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Hydrogen EnergyHydrogen Energy
Presented By Mukesh ram.Presented By Mukesh ram.
Guided by Gaikwad sir.Guided by Gaikwad si...
What is Hydrogen energy?What is Hydrogen energy?
 Hydrogen is an energyHydrogen is an energy
carrier, however that energy...
Steam ReformingSteam Reforming
 Steam reforming isSteam reforming is
currently the leastcurrently the least
expensive met...
ElectrolysisElectrolysis
 Electrolysis is a processElectrolysis is a process
that splits Hydrogen fromthat splits Hydroge...
Hydrogen Fuel CellsHydrogen Fuel Cells
Hydrogen Fuel Cell StructureHydrogen Fuel Cell Structure
 The HydrogenThe Hydrogen
Fuel cells areFuel cells are
made up o...
AnodeAnode CathodeCathode
 The anode is theThe anode is the
negative part of thenegative part of the
fuel cell. It conduc...
Electrolyte (Proton ExchangeElectrolyte (Proton Exchange
Membrane)Membrane)
 The Electrolyte looks like clearThe Electrol...
CatalystCatalyst
 The catalyst is a pieceThe catalyst is a piece
of carbon paper or clothof carbon paper or cloth
covered...
The Process of Fuel CellsThe Process of Fuel Cells
1)1) Pressurized hydrogen gasPressurized hydrogen gas
enters the fuel c...
Other Fuel Cell FactsOther Fuel Cell Facts
 Hydrogen fuel cells are essentially the “battery” ofHydrogen fuel cells are e...
CO$TSCO$TS
 One commercially offered price for a fuel cell currently isOne commercially offered price for a fuel cell cur...
Short Term PollutionShort Term Pollution
 The Hydrogen itself does not have anyThe Hydrogen itself does not have any
detr...
Long Term PollutionLong Term Pollution
 Steam reforming, one of the mostSteam reforming, one of the most
common methods o...
AvailabilityAvailability
 Hydrogen exists all over the earth. It is most commonly found inHydrogen exists all over the ea...
SafetySafety
 Because of its energy content, Hydrogen must beBecause of its energy content, Hydrogen must be
handled with...
Other Positive Aspects of HydrogenOther Positive Aspects of Hydrogen
EnergyEnergy
 Hydrogen has almostHydrogen has almost...
The Few Cons of Hydrogen EnergyThe Few Cons of Hydrogen Energy
 Because it is such a light gas,Because it is such a light...
The EndThe End
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a presentation Hydrogen energy by MUKESH RAM

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A PRESENTATION ON HYDROGEN ENERGY BY MUKESH RAM.

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a presentation Hydrogen energy by MUKESH RAM

  1. 1. Hydrogen EnergyHydrogen Energy Presented By Mukesh ram.Presented By Mukesh ram. Guided by Gaikwad sir.Guided by Gaikwad sir.
  2. 2. What is Hydrogen energy?What is Hydrogen energy?  Hydrogen is an energyHydrogen is an energy carrier, however that energycarrier, however that energy must be produced frommust be produced from another substance;another substance; Hydrogen can be producedHydrogen can be produced from water, Fossil Fuels,from water, Fossil Fuels, and Biomassand Biomass  Because Hydrogen gasBecause Hydrogen gas cannot be extracted from thecannot be extracted from the atmosphere, and must beatmosphere, and must be extracted from otherextracted from other substances, you mustsubstances, you must extract the Hydrogen usingextract the Hydrogen using either electrolysis (watereither electrolysis (water splitting) or steam reforming.splitting) or steam reforming.
  3. 3. Steam ReformingSteam Reforming  Steam reforming isSteam reforming is currently the leastcurrently the least expensive method ofexpensive method of producing hydrogen and isproducing hydrogen and is accountable for 95-96% ofaccountable for 95-96% of the hydrogen produced inthe hydrogen produced in the United States. It isthe United States. It is used to separate hydrogenused to separate hydrogen atoms from carbon atomsatoms from carbon atoms in methane (CHin methane (CH44).). Unfortunately, becauseUnfortunately, because methane is a fossil fuel,methane is a fossil fuel, the process of steamthe process of steam results in greenhouseresults in greenhouse gases which aregases which are commonly linked withcommonly linked with global warmingglobal warming
  4. 4. ElectrolysisElectrolysis  Electrolysis is a processElectrolysis is a process that splits Hydrogen fromthat splits Hydrogen from water, which results in nowater, which results in no emission but is veryemission but is very expensive at present, Itexpensive at present, It accounts for only 4-5% ofaccounts for only 4-5% of Hydrogen production inHydrogen production in the United States today,the United States today, due mostly to the greaterdue mostly to the greater cost.cost.
  5. 5. Hydrogen Fuel CellsHydrogen Fuel Cells
  6. 6. Hydrogen Fuel Cell StructureHydrogen Fuel Cell Structure  The HydrogenThe Hydrogen Fuel cells areFuel cells are made up of fourmade up of four parts- the Anode,parts- the Anode, the Cathode, thethe Cathode, the Catalyst, and theCatalyst, and the Proton ExchangeProton Exchange MembraneMembrane
  7. 7. AnodeAnode CathodeCathode  The anode is theThe anode is the negative part of thenegative part of the fuel cell. It conductsfuel cell. It conducts freed hydrogenfreed hydrogen molecules and sendsmolecules and sends them into an externalthem into an external circuitcircuit  The cathode is theThe cathode is the positive part of thepositive part of the fuel cell. It conductsfuel cell. It conducts electrons from theelectrons from the external circuit to theexternal circuit to the catalyst and holds thecatalyst and holds the oxygen until it isoxygen until it is forced past theforced past the catalyst.catalyst.
  8. 8. Electrolyte (Proton ExchangeElectrolyte (Proton Exchange Membrane)Membrane)  The Electrolyte looks like clearThe Electrolyte looks like clear kitchen wrap, but can onlykitchen wrap, but can only conduct positive ions. The factconduct positive ions. The fact that it must be hydrated inthat it must be hydrated in order to work is a problem thatorder to work is a problem that must be solved. Its purpose ismust be solved. Its purpose is to separate Hydrogen ionsto separate Hydrogen ions from their electrons pushingfrom their electrons pushing the Hydrogen ions through thethe Hydrogen ions through the membrane and sending themembrane and sending the electrons through an externalelectrons through an external circuit.circuit.
  9. 9. CatalystCatalyst  The catalyst is a pieceThe catalyst is a piece of carbon paper or clothof carbon paper or cloth covered with a thincovered with a thin sheet of platinum nano-sheet of platinum nano- particles. It facilitatesparticles. It facilitates the recombination ofthe recombination of Hydrogen and OxygenHydrogen and Oxygen (from the anode and(from the anode and cathode respectively)cathode respectively) with water molecules aswith water molecules as the waste.the waste.
  10. 10. The Process of Fuel CellsThe Process of Fuel Cells 1)1) Pressurized hydrogen gasPressurized hydrogen gas enters the fuel cell on theenters the fuel cell on the anode side.anode side. 2)2) The gas is forced throughThe gas is forced through the catalyst, separating itthe catalyst, separating it into to Hinto to H++ ions and twoions and two electrons.electrons. 3)3) The ions go through theThe ions go through the catalyst (because they’recatalyst (because they’re positive) and the electronspositive) and the electrons are forced through anare forced through an external circuit (where theyexternal circuit (where they generate power).generate power). Meanwhile…Meanwhile…  1)1) Oxygen gas is forced throughOxygen gas is forced through the cathode past the catalyst.the cathode past the catalyst. It forms two highly negativelyIt forms two highly negatively charged Oxygen ions, whichcharged Oxygen ions, which attract the two Hattract the two H++ ions.ions. 2)2) Each oxygen atom combinesEach oxygen atom combines with two Hwith two H22 ions, as well asions, as well as electrons that have returnedelectrons that have returned from the external circuit, tofrom the external circuit, to form water molecules.form water molecules.
  11. 11. Other Fuel Cell FactsOther Fuel Cell Facts  Hydrogen fuel cells are essentially the “battery” ofHydrogen fuel cells are essentially the “battery” of Hydrogen.Hydrogen.  They combine more Oxygen and Hydrogen to formThey combine more Oxygen and Hydrogen to form water, and in the process energy is createdwater, and in the process energy is created  It dispenses steamIt dispenses steam  Small fuel cells can power electric cars, while largeSmall fuel cells can power electric cars, while large fuel cells can provide electricity in out-of-the-wayfuel cells can provide electricity in out-of-the-way places without power linesplaces without power lines  The most common form of fuel cells are PolymerThe most common form of fuel cells are Polymer Membrane Exchange Fuel Cells (PEMFCs) becauseMembrane Exchange Fuel Cells (PEMFCs) because they have a high power density and low operatingthey have a high power density and low operating temperature, which means they take minimal time totemperature, which means they take minimal time to heat upheat up
  12. 12. CO$TSCO$TS  One commercially offered price for a fuel cell currently isOne commercially offered price for a fuel cell currently is approximately $3,000 per kilowatt, a price considered tooapproximately $3,000 per kilowatt, a price considered too high for common use. Though fuel cells will not trulyhigh for common use. Though fuel cells will not truly achieve nationwide market penetration until they drop toachieve nationwide market penetration until they drop to about $1,500, engineers are constantly working for aabout $1,500, engineers are constantly working for a cheaper solutioncheaper solution  The initial cost setup is really not set for fuel cells in theThe initial cost setup is really not set for fuel cells in the current market because it really has not in factcurrent market because it really has not in fact penetrated the market and is therefore being sold for apenetrated the market and is therefore being sold for a wide variety of prices, many of which vary from thewide variety of prices, many of which vary from the company’s above to as high as $6,000 per kilowatt.company’s above to as high as $6,000 per kilowatt.  Long term costs tend to be substantially less than theLong term costs tend to be substantially less than the initial costs, eventually coming out to about $1,500 perinitial costs, eventually coming out to about $1,500 per kilowatt.kilowatt.
  13. 13. Short Term PollutionShort Term Pollution  The Hydrogen itself does not have anyThe Hydrogen itself does not have any detrimental effects because Hydrogen livesdetrimental effects because Hydrogen lives within our atmosphere and the process onlywithin our atmosphere and the process only exerts water and heatexerts water and heat  Pure hydrogen does not naturally exist in nature,Pure hydrogen does not naturally exist in nature, so it must be artificially created through the useso it must be artificially created through the use of some sort of independent energy, most likelyof some sort of independent energy, most likely fossil fuels, which renders the entire process offossil fuels, which renders the entire process of using hydrogen energy to avoid the pollution andusing hydrogen energy to avoid the pollution and environmental damage of the fossil fuelsenvironmental damage of the fossil fuels pointlesspointless
  14. 14. Long Term PollutionLong Term Pollution  Steam reforming, one of the mostSteam reforming, one of the most common methods of extractingcommon methods of extracting hydrogen, is used to separatehydrogen, is used to separate hydrogen atoms from carbon atoms inhydrogen atoms from carbon atoms in methane, as mentioned earlier.methane, as mentioned earlier. However, because methane is a fossilHowever, because methane is a fossil fuel, the process of steam reformingfuel, the process of steam reforming results in greenhouse gases which areresults in greenhouse gases which are commonly linked with global warming,commonly linked with global warming, a long effect on the environmenta long effect on the environment  Besides the use of fossil fuels,Besides the use of fossil fuels, Hydrogen has no long term pollutionHydrogen has no long term pollution effects, one of the few energies thateffects, one of the few energies that can make that claim.can make that claim.
  15. 15. AvailabilityAvailability  Hydrogen exists all over the earth. It is most commonly found inHydrogen exists all over the earth. It is most commonly found in water, fossil fuels, and biomass.water, fossil fuels, and biomass.  Water is the most useful of the three sources, due to itsWater is the most useful of the three sources, due to its abundance among Earth.abundance among Earth.  However, the efficient use of fuel cells requires pure HydrogenHowever, the efficient use of fuel cells requires pure Hydrogen which does not exist on earth. Therefore, pure Hydrogen must bewhich does not exist on earth. Therefore, pure Hydrogen must be extracted from the previously mentioned sources.extracted from the previously mentioned sources.  Biomass is the least efficient source primarily because of itsBiomass is the least efficient source primarily because of its seasonality, limited supplies, it has a low yield, it will degrade theseasonality, limited supplies, it has a low yield, it will degrade the soil, and it is not in fact suitable for pure hydrogen production.soil, and it is not in fact suitable for pure hydrogen production.
  16. 16. SafetySafety  Because of its energy content, Hydrogen must beBecause of its energy content, Hydrogen must be handled with as much care as any fossil fuel,handled with as much care as any fossil fuel, however is not extremely dangeroushowever is not extremely dangerous  Hydrogen fuel cells are indeed advantageous in carsHydrogen fuel cells are indeed advantageous in cars if a car were to be lit on fire, due to the fact thatif a car were to be lit on fire, due to the fact that Hydrogen rises to the top of the car before catchingHydrogen rises to the top of the car before catching on fire while gasoline simply explodes, making aon fire while gasoline simply explodes, making a Hydrogen fueled car much safer in a scenario of aHydrogen fueled car much safer in a scenario of a dire or extremely dangerous crash.dire or extremely dangerous crash.
  17. 17. Other Positive Aspects of HydrogenOther Positive Aspects of Hydrogen EnergyEnergy  Hydrogen has almostHydrogen has almost an unlimited sourcean unlimited source unlike most energiesunlike most energies and is far moreand is far more accessibleaccessible  Gasoline has about aGasoline has about a 20% efficiency while20% efficiency while Hydrogen has about aHydrogen has about a 64% efficiency.64% efficiency.
  18. 18. The Few Cons of Hydrogen EnergyThe Few Cons of Hydrogen Energy  Because it is such a light gas,Because it is such a light gas, it is difficult to store a lot ofit is difficult to store a lot of Hydrogen in a small area,Hydrogen in a small area, which contradicts with thewhich contradicts with the desires of the engineers whodesires of the engineers who want to design a 300-milewant to design a 300-mile range car.range car.  Liquid Hydrogen would haveLiquid Hydrogen would have to be kept at -420to be kept at -420oo F which isF which is rather difficultrather difficult  It depends on other energiesIt depends on other energies and really is rather useless asand really is rather useless as an energy source except foran energy source except for its increase of efficiencyits increase of efficiency (shh…)(shh…)
  19. 19. The EndThe End

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