrogen through metal hydride / non metal hydride • Problems relating to utilization of hydrogen as a fuel,that is developed for certain engines and fuel etc. • Liquid hydrogen production, storage and utilization.
  23. 23. CONCLUSION • Hydrogen Fuel cell vehicles are currently being researched for their feasibility of widespread usage in automobiles and other forms of transportation. • Hydrogen fuel does not occur naturally on Earth and thus is not an energy source, but is an energy carrier. Currently it is most frequently made from methane or other fossil fuels . • However, it can be produced from a wide range of sources (such as wind, solar, or nuclear) that are intermittent, too diffuse or too cumbersome to directly propel vehicles.
  24. 24. REFERENCE • National Renewable Energy Laboratory ry.html • DoE Alternative Fuels Data Center ml • Hydrogen Fuel Cell Realm • Non conventional energy source G D rai 2006 edition • •
  25. 25. THANK YOU