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Fuel cell presentation

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Fuel cell Technology

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Fuel cell presentation

  1. 1. Hydrogen FuelHydrogen Fuel Cell TechnologyCell Technology Presented byPresented by  Virat V. DhabaliaVirat V. Dhabalia
  2. 2. FUEL CELLFUEL CELL TECHNOLOGYTECHNOLOGY  Technology overviewTechnology overview  Introduction of fuel cellIntroduction of fuel cell  Fuel cell workingFuel cell working  Types of fuel cellTypes of fuel cell  Application of fuel cell technologyApplication of fuel cell technology  Benefits of FCTBenefits of FCT  Challenges to FCTChallenges to FCT
  3. 3. Importance of Fuel cellImportance of Fuel cell  Full cells are nowFull cells are now on the verge ofon the verge of being introducedbeing introduced commercially,commercially, revolutionizing therevolutionizing the way we presentlyway we presently produce power.produce power.
  4. 4. Importance of Fuel cellImportance of Fuel cell  The fuel cell uses chemical energy ratherThe fuel cell uses chemical energy rather than combustion to generate electricthan combustion to generate electric power.power.  It is a clean, quiet and highly efficientIt is a clean, quiet and highly efficient process and supplying the world withprocess and supplying the world with clean, sustainable electrical power.clean, sustainable electrical power.
  5. 5. Introduction to FuelIntroduction to Fuel CellCell  Fuel cells generate power through anFuel cells generate power through an electrochemical process, much like aelectrochemical process, much like a battery, but does not require recharging.battery, but does not require recharging.  They convert chemical energy toThey convert chemical energy to electrical energy by combining hydrogenelectrical energy by combining hydrogen from fuel with oxygen from the air.from fuel with oxygen from the air.
  6. 6. Introduction to FuelIntroduction to Fuel CellCell  Fuel cell is an electrical cell which unlikeFuel cell is an electrical cell which unlike storage cells can be continuously fedstorage cells can be continuously fed with a fuel so that the electrical powerwith a fuel so that the electrical power output is sustained indefinitelyoutput is sustained indefinitely  As long as fuel is supplied, a Fuel CellAs long as fuel is supplied, a Fuel Cell will produce both energy and heat.will produce both energy and heat.
  7. 7. Fuel cell StructureFuel cell Structure
  8. 8. Working of Fuel cellWorking of Fuel cell  The electrolyte is separated by twoThe electrolyte is separated by two catalysts as anode and cathode.catalysts as anode and cathode.  The electrolyte allows the protons toThe electrolyte allows the protons to pass through to the cathode, but not thepass through to the cathode, but not the electrons.electrons.  Instead the electrons are directedInstead the electrons are directed through an external circuit which createsthrough an external circuit which creates electrical current.electrical current.
  9. 9. Working of Fuel cellWorking of Fuel cell  In a Fuel cell, two half-cell reactions takeIn a Fuel cell, two half-cell reactions take place simultaneously, an oxidationplace simultaneously, an oxidation reaction (loss of electrons) at the anodereaction (loss of electrons) at the anode and a reduction reaction (gain ofand a reduction reaction (gain of electrons) at the cathode.electrons) at the cathode.  These two reactions make up the totalThese two reactions make up the total oxidation-reduction (redox) reaction ofoxidation-reduction (redox) reaction of the fuel cell, the formation of water fromthe fuel cell, the formation of water from hydrogen and oxygen.hydrogen and oxygen.
  10. 10. Working of Fuel cellWorking of Fuel cell
  11. 11. Working of Fuel cellWorking of Fuel cell  While the electrons pass through theWhile the electrons pass through the external circuit, oxygen molecules passexternal circuit, oxygen molecules pass through the cathode.through the cathode.  There the oxygen and the protonsThere the oxygen and the protons combine with the electrons after theycombine with the electrons after they have passed through the external circuit.have passed through the external circuit.  When the oxygen and the protonsWhen the oxygen and the protons combine with the electrons it producescombine with the electrons it produces water and heat.water and heat.
  12. 12. Membrane technologyMembrane technology  As in a fuel cell, the anode and cathodeAs in a fuel cell, the anode and cathode are separated by an electrolyte, whichare separated by an electrolyte, which allows ions to be transferred from oneallows ions to be transferred from one side to the other.side to the other.  The electrolyte in a fuel cell is a solidThe electrolyte in a fuel cell is a solid acid supported within theacid supported within the membranemembrane..  The solid acid electrolyte is saturatedThe solid acid electrolyte is saturated with water so that the transport of ionswith water so that the transport of ions can proceed.can proceed.
  13. 13. Stacking of fuel cellStacking of fuel cell  Individual fuel cell can actually producedIndividual fuel cell can actually produced 0.6 V to 0.7 V (theoretically 1.22 V).0.6 V to 0.7 V (theoretically 1.22 V).  Individual fuel cells can be placed in aIndividual fuel cells can be placed in a series and to produce require voltage, isseries and to produce require voltage, is called stacking of fuel cell.called stacking of fuel cell.  The stack can be used in a system toThe stack can be used in a system to power a vehicle or to provide stationarypower a vehicle or to provide stationary power to a building.power to a building.
  14. 14. Types of Fuel CellsTypes of Fuel Cells  In general all fuel cells have the sameIn general all fuel cells have the same basic configuration - an electrolyte andbasic configuration - an electrolyte and two electrodestwo electrodes  Different types of fuel cells are classifiedDifferent types of fuel cells are classified by the kind of electrolyte usedby the kind of electrolyte used  The type of electrolyte used determinesThe type of electrolyte used determines the kind of chemical reactions that takethe kind of chemical reactions that take place and the temperature range ofplace and the temperature range of operationoperation
  15. 15. Types of Fuel CellsTypes of Fuel Cells  Proton ExchangeProton Exchange Membrane Fuel CellMembrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC)(PEMFC)  Electrolyte: water-Electrolyte: water- based, acidic polymerbased, acidic polymer membranemembrane  Operate at relativelyOperate at relatively low temperatureslow temperatures (below 100°C)(below 100°C)  Efficiency: 35 - 60%Efficiency: 35 - 60%
  16. 16. Types of Fuel CellsTypes of Fuel Cells
  17. 17. Types of Fuel CellsTypes of Fuel Cells Fuel Cell type Electrolyte Anode gas Cathode gas Temperature o C Efficiency % Proton Ex. Membrane (PEM) Solid polymer membrane Hydrogen Pure or Atm. Oxygen 75 35 - 60 Alkaline (AFC) Potassium Hydroxide Hydrogen Pure Oxygen < 80 50 - 70 Direct Methanol ( DMFC) Solid polymer membrane Methanol solved in Water Atm. Oxygen 75 35 - 40 Phosphoric Acid (PAFC) Phosphorus Hydrogen Atm. Oxygen 210 35 - 50 Molten Carbonate (MCFC) Alkali Carbonate Hydrogen / Methane Atm. Oxygen 650 40 - 55 Solid Oxide ( SOFC) Ceramic Oxides Hydrogen / Methane Atm. Oxygen 800 - 1000 45 - 60
  18. 18. Importance ofImportance of HydrogenHydrogen  Fuel Cells require highly purifiedFuel Cells require highly purified hydrogen as a fuel.hydrogen as a fuel.  Researchers are developing a wideResearchers are developing a wide range of technologies to producerange of technologies to produce hydrogen economically from a variety ofhydrogen economically from a variety of resources in environmentally friendlyresources in environmentally friendly waysways
  19. 19. Importance ofImportance of HydrogenHydrogen  Hydrogen is a secondary energyHydrogen is a secondary energy resource, meaning it must be made fromresource, meaning it must be made from another fuelanother fuel  Hydrogen can be produced from a wideHydrogen can be produced from a wide variety of energy resources including:variety of energy resources including:  Fossil fuels, such as natural gas and coalFossil fuels, such as natural gas and coal  Nuclear energyNuclear energy  Renewable resources, such as solar,water,Renewable resources, such as solar,water, wind and biomasswind and biomass
  20. 20. Application of fuel cellApplication of fuel cell  Transportation – No pollutionTransportation – No pollution  Stationary power generationStationary power generation  Residential power generationResidential power generation  Portable power – Miniature Fuel CellsPortable power – Miniature Fuel Cells  Land fill Waste treatment – Power fromLand fill Waste treatment – Power from MethaneMethane  Micro power generationMicro power generation  Military applicationMilitary application
  21. 21. Application of fuel cellApplication of fuel cell  TransportationTransportation  All major automakers areAll major automakers are working to commercialize aworking to commercialize a fuel cell car.fuel cell car.  50 fuel cell buses are50 fuel cell buses are currently in use in Northcurrently in use in North and South America,and South America, Europe, Asia and Australia.Europe, Asia and Australia.  Trains, planes, boats,Trains, planes, boats, scooters, forklifts and evenscooters, forklifts and even bicycles are utilizing fuelbicycles are utilizing fuel cell technology as well.cell technology as well.
  22. 22. Application of fuel cellApplication of fuel cell  Stationary Power StationsStationary Power Stations  Over 2,500 fuel cell systems have beenOver 2,500 fuel cell systems have been installed all over the world in hospitals,installed all over the world in hospitals, nursing homes, hotels, office buildings,nursing homes, hotels, office buildings, schools and utility power plants.schools and utility power plants.  In large-scale building systems, fuel cellsIn large-scale building systems, fuel cells can reduce facility energy service costs bycan reduce facility energy service costs by 20% to 40% over conventional energy20% to 40% over conventional energy service.service.
  23. 23. Application of fuel cellApplication of fuel cell  Residential Fuel CellsResidential Fuel Cells  Up toUp to 1 kW to 7 kW1 kW to 7 kW  Being demonstratedBeing demonstrated worldwide – Japan theworldwide – Japan the leaderleader  Fueled by natural gas,Fueled by natural gas, propane or methanolpropane or methanol  Primary and/or backupPrimary and/or backup powerpower  Combined Heat & PowerCombined Heat & Power (CHP)(CHP)
  24. 24. Application of fuel cellApplication of fuel cell  Space craftSpace craft  APPOLO space craft – PEMFCAPPOLO space craft – PEMFC  ORBITAL space craft – AFCORBITAL space craft – AFC  Landfills and Waste Water TreatmentLandfills and Waste Water Treatment  Providing a valid technology for reducingProviding a valid technology for reducing emissions and generating power from theemissions and generating power from the methane gas they produce.methane gas they produce.
  25. 25. Application of fuel cellApplication of fuel cell  Micro PowerMicro Power  Cell phones can beCell phones can be powered for 30 dayspowered for 30 days without rechargingwithout recharging  Laptops can beLaptops can be powered for 20 hourspowered for 20 hours without rechargingwithout recharging
  26. 26. Application of fuel cellApplication of fuel cell  Military ApplicationsMilitary Applications  Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV)Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV)  Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGV)Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGV)  Soldier portable powerSoldier portable power  Silent camp/Silent watch capabilitiesSilent camp/Silent watch capabilities  Submarines/WarshipsSubmarines/Warships
  27. 27. FUEL CELL VEHICLEFUEL CELL VEHICLE
  28. 28. Working of Fuel cellWorking of Fuel cell vehiclevehicle
  29. 29. Fuel cell vehicleFuel cell vehicle  Honda FCXHonda FCX  300 mile range300 mile range  Currently leasedCurrently leased for $600/monthfor $600/month  Mass productionMass production by 2018by 2018  Toyota FINE-SToyota FINE-S  450+ mile range450+ mile range  Currently leasedCurrently leased forfor $1000/month$1000/month  Progress in costProgress in cost reductionreduction
  30. 30. Benefits of FCTBenefits of FCT  Fuel cell: Naturally CleanerFuel cell: Naturally Cleaner  Low / Zero EmissionsLow / Zero Emissions  Fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) are theFuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) are the least polluting of all vehicle.least polluting of all vehicle.  Reduces carbon Dioxide emissions by moreReduces carbon Dioxide emissions by more than 3.5 million pounds per year (usingthan 3.5 million pounds per year (using natural gas)natural gas)
  31. 31. Benefits of FCTBenefits of FCT  Physical SecurityPhysical Security  Fuel Cells allow the country to discontinueFuel Cells allow the country to discontinue reliance on these potential targetsreliance on these potential targets  Reliability and High Quality PowerReliability and High Quality Power  Energy SecurityEnergy Security  Ruggedness and DurabilityRuggedness and Durability  Quiet OperationQuiet Operation
  32. 32. Benefits of FCTBenefits of FCT  High EfficiencyHigh Efficiency  Energy efficiencies of 40%-Energy efficiencies of 40%- 50% or greater50% or greater (85-95% with(85-95% with co-generation)co-generation)  Additionally when the heat comes off of theAdditionally when the heat comes off of the fuel cell system it can be captured forfuel cell system it can be captured for beneficial purposes.beneficial purposes.  Fuel Cell vehicles can be up to 3 times moreFuel Cell vehicles can be up to 3 times more efficient than internal combustion enginesefficient than internal combustion engines
  33. 33. Benefits of FCTBenefits of FCT  Environmental BenefitsEnvironmental Benefits  Fuels cells can reduce air pollution todayFuels cells can reduce air pollution today and offer the possibility of eliminatingand offer the possibility of eliminating pollution in the futurepollution in the future  The only byproducts of these Fuel CellThe only byproducts of these Fuel Cell vehicles are water and heatvehicles are water and heat  Lightweight and Long LastingLightweight and Long Lasting  Battery replacement / alternativeBattery replacement / alternative
  34. 34. Benefits of FCTBenefits of FCT  Cost of fuel cellCost of fuel cell system issystem is continuouslycontinuously decreasing.decreasing.  Recent price isRecent price is $42/kW.$42/kW.  Future price will beFuture price will be $30/kW in 2015.$30/kW in 2015.
  35. 35. Benefits of FCTBenefits of FCT  Durability of fuelDurability of fuel cell system iscell system is continuouslycontinuously increasing.increasing.  Recent durability isRecent durability is 75,000/miles.75,000/miles.  Future durabilityFuture durability will bewill be 150,000/miles in150,000/miles in
  36. 36. Challenges to FCTChallenges to FCT  Platinum is a key component to fuel cells.Platinum is a key component to fuel cells.  Platinum catalysts is expensive so expensePlatinum catalysts is expensive so expense of fuel cell system is also high.of fuel cell system is also high.  Fuel cells must obtain mass-marketFuel cells must obtain mass-market acceptance to succeed.acceptance to succeed.  Extreme heat is produced duringExtreme heat is produced during operation of fuel cell.operation of fuel cell.  it must require heat dissipation arrangement.it must require heat dissipation arrangement.
  37. 37. Challenges to FCTChallenges to FCT  Hydrogen fuel is dangerous to storeHydrogen fuel is dangerous to store  It must require air tight pressure vessels toIt must require air tight pressure vessels to store the hydrogen fuel.store the hydrogen fuel.  Potentially hydrogen fuel is very explosivePotentially hydrogen fuel is very explosive so proper care is must require.so proper care is must require.
  38. 38. Challenges to FCTChallenges to FCT  System SizeSystem Size  The size and weight of current fuel cellThe size and weight of current fuel cell systems must be reduced to attain marketsystems must be reduced to attain market acceptance, especially with automobilesacceptance, especially with automobiles
  39. 39. Case studyCase study  Sierra Nevada BrewerySierra Nevada Brewery  1 MW of fuel cells provide 24/71 MW of fuel cells provide 24/7 power andpower and high efficiencyhigh efficiency  Fuel cell waste heat used inFuel cell waste heat used in anaerobicanaerobic digester processdigester process  Excess electricity sold to theExcess electricity sold to the gridgrid  Company enjoys reduced fuel costsCompany enjoys reduced fuel costs between 25-40%between 25-40%
  40. 40. ConclusionConclusion  Promising technologyPromising technology  Most viable for market use in the nearMost viable for market use in the near futurefuture  Widespread marketplace acceptanceWidespread marketplace acceptance and use is still many years away.and use is still many years away.

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