Electric Vehicle Batteries
• What is EV Battery?
• Battery History
• Types of EV Batteries
• Charging process and Requirements
• Examples of EV’s using Different Batteries
What is EV Battery ?....
• An electric vehicle battery (EVB) or traction battery can be either
a primary (e.g. metal-air) battery or a secondary battery
rechargeable battery used for propulsion of Battery Electric
• Electric vehicle batteries differ from starting, lighting, and
ignition (SLI) batteries because they are designed to give power
over sustained periods of time.
EV Battery History
• Rechargeable batteries that provided a viable means for storing electricity
on board a vehicle did not come into being until 1859, with the invention of
the lead-acid battery by French physicist Gaston Planté.
• An early electric-powered two-wheel cycle was put on display at the 1867,
but it couldn't drive reliably in the street.
• First practical Electric car was built by
Thomas Parker in 1884.
EV Battery Requirements
• High Power
• High Capacity
• Small and Light
• Large Format
• Long Life
• Low Overall Cost
EV Battery Types..
• Flooded lead-acid batteries are the cheapest and most common
traction batteries available.
• There are two main types of lead-acid batteries:
automobile engine starter batteries and deep cycle
• Traditionally, most electric vehicles have used lead-acid
batteries due to their mature technology, high availability,
and low cost.
• Lead-acid batteries in EV applications end up being a
significant (25–50%) portion of the final vehicle mass.
• The efficiency (70–75%)
They boast an energy density of 30–80 Wh/kg,
far higher than lead-acid.
When used properly, nickel-metal hydride
batteries can have exceptionally long lives.
Present NiMH,RAV4EVs that still operate well
after 100,000 miles (160,000 km) and over a
decade of service
Downsides include the poor efficiency, high
self-discharge, very finicky charge cycles, and
poor performance in cold weather.
Zebra or Sodium Battery
• The sodium or "zebra" battery uses molten
chloroaluminate (NaAlCl4) sodium as the
• The Zebra battery boasts an energy density of
• The downsides to the Zebra battery include
poor power density (<300 W/kg) and the
requirement of having to heat the electrolyte to
about 270 °C (520 °F).
• Zebra batteries have been used in the Modec
vehicle commercial vehicle since it entered
production in 2006
• The traditional lithium-ion chemistry involves a
lithium cobalt oxide cathode and a graphite anode.
• This yields cells with an impressive 200+ Wh/kg
energy density and good power density.
• 80 to 90% charge/discharge efficiency.
• Silicon nanowires, silicon nanoparticles, and tin
nanoparticles promise several times the energy
density in the anode.
• Charging time is limited primarily by the capacity of the grid
• most batteries do not accept charge at greater than their charge
rate ("1C"), because high charge rate has adverse effect on the
discharge capacities of batteries.
• The charging power can be connected to the car in two ways :
-> conductive coupling
-> inductive charging
• The first is simple as a,mains lead into a weatherproof socket
through special high capacity cables with connectors to protect the
user from high voltages.
• The second approach is that a,special 'paddle' is inserted into a
slot on the car. The paddle is one winding of a transformer, while
the other is built into the car. When the paddle is inserted it
completes a magnetic circuit which provides power to the battery
Advantages of Charging Systems
• The advantage of the inductive approach is that there is no
possibility of electrocution as there are no exposed conductors,
• Although interlocks, special connectors and ground fault detectors
can make conductive coupling nearly as safe.
• Inductive charging can also reduce vehicle weight, by moving
more charging component off board.
• In France, Électricité de France (EDF) and Toyota are installing
recharging points for PHEVs on roads, streets and parking lots.
• EDF is also partnering with Electromotive, Ltd. to install 250 new
charging points over six months from October 2007 in London and
elsewhere in the UK.
• Recharging points also can be installed for specific uses, as in taxi
Examples of EV Using Different Batteries
Using NIMH Battery
The General Motors EV1 had a range of 75 to
150 miles (240 km) with NiMH batteries in
• New lithium-ion battery-equipped EVs
provide 320–480 km (200–300 mi) of
range per charge. Lithium is also less
expensive than nickel.
• Car developed by NISSAN in 2001.
• An alternative to recharging is to exchange drained or nearly
drained batteries with fully charged batteries.
Features of Swapping
• The consumer is no longer concerned with battery capital cost, life cycle, technology,
maintenance, or warrantee issues.
• Swapping is far faster than charging: battery swaps equipment built by the firm Better
• Swap stations increase the feasibility of distributed energy storage
Carbon nanotube battery
• Alternative is developing a carbon
nanotube lead acid battery pack
• According to the company, deliver 380
miles (610 km) range and can be
recharged in less than 10 minutes.
• According to U.S. Energy Secretary
Chu, costs for a 40 mile range battery
will drop from a price in 2008 of $12K
to $3,600 in 2015 and further to
$1,500 by 2020.
• Electric Battery Automobiles are really important as they will
prevent a major source of increased Global Warming and other
• New Concepts of rechargeable should arise that will have higher
efficiency than all other existing batteries.