Electric vehicle batteries


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Electric vehicle batteries

  1. 1. Electric Vehicle Batteries Justin Sunny Suganthi.R
  2. 2. Introduction • What is EV Battery? • Battery History • Types of EV Batteries • Charging process and Requirements • Swapping • Examples of EV’s using Different Batteries • Future
  3. 3. What is EV Battery ?.... • An electric vehicle battery (EVB) or traction battery can be either a primary (e.g. metal-air) battery or a secondary battery rechargeable battery used for propulsion of Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs). • Electric vehicle batteries differ from starting, lighting, and ignition (SLI) batteries because they are designed to give power over sustained periods of time.
  4. 4. EV Battery History • Rechargeable batteries that provided a viable means for storing electricity on board a vehicle did not come into being until 1859, with the invention of the lead-acid battery by French physicist Gaston Planté. • An early electric-powered two-wheel cycle was put on display at the 1867, but it couldn't drive reliably in the street. • First practical Electric car was built by Thomas Parker in 1884.
  5. 5. EV Battery Requirements • Safe • High Power • High Capacity • Small and Light • Large Format • Long Life • Low Overall Cost
  6. 6. EV Battery Types.. Lead-acid • Flooded lead-acid batteries are the cheapest and most common traction batteries available. • There are two main types of lead-acid batteries: automobile engine starter batteries and deep cycle batteries. • Traditionally, most electric vehicles have used lead-acid batteries due to their mature technology, high availability, and low cost. • Lead-acid batteries in EV applications end up being a significant (25–50%) portion of the final vehicle mass. • The efficiency (70–75%)
  7. 7. Nickel-metal hydride  They boast an energy density of 30–80 Wh/kg, far higher than lead-acid.  When used properly, nickel-metal hydride batteries can have exceptionally long lives.  Present NiMH,RAV4EVs that still operate well after 100,000 miles (160,000 km) and over a decade of service  Downsides include the poor efficiency, high self-discharge, very finicky charge cycles, and poor performance in cold weather.
  8. 8. Zebra or Sodium Battery • The sodium or "zebra" battery uses molten chloroaluminate (NaAlCl4) sodium as the electrolyte. • The Zebra battery boasts an energy density of 120Wh/kg. • The downsides to the Zebra battery include poor power density (<300 W/kg) and the requirement of having to heat the electrolyte to about 270 °C (520 °F). • Zebra batteries have been used in the Modec vehicle commercial vehicle since it entered production in 2006
  9. 9. Lithium ion • The traditional lithium-ion chemistry involves a lithium cobalt oxide cathode and a graphite anode. • This yields cells with an impressive 200+ Wh/kg energy density and good power density. • 80 to 90% charge/discharge efficiency. • Silicon nanowires, silicon nanoparticles, and tin nanoparticles promise several times the energy density in the anode.
  10. 10. Charging • Charging time is limited primarily by the capacity of the grid connection. • most batteries do not accept charge at greater than their charge rate ("1C"), because high charge rate has adverse effect on the discharge capacities of batteries. • The charging power can be connected to the car in two ways : -> conductive coupling -> inductive charging
  11. 11. In Detail… • The first is simple as a,mains lead into a weatherproof socket through special high capacity cables with connectors to protect the user from high voltages. • The second approach is that a,special 'paddle' is inserted into a slot on the car. The paddle is one winding of a transformer, while the other is built into the car. When the paddle is inserted it completes a magnetic circuit which provides power to the battery pack.
  12. 12. Advantages of Charging Systems • The advantage of the inductive approach is that there is no possibility of electrocution as there are no exposed conductors, • Although interlocks, special connectors and ground fault detectors can make conductive coupling nearly as safe. • Inductive charging can also reduce vehicle weight, by moving more charging component off board.
  13. 13. Recharging spots • In France, Électricité de France (EDF) and Toyota are installing recharging points for PHEVs on roads, streets and parking lots. • EDF is also partnering with Electromotive, Ltd. to install 250 new charging points over six months from October 2007 in London and elsewhere in the UK. • Recharging points also can be installed for specific uses, as in taxi stands.
  14. 14. Examples of EV Using Different Batteries Using NIMH Battery The General Motors EV1 had a range of 75 to 150 miles (240 km) with NiMH batteries in 1999.
  15. 15. Using Li-ion • New lithium-ion battery-equipped EVs provide 320–480 km (200–300 mi) of range per charge. Lithium is also less expensive than nickel. • Car developed by NISSAN in 2001.
  16. 16. Swapping • An alternative to recharging is to exchange drained or nearly drained batteries with fully charged batteries. Features of Swapping • The consumer is no longer concerned with battery capital cost, life cycle, technology, maintenance, or warrantee issues. • Swapping is far faster than charging: battery swaps equipment built by the firm Better Place. • Swap stations increase the feasibility of distributed energy storage
  17. 17. Future Carbon nanotube battery • Alternative is developing a carbon nanotube lead acid battery pack • According to the company, deliver 380 miles (610 km) range and can be recharged in less than 10 minutes. • According to U.S. Energy Secretary Chu, costs for a 40 mile range battery will drop from a price in 2008 of $12K to $3,600 in 2015 and further to $1,500 by 2020.
  18. 18. Conclusion • Electric Battery Automobiles are really important as they will prevent a major source of increased Global Warming and other natural problems. • New Concepts of rechargeable should arise that will have higher efficiency than all other existing batteries.