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Ppt on hydrogen fuel cell


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This is a ppt on the basis of hydrogen fuel cell. In this ppt , we will be know the different type of procedure to use make a fuel.

Published in: Engineering
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Ppt on hydrogen fuel cell

  2. 2. CONTENTS • History • Hydrogen Energy • Fuel Cell • Importance Of Fuel Cell Technology • Working Of Fuel Cell • Types Of Fuel Cell • Importance Of Hydrogen • Hydrogen Production • Applications • Benefits
  3. 3. HISTORY 1838: discovered by German scientist Christian Friedrich Schoenbein 1839: Demonstrated by Welsh scientist Sir William Robert Grove
  4. 4. Hydrogen Energy Hydrogen is the simplest and the most plentiful element in the universe. It's always combined with other elements. Hydrogen is high in energy, yet an engine that burns pure hydrogen produces almost no pollution.  NASA has used liquid hydrogen since the 1970s to propel the space shuttle and other rockets into orbit.
  5. 5. WHAT IS A FUEL CELL? A Fuel Cell is an electrochemical device that combines hydrogen and oxygen to produce electricity, with water and heat as its by-product. overall reaction: oxidation of a fuel by oxygen 2H2(g) + O2(g)  2H2O(l) (Hydrogen) Fuel + oxygen  water
  6. 6. WHY IS FUEL CELL TECHNOLOGY IMPORTANT? Since conversion of the fuel to energy takes place via an electrochemical process, not combustion. It is a clean, quiet and highly efficient process- two to three times more efficient than fuel burning.
  7. 7. How does a Fuel Cell work? It operates similarly to a battery, but it does not run down nor does it require recharging  As long as fuel is supplied, a Fuel Cell will produce both energy and heat
  8. 8. A Fuel Cell consists of two catalyst coated electrodes surrounding an electrolyte One electrode is an anode and the other is a cathode The process begins when Hydrogen molecules enter the anode The catalyst coating separates hydrogen’s negatively charged electrons from the positively charged protons
  9. 9.  The electrolyte allows the protons to pass through to the cathode, but not the electrons  Instead the electrons are directed through an external circuit which creates electrical current While the electrons pass through the external circuit, oxygen molecules pass through the cathode  There the oxygen and the protons combine with the electrons after they have passed through the external circuit
  10. 10. When the oxygen and the protons combine with the electrons it produces water and heat
  11. 11. TYPES OF FUEL CELLS Fuel Cell type Electrolyte Anode gas Cathode gas Temp oC Efficiency % Proton Ex Membrane (PEM) Solid polymer membrane Hydrogen Pure or Atm Oxygen 75 35 - 60 Alkaline (AFC) Potassium Hydroxide Hydrogen Pure Oxygen < 80 50 - 70 Direct Methanol ( DMFC) Solid polymer membrane Methanol solln in Water Atm Oxygen 75 35 - 40 Phosphoric Acid (PAFC) Phosphorus Hydrogen Atm Oxygen 210 35 - 50 Molten Carbonate (MCFC) Alkali Carbonate Hydrogen / Methane Atm Oxygen 650 40 - 55 Solid Oxide ( SOFC) Ceramic Oxides Hydrogen / Methane Atm Oxygen 800 - 1000 45 - 60
  12. 12. Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM)  This is the leading cell type for passenger car application Uses a polymer membrane as the electrolyte  Operates at a relatively low temperature, about 175 degrees  Sensitive to fuel impurities
  13. 13. Phosphoric Acid  This is the most commercially developed fuel cell  It generates electricity at more than 40% efficiency  Uses liquid phosphoric acid as the electrolyte and operates at about 450 degrees F  One main advantage is that it can use impure hydrogen as fuel
  14. 14. Solid Oxide  Uses a hard, non-porous ceramic compound as the electrolyte  Can reach 60% power generating efficiency  Operates at extremely high temperatures 1800 degrees  Used mainly for large, high powered applications such as industrial generating stations, mainly because it requires such high temperatures
  15. 15. Alkaline  Used mainly by military and space programs  Can reach 70% power generating efficiency, but considered to costly for transportation applications  Used on the Apollo spacecraft to provide electricity and drinking water  Uses a solution of potassium hydroxide in water as the electrolyte and operates at 75 -160 degrees  Can use a variety of non-precious metals as catalyst at the anode and cathode
  16. 16. Regenerative Fuel Cells  Currently researched by NASA  This type of fuel cell involves a closed loop form of power generation  Uses solar energy to separate water into hydrogen and oxygen  Hydrogen and oxygen are fed into the fuel cell generating electricity, heat and water  The water by product is then recirculated back to the solar-powered electrolyser beginning the process again
  17. 17. IMPORTANCE OF HYDROGEN Fuel Cells require highly purified hydrogen as a fuel Researchers are developing a wide range of technologies to produce hydrogen economically from a variety of resources in environmentally friendly ways
  18. 18. Hydrogen Production The biggest challenge regarding hydrogen production is the cost There are three general categories of Hydrogen production  Thermal Processes  Electrolyte Processes Photolytic Processes
  19. 19. Fuel Cell Technology Be Used  Transportation  Stationary Power Stations  Telecommunications  Micro Power
  20. 20. Benefits Of Fuel Cell Technology Physical Security  Reliability  Efficiency  Environmental Benefits  Battery Replacement/Alternative  Military Applications
  21. 21. Hydrogen - Today Production Storage Use Steam Reforming of Petroleum Cryogenic Liquid Space Programme
  22. 22. Hydrogen - Tomorrow Production Storage Use Bio-mass & Electrolysis Innovative Tank Designs Fuel for FUEL CELLS
  23. 23. Hydrogen Production For Future Photo- electrochemical Algal Production Solar powered Electrolysis