HYDROGEN POWERED CARS
A FUEL FOR TODAY AND TOMORROW
DARSHAN M S
• What is hydrogen?
• What is a Hydrogen fuel cells?
• Working of a Hydrogen fuel cell.
• Problem regarding Hydrogen fuel cells.
• Hydrogen safety.
• Hydrogen storage.
• Advantages and Disadvantages.
What is Hydrogen?
Element 1 on the Periodic Table - 1 proton, 1 electron
Diatomic molecule (H2) - 2 protons, 2 electrons
Highest energy content of common fuels on a WEIGHT basis
Lowest energy content of common fuels on a VOLUME basis
Elemental hydrogen is abundant on earth, but usually bound to carbon or
Abundant throughout the universe (stars are primarily hydrogen)
BASIC HISTORY OF HYDROGEN
1820s – Rev. W. Cecil developed hydrogen-fueled engine.
1876 – Nicolaus Otto invented four-cylinder engine;
1885 – Gottleib Daimler invented modern ICE
1920s – first testing of the hydrogen ICE
Rudolf Erren used hydrogen ICEs in submarines and land
WHY HYDROGEN ?
It’s abundant, clean, efficient, and can be derived
from diverse domestic resources.
• Steam Electrolysis .
• Split water with heat, pressure, and electricity
• Split water with chemicals and heat
• Split water using sunlight directly, or using chemicals
• Split water using organisms
OTHER WAYS TO LIBERATE HYDROGEN
What is a hydrogen fuel cell?
•Hydrogen fuel cells (HFCs) are a type of
•HFCs generate electricity by reduction
and oxidation reactions within the cell.
•They use three main components, a
fuel, an oxidant and an electrolyte.
•HFCs operate like batteries, although
they require external fuel.
•HFCs are a thermodynamically open
•HFCs use hydrogen as a fuel, oxygen as
an oxidant, a proton exchange
membrane as an electrolyte, and emit
only water as waste.
Chemistry behind the technology
At the anode of the cell, a
catalyst (platinum powder)
is used to separate the
proton from the electron in
the hydrogen fuel.
2H2 4H+ + 4e-
Eo = 0.00V
At the cathode of the cell, a
second catalyst (nickel) is used to
recombine the protons,
electrons, and oxygen atoms to
Cathode half- reaction:
4H+ + O2 + 4e- 2H2O
Eo = 0.68V
In electrochemistry, the Eo
cell value (energy) of a fuel cell is equal to the Eo of
the cathode half-reaction minus the Eo of the anode half-reaction. For a
hydrogen fuel cell, the two half reactions are shown above. So to calculate the
energy of one fuel cell, we need to subtract the anode energy from the
cathode energy. For a HFC, the Eo
cell = 0.68V – 0.00V which equals 0.68V
Problems regarding Hydrogen fuel cells
•Lack of hydrogen infrastructure.
•Need for refueling stations.
•Lack of consumer distribution system.
•Cost of hydrogen fuel cells.
•2009 Department of Energy estimated $61/kw
•Honda FCX Clarity costs about half a million dollars to make.
Fuel leak simulation
Hydrogen on left
Gasoline on right
Equivalent energy release
Compressed gas storage
Line pack system
Under ground storage
Storage as metal hydride
THE HYDROGEN HIGHWAY
1. World’s first hydrogen refueling station opened in Iceland in
2. California & Florida have both approved funding.
3.In Norway, more number of partial fuel stations were placed .
1. It is readily available.
2. It doesn’t produce harmful emissions.
3. It is environmentally friendly.
4. It can be used as fuel in rockets.
5. It is fuel efficient.
6. It is renewable.
1. It is expensive .
2. It is difficult to store.
3. It is not easy to replace exiting infrastructure.
4. It is highly flammable.
5. Dependency of fossil fuels.
These are the designed cars for HFC- vehicals by various companies
Mercedes-benzroadster Mercedes-benz F-cell
Honda FCX Clarity
BMW i8 Green GT LMP H2
As estimation of use of crude oil state that the fossil fuel will
extinct till 2100 .
At present , In a setback for the government’s grand plan
to cut down the current account deficit (CAD), through
containing the outflow of dollars and saving around $8.47
billion on crude oil imports from Iran, the Persian Gulf
country has turned down India’s request for accepting full
rupee payment for oil imports.
Why India Should Think About Hydrogen
• Hydrogen fuel cells will dramatically
change our cars, and also homes,
businesses are powered and heated, and
it both positively and negatively change.
.places like the Middle East and third
world countries. They will also clean up
the world’s air.