Hydrogen fuel cells


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Hydrogen fuel cells

  1. 1. HYDROGEN FUEL CELL IN AUTOMOBILES Panchal Girish R. Mehta Het D. Panchal Vinay A. Dept. of Mechanical Engineering , K. J. Somaiya Polytechnic.
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION TO FUEL CELL A fuel cell is a device that converts the chemical energy from a fuel into electricity, water and heat through a chemical reaction with oxygen.  Fuel cells are different from batteries in that they require a constant source of fuel and oxygen/air to sustain the chemical reaction. Fuel cells can produce electricity continually for as long as these inputs are supplied.  The first fuel cells were invented in 1838. The first commercial use of fuel cells came more than a century later in NASA space programs. 
  3. 3. PARTS OF A FUEL CELL     Anode:  Negative post of the fuel cell.  Conducts the electrons that are freed from the hydrogen molecules so that they can be used in an external circuit.  Etched channels disperse hydrogen gas over the surface of catalyst. Cathode:  Positive post of the fuel cell  Etched channels distribute oxygen to the surface of the catalyst.  Conducts electrons back from the external circuit to the catalyst  Recombine with the hydrogen ions and oxygen to form water. Electrolyte:  Proton exchange membrane.  Specially treated material, only conducts positively charged ions.  Membrane blocks electrons. Catalyst:  Special material that facilitates reaction of oxygen and hydrogen  Usually platinum powder very thinly coated onto carbon paper or cloth.  Rough & porous maximizes surface area exposed to hydrogen or oxygen  The platinum-coated side of the catalyst faces the PEM.
  4. 4. HYDROGEN FUEL CELL It splits the H2 molecule into two H+ ions and two electrons (e-)  On the other side, oxygen gas is forced through the catalyst forms two oxygen atoms, each with a strong negative charge.  This attracts the H+ towards it.  The fusion results in, heat and electricity.  The end product is water vapors and electrons, that produce electricity.  Anode reaction: H2 = 2H+ + 2eCathode reaction: O2 + 2H+ = 2H2O
  5. 5. HYDROGEN FUEL CELL IN AUTO MOBILE  Heat and electrical energy is formed after the fusion of electrons. Therefore, electrical energy is used to drive the vehicle and we get water (H2O) as our exhaust. The heat energy converts water into water vapor and thus our exhaust from the vehicle is in the form of water vapor which ultimately has no effect to the environment.  Thus, no pollution is created using this technology.
  6. 6. SOMETHING TO KNOW  The 1966 GM Electrovan It is credited with being the first hydrogen fuel cell car ever produced. Though fuel cells have been around since the early 1800's, General Motors was the first to use a fuel cell to power the wheels of a vehicle.
  7. 7. TERMINOLOGY OF HYDROGEN FUEL CELL IN AUTOMOBILE  Fuel cells: A fuel cell is a device that converts the chemical energy into electrical energy, water and heat through chemical reactions.  Hydrogen tank: A cylinder tank used for storing hydrogen in a car.  Traction inverter module: The traction inverter module is used to convert supplied energy as efficiently as possible and make it available to the drive motors in a suitable way.  Turbo compressor: A dynamic-type compressor is used for the compression and injection of gases (oxygen).  Transaxle: An automotive part that combines the transmission and the differential and is used on vehicles with front-wheel drive.
  10. 10. COMPARISON Fuel cell System efficiency 24-32% Electric battery 26% Gasoline engine 20% Technology
  11. 11. HYDROGEN STORAGE TECHNOLOGIES  Physical storage •Compressed  Chemical of H2 storage of hydrogen •Sodium borohydride  New •Cryogenically liquefied •Alkali metal hydrides emerging methods •Amminex tablets •Solar Zinc production
  13. 13. COMPARISON BASED ON CALORIFIC VALUE:       For hydrogen: Higher calorific value: 141,790 kJ/kg Lower calorific value: 121,000 kJ/kg For petrol: Calorific value: 48,000 kJ/kg Heat generated from the hydrogen is more than that of petrol or other gasoline fuels as the calorific value of hydrogen is more. Thus, the power developed is more in vehicles running on hydrogen fuel cells.
  14. 14. FUTURE SCOPE      The technology should be made cost effective. Developing more safety features to the onboard hydrogen tank and also at refilling stations by making the use of ‘Autolocking of supply valves by using hydrogen detector.’ In this technique, if the hydrogen is leaked from the cylinder or supply line then hydrogen will be detected by the sensor provided to it by sensing the tlv (threshold limit value) of hydrogen. When the gas is detected, the supply valves from the hydrogen tank are closed. Thus, hydrogen gas leaking is thus avoided. The other technique is to splash the water where the hydrogen gas is leaked. But for this, there will be separate water storing facility required. Thus, hazards expected from hydrogen gas leaking are thus avoided
  15. 15. LIMITATIONS  For instance, you don't have a hydrogen pipeline coming to your house, and you can't pull up to a hydrogen pump at your local gas station.  Hydrogen is difficult to store and distribute, so it would be much more convenient if fuel cells could use fuels that are more readily available.  Technology is currently expensive.
  16. 16. CONCLUSION     Thus, it can be said that there will be a bright future if this hydrogen fuel cell is put up to use in all vehicles by properly considering the safety matter first. And if this eco-friendly technology is used, the rate of pollution is surely going to come down. It is not only eco-friendly but, also serves to be a great fuel source. Since the conventional sources of fuel may not prove to be sufficient, there arises a need to develop a new alternative source of energy. Although there are a few problems related with the storage of hydrogen gas, which might be overcome as the technology develops further. “Hydrogen holds the great promise to meet our future energy needs concerned with our environment.”
  17. 17. THANK YOU Hope we see a better future.