HYDROGEN FUEL CELL VEHICLE
PROF. ASHOK MALIPATIL
DEFINATION OF HYDROGEN
• Simplest element in the universe – one proton
and one electron
• Occurs naturally as a gas
• Can be used to create energy through
combustion or use in fuel cells
• Most hydrogen is bonded to oxygen in the
form of water (H2O)
• Can be produced through the use of nuclear,
solar, wind, and other renewable sources
• Diversity of sources
make hydrogen available
• Steam methane
reforming (CH4 )
CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF HYDROGEN
Makes up 75% of the mass of all visible matter
Nontoxic and nonpoisonous
Rarely found alone (H2) – usually bonded to
oxygen in water (H2O)
Highly buoyant – lighter than air, rises and diffuses
Hydrogen flame identification
BASIC HISTORY OF HYDROGEN
• 1820s – Rev. W. Cecil developed hydrogen-
• 1876 – Nicolaus Otto invented four-cylinder
• 1885 – Gottleib Daimler invented modern ICE
• 1920s – first testing of the hydrogen ICE
• Rudolf Erren used hydrogen ICEs in
submarines and land vehicles
• General Motors coined the phrase “hydrogen
economy” during the fuel crisis of the 1970s
• As fuel prices returned to normal, interest in
hydrogen vehicles diminished
• Rising fuel prices, environmental concerns,
and energy security sparked interest again in
the twenty-first century
ALTERNATE FUEL CELL VEHICLE
– Here now, but still require gas Pushed by GM
More expensive, just as dirty?
HYDROGEN FUEL CELL
• Fuel cells are similar to
batteries, but designed for
of energy via external fuel
• Many different types of
fuel cells, most common
will likely be the PEM FC
• Hydrogen and oxygen in,
water vapor and liquid
• Typical output is about .8
• Cooling at atmospheric
Pressure= -253 c
• Std heating value H2 gas
=12.1 MJ/cu m
• Std heating value of
liquid H2 = 120 MJ/Kg
HYDROGEN FUEL CELL VEHICLE
• Hydrogen Production
– Almost all of the hydrogen produced in the U.S. today is by
steam reforming of natural gas
– Produce hydrogen directly from new nuclear power
– R&D into several new methods:
• Biological Water Splitting
• Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting
• Reforming of Biomass and Wastes
• Solar Thermal Water Splitting
• Renewable Electrolysis
THE HYDROGEN HIGHWAY
-World’s first hydrogen refueling
station opened in Iceland in 2003
– California & Florida have both
– BC Hydrogen Highway will link
Vancouver & Whistler by start
of 2010 Winter
• Compressed gas storage
• Liquid storage(cryogenic storage)
• Line pack system
• Under ground storage
• Storage as metal hydride
• Although there are currently no fuel cell cars
available for commercial sale, over 20 FCEVs
prototypes and demonstration cars have been
released since 2009. Automobiles such as the GM
HydroGen4,Honda FCX Clarity, Toyota FCHV-
adv and Mercedes-Benz F-Cell are all pre-
commercial examples of fuel cell electric vehicles.
Fuel cell electric vehicles have driven more than 3
million miles, with more than 27,000 refuelings.
There are also demonstration models of buses, and
in total there are over 100 fuel cell buses deployed
around the world today.
Most of these buses are produced by UTC Power,
Toyota, Ballard, Hydrogenics, and Proton Motor.
UTC buses have already accumulated over
970,000 km (600,000 mi) of driving.
Fuel cell buses have a 30-141% higher fuel economy
than diesel buses and natural gas buses.
Motorcycles and bicycles
In 2005 the British firm Intelligent Energy produced the
first ever working hydrogen run motorcycle called
the ENV (Emission Neutral Vehicle).
The motorcycle holds enough fuel to run for four hours,
and to travel 160 km (100 mi) in an urban area, at a top
speed of 80 km/h (50 mph).
In 2004 Honda developed a fuel-cell motorcycle which
utilized the Honda FC Stack. There are other examples of
bikes and bicycles with a hydrogen fuel cell engine.
The Suzuki Burgman received "whole vehicle type"
approval in the EU.
Boeing researchers and industry partners throughout
Europe conducted experimental flight tests in February
2008 of a manned airplane powered only by a fuel cell
and lightweight batteries.
The Fuel Cell Demonstrator Airplane, as it was called,
used a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel
cell/lithium-ion battery hybrid system to power an
electric motor, which was coupled to a conventional
In 2003, the world's first propeller driven airplane to be
powered entirely by a fuel cell was flown.
• Created from water, can be recycled to produce more
• Cleanest fuel available when combusted – produces carbon
monoxide, carbon dioxide, or hydrocarbon emissions
• Leaks/spills will quickly evaporate and do not pose any
threats to the environment
• Domestic production will allow for energy independence
• Conceptually, replacing the current oil-based
infrastructure with hydrogenwould cost billions, maybe
trillions, of dollars.
• Although abundant in the universe, hydrogen is fairly
rare in our atmosphere, meaning that it has to be
extracted (for example through electrolysis, as
explained above) and currently, the process is cost
prohibitive and inefficient.
• It is a very flammable gas (think of the Hindenburg),
which further adds to the on-board storage problems.
• its production at energy plants creates excessive
Hydrogen Technology Development In
• Production of hydrogen by photo electrolysis of water using
• Production of hydrogen by blue green algae & by certain
• Storage of hydrogen through metal hydride / non metal
• Problems relating to utilization of hydrogen as a fuel,that is
developed for certain engines and fuel etc.
• Liquid hydrogen production, storage and utilization.
• Hydrogen Fuel cell vehicles are currently being
researched for their feasibility of widespread usage in
automobiles and other forms of transportation.
• Hydrogen fuel does not occur naturally on Earth and
thus is not an energy source, but is an energy carrier.
Currently it is most frequently made from methane or
other fossil fuels .
• However, it can be produced from a wide range of
sources (such as wind, solar, or nuclear) that are
intermittent, too diffuse or too cumbersome to directly
• National Renewable Energy Laboratory
• DoE Alternative Fuels Data Center
• Hydrogen Fuel Cell Realm
• Non conventional energy source G D rai 2006 edition