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HYDROGEN POWERED CARS

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HYDROGEN POWERED CARS : A FUEL FOR TODAY AND TOMORROW.

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HYDROGEN POWERED CARS

  1. 1. HYDROGEN POWERED CARS A FUEL FOR TODAY AND TOMORROW DARSHAN M S 1SG12ME018 VIII SEM Mechanical Engineering
  2. 2. CONTENTS:- • What is hydrogen? • What is a Hydrogen fuel cells? • Working of a Hydrogen fuel cell. • Problem regarding Hydrogen fuel cells. • Hydrogen safety. • Hydrogen storage. • Advantages and Disadvantages.
  3. 3. What is Hydrogen?  Element 1 on the Periodic Table - 1 proton, 1 electron  Diatomic molecule (H2) - 2 protons, 2 electrons  Highest energy content of common fuels on a WEIGHT basis  Lowest energy content of common fuels on a VOLUME basis  Elemental hydrogen is abundant on earth, but usually bound to carbon or oxygen  Abundant throughout the universe (stars are primarily hydrogen)
  4. 4. BASIC HISTORY OF HYDROGEN  1820s – Rev. W. Cecil developed hydrogen-fueled engine.  1876 – Nicolaus Otto invented four-cylinder engine;  1885 – Gottleib Daimler invented modern ICE  1920s – first testing of the hydrogen ICE  Rudolf Erren used hydrogen ICEs in submarines and land vehicles
  5. 5. HIGH EFFICIENCY & RELIABILITY ZERO/NEAR ZERO EMISSIONS . Transportation Distributed Generation WHY HYDROGEN ? It’s abundant, clean, efficient, and can be derived from diverse domestic resources. Biomass Hydro Wind Solar Geothermal Coal Nuclear Natural Gas Oil WithCarbonSequestration
  6. 6. HYDROGEN SOURCES
  7. 7. • Steam Electrolysis . • Split water with heat, pressure, and electricity • Thermochemical. • Split water with chemicals and heat • Photoelectrochemical. • Split water using sunlight directly, or using chemicals and heat • Biological. • Split water using organisms OTHER WAYS TO LIBERATE HYDROGEN
  8. 8. What is a hydrogen fuel cell? •Hydrogen fuel cells (HFCs) are a type of electrochemical cell. •HFCs generate electricity by reduction and oxidation reactions within the cell. •They use three main components, a fuel, an oxidant and an electrolyte. •HFCs operate like batteries, although they require external fuel. •HFCs are a thermodynamically open system. •HFCs use hydrogen as a fuel, oxygen as an oxidant, a proton exchange membrane as an electrolyte, and emit only water as waste.
  9. 9. How a Hydrogen Fuel Cell Works
  10. 10. Chemistry behind the technology Oxidation At the anode of the cell, a catalyst (platinum powder) is used to separate the proton from the electron in the hydrogen fuel. Anode half-reaction: 2H2  4H+ + 4e- Eo = 0.00V Reduction At the cathode of the cell, a second catalyst (nickel) is used to recombine the protons, electrons, and oxygen atoms to form water. Cathode half- reaction: 4H+ + O2 + 4e-  2H2O Eo = 0.68V In electrochemistry, the Eo cell value (energy) of a fuel cell is equal to the Eo of the cathode half-reaction minus the Eo of the anode half-reaction. For a hydrogen fuel cell, the two half reactions are shown above. So to calculate the energy of one fuel cell, we need to subtract the anode energy from the cathode energy. For a HFC, the Eo cell = 0.68V – 0.00V which equals 0.68V
  11. 11. HYDRGEN CHASSIS OF THE FUTURE
  12. 12. STEPSFOLLOWEDTODESIGNHFCcars.
  13. 13. Problems regarding Hydrogen fuel cells •Lack of hydrogen infrastructure. •Need for refueling stations. •Lack of consumer distribution system. •Cost of hydrogen fuel cells. •2009 Department of Energy estimated $61/kw •Honda FCX Clarity costs about half a million dollars to make.
  14. 14. Fuel leak simulation Hydrogen on left Gasoline on right Equivalent energy release Hydrogen Safety
  15. 15. HYDROGEN STORAGE  Compressed gas storage  Liquid storage(cryogenic storage)  Line pack system  Under ground storage  Storage as metal hydride
  16. 16. THE HYDROGEN HIGHWAY 1. World’s first hydrogen refueling station opened in Iceland in 2003. 2. California & Florida have both approved funding. 3.In Norway, more number of partial fuel stations were placed .
  17. 17. ADVANTAGES 1. It is readily available. 2. It doesn’t produce harmful emissions. 3. It is environmentally friendly. 4. It can be used as fuel in rockets. 5. It is fuel efficient. 6. It is renewable.
  18. 18. DISADVANTAGES 1. It is expensive . 2. It is difficult to store. 3. It is not easy to replace exiting infrastructure. 4. It is highly flammable. 5. Dependency of fossil fuels.
  19. 19. These are the designed cars for HFC- vehicals by various companies Mercedes-benzroadster Mercedes-benz F-cell Honda FCX Clarity Toyota Mirai BMW i8 Green GT LMP H2
  20. 20. As estimation of use of crude oil state that the fossil fuel will extinct till 2100 . At present , In a setback for the government’s grand plan to cut down the current account deficit (CAD), through containing the outflow of dollars and saving around $8.47 billion on crude oil imports from Iran, the Persian Gulf country has turned down India’s request for accepting full rupee payment for oil imports. Why India Should Think About Hydrogen
  21. 21. CONCLUSION • Hydrogen fuel cells will dramatically change our cars, and also homes, businesses are powered and heated, and it both positively and negatively change. .places like the Middle East and third world countries. They will also clean up the world’s air.

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