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Ch 8 11 appendicular skeleton muscle


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Ch 8 11 appendicular skeleton muscle

  1. 1. Skeletal muscle <ul><li>is striated. </li></ul><ul><li>is largely under voluntary control. </li></ul><ul><li>is primarily regulated by hormones from the endocrine system. </li></ul><ul><li>A and B are correct. </li></ul><ul><li>A, B and C are correct. </li></ul>10
  2. 2. Which of the following is true? <ul><li>The origin of a muscle on a limb is usually proximal to its insertion. </li></ul><ul><li>A muscle must cover the limb or other body part it moves. </li></ul><ul><li>Muscles crossing one joint have more complex actions than those crossing two joints. </li></ul><ul><li>1 and 2 are correct. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Antagonistic muscle groups <ul><li>contract together to perform a coordinated movement </li></ul><ul><li>are usually located on the same side of a limb </li></ul><ul><li>perform opposite functions (opposite limbs) </li></ul><ul><li>are usually circular muscles </li></ul>
  4. 4. The primary function of muscle is <ul><li>conversion of heat energy into mechanical energy. </li></ul><ul><li>conversion of heat energy into chemical energy. </li></ul><ul><li>conversion of mechanical energy into heat energy. </li></ul><ul><li>conversion of chemical energy into mechanical energy. </li></ul>10
  5. 5. Ch 8 Appendicular Skeleton <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Consists of the bones of the limbs and their girdles (attachments) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pectoral girdles attach upper limbs to axial skeleton </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pelvic girdle attach lower limbs to axial skeleton </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Upper and lower limbs Upper limbs Lower limbs Similarities - Differences
  7. 7. Pectoral (shoulder) girdle <ul><li>OVERALL Function: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>provide attachment points for muscles that move the upper limbs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to attach the upper limbs to the axial skeleton in a manner that allows for maximum movement </li></ul></ul>Clavicle (anterior) Scapula (posterior) Function brace that holds scapula and arms to provide mobility for upper limbs Location attach to sternum (breastbone) anterior part of thorax DOES NOT join vertebrae posteriorly. muscles attach them to thoracic cage and vetebral column
  8. 8. Clavicle (collarbone) <ul><li>Fractured Clavicle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A fall on an outstretched arm (F.O.O.S.H.) injury can lead to a fractured clavicle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The clavicle is weakest at the junction of the two curves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forces are generated through the upper limb to the trunk during a fall </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Therefore, most breaks occur approximately in the middle of the clavicle </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Scapulae (Shoulder Blades) Type of joint Ball and socket. Synovial diarthroses Acromion articulates with clavicle Glenoid cavity shallow depression. Joint between scapula and humerus is shallow to allow for mobility Coracoid process &fossa sites of attachment for tendons and ligaments of shoulder muscles
  10. 10. Glenohumeral (Shoulder) Joint <ul><li>Flexibility vs stability </li></ul>
  11. 11. Stability of Shoulder joint
  12. 12. Rotator cuff muscles <ul><li>Extend from scapula posterior to shoulder joint to attach to the humerus </li></ul><ul><li>Supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor, subscapularis </li></ul><ul><li>Encircle the joint & fuse with articular capsule </li></ul><ul><li>Hold head of humerus in socket </li></ul>
  13. 13. Upper Limb- Humerus (upper arm) <ul><li>longest and largest bone of upper limb </li></ul><ul><li>articulates with </li></ul><ul><ul><li>proximal end: scapula (head of humerous with glenoid cavity of scapula) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>distal end: ulna and radius at elbow joint </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Moving the Forearm (elbow) <ul><li>Flexors: biceps brachii, brachialis, and brachioradialis </li></ul><ul><li>Extensors: triceps brachii, anconeus. </li></ul><ul><li>Pronators: pronator teres and pronator quadratus. </li></ul><ul><li>Spinator: supinator </li></ul>
  15. 15. Bones of the Forearm <ul><li>Ulna (pinky side) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>medial aspect of forearm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>longer than radius </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Radius (thumb side) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>lateral aspect of forearm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>proximal end has disc shaped head </li></ul></ul><ul><li>articulate with each other at 3 sites </li></ul>
  16. 16.
  17. 17. The Hand <ul><li>carpals (wrist) </li></ul><ul><li>metacarpals (palms) </li></ul><ul><li>phalanges (fingers) </li></ul><ul><li>What is carpal tunnel syndrome? </li></ul>
  18. 18. Special Movements of hands & fingers Figure 8.6e <ul><li>Supination - palm turned anteriorly (upward) </li></ul><ul><li>Pronation - palm turned posteriorly (downward) </li></ul><ul><li>Opposition - movement of thumb in which the thumb moves across palm to touch tips of fingers on same hand, eg allows us to pick up things, pincer grip. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Some news articles <ul><li>Double arm transplant </li></ul><ul><ul><li>News article </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Body Integrity Identity Diso rder </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Which of the following is true? <ul><li>Muscles pull on bones </li></ul><ul><li>Muscles push on bones. </li></ul><ul><li>The end of the muscle attached to the bone that moves least is the insertion of that muscle. </li></ul><ul><li>The end of the muscle attached to the bone that moves most is the origin of the muscle. </li></ul>10
  21. 21. Skeletal muscles <ul><li>may be contracted to maintain a static position </li></ul><ul><li>move materials through the body (smooth muscles) </li></ul><ul><li>are mainly unilateral </li></ul><ul><li>1 and 2 are correct </li></ul>10
  22. 22. The pectoral girdle <ul><li>includes the scapula. </li></ul><ul><li>includes the clavicle. </li></ul><ul><li>attaches the lower extremity to the trunk </li></ul><ul><li>A and B are correct </li></ul>
  23. 23. Which part of the scapula articulates with the humerus? <ul><li>glenoid cavity </li></ul><ul><li>acromium </li></ul><ul><li>Spine </li></ul><ul><li>coracoid process </li></ul><ul><li>medial border </li></ul>
  24. 24. Skeleton of the Lower Limb <ul><li>Two separate regions </li></ul><ul><li>A single pelvic girdle (2 bones) </li></ul><ul><li>The free part (30 bones) </li></ul><ul><li>Why are the lower limb bones larger and stronger than the upper limb bones? </li></ul>Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
  25. 25. Pelvic Girdle (Hip) <ul><li>Function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attaches the lower limbs to axial skeleton with the strongest ligaments of the body </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transmits weight of the upper body to the lower limbs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supports the visceral organs of the pelvis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Structure : pair of hip bones, sacrum and pubic symphysis </li></ul>How does the acetabulum compare with glenoid cavity?
  26. 26. Hip (coxal) Bone <ul><li>Consists of 3 bones which fused during adult hood (ilium, pubic bone, ischium) </li></ul>
  27. 27. True and False Pelves <ul><li>True pelvis - the bony pelvis inferior to the pelvic brim, has an inlet, an outlet and a cavity </li></ul><ul><li>Pelvic axis - path of baby during birth </li></ul>Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. a line from the sacral promontory to the upper part of the pubic symphysis <ul><li>False pelvis - lies above pelvic brim </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contains no pelvic organs except urinary bladder (when full) and uterus during pregnancy </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>Structural differences are mainly due to adaptation needed for childbirth </li></ul><ul><li>Female pelvis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tilted forward, adapted for childbearing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More space in true pelvis, which defines birth canal, more space in female to accommodate passage of infant’s head at birth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cavity of the true pelvis is broad, shallow, and has greater capacity </li></ul></ul>Male and Female Pelvic Structure
  29. 29. Male and Female Pelvic Structure Characteristic Female Male General structure Light and thin Heavy and thick Pubic arch >90 degree <90 degree Pelvic brim Larger and more oval Smaller and heart shaped Coccyx More moveable and more curved anteriorly Less moveable and less curved anteriorly Pelvic outlet Wider Narrower Ischial tuberosity Shorter, farther apart, more medially projecting Longer, closer together, more laterally projecting
  30. 30. Muscles of Pelvic Floor (Pelvic Diaphragm) <ul><li>Levator ani (two paired muscles) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pubococcygeus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Iliococcygeus </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Close the inferior outlet of the pelvis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Support the pelvic floor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Elevate the pelvic floor to help release feces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resist increased intra-abdominal pressure </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Muscles of the Pelvic Floor: Pelvic Diaphragm
  32. 32. Cardiac muscle <ul><li>contraction is dependent on stimulation by the nervous system. </li></ul><ul><li>is striated. </li></ul><ul><li>is unaffected by hormones. </li></ul><ul><li>is found in the walls of blood vessels and in the heart. </li></ul><ul><li>is largely under voluntary control. </li></ul>10
  33. 33. Smooth muscle (found in blood vessels, gut) <ul><li>is regulated by the nervous system and hormones. (hollow organs, long tube) </li></ul><ul><li>is located in the coverings of solid organs. </li></ul><ul><li>is largely under voluntary control. </li></ul><ul><li>is striated. </li></ul>10
  34. 34. Which type of muscle tissue has a pacemake r to allow the tissue to beat automatically? <ul><li>Skeletal </li></ul><ul><li>Cardiac </li></ul><ul><li>Smooth </li></ul><ul><li>Striated </li></ul>10
  35. 35. Why is smooth muscle called “ smooth ”? <ul><li>it has striations in parallel rows </li></ul><ul><li>it is found in the smooth walls of the hollow internal structures </li></ul><ul><li>it is involuntarily controlled </li></ul><ul><li>it has no striations [reason why it looks smooth] (skeletal – striated, smooth – non striated) </li></ul>10
  36. 36. Describe the functions of muscle tissue (general) 1) produce body movements (sk) 2) stabilize body positions (sk) 3) store and move substances within the body (sk) 4) produce heat (sk smooth) 5) provide communication among cells of the body (nerves) <ul><li>1, 2, 3, 4, 5 </li></ul><ul><li>1, 2 </li></ul><ul><li>1, 2, 3 </li></ul><ul><li>1, 2, 3, 4 </li></ul>10
  37. 37. Which of the choices listed below are characteristics of skeletal muscle ? 1) the function of most of these muscles is to move bones 2) skeletal muscle is striated with alternating light and dark bands 3) skeletal muscle can be consciously controlled 4) most skeletal muscles can be subconsciously controlled 5) skeletal (right: SMOOTH not skeletal)muscles are found in the walls of the hollow organs <ul><li>1, 2, 3, 4 </li></ul><ul><li>1, 2, 3 </li></ul><ul><li>1, 2, 3, 4, 5 </li></ul><ul><li>2, 4, 5 </li></ul>10
  38. 38. What is the structural and functional classification for a knee joint? <ul><li>fibrous – synarthrosis </li></ul><ul><li>cartilaginous – synarthrosis </li></ul><ul><li>synovial – amphiarthrosis </li></ul><ul><li>synovial – diarthrosis </li></ul>
  39. 39. The Lower Limb <ul><li>3 segments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Femur ( Thigh) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Patella (knee) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tibia & fibula ( Leg) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Foot </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>carry the weight of the erect body, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are subjected to exceptional forces when one jumps or runs </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. Femur <ul><li>Longest, heaviest, and strongest bone in body </li></ul><ul><li>Articulations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Proximal: head articulates with acetabulum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distal: the medial and lateral condyles articulate with the condyles of the tibia forming the knee joint. Also articulates with patella </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Neck - distal to head, common site of fracture </li></ul>
  41. 41. Response to Mechanical Stress <ul><li>The upside of having a big backside </li></ul>Figure 6.13
  42. 42. Muscles Crossing the Hip Joint <ul><li>The ball-and-socket hip joint permits flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, circumduction, and rotation </li></ul><ul><li>The muscles for these movements are most powerful </li></ul><ul><li>Movement of thigh at the hip joint is by muscles anchored to the pelvic girdle – the iliopsoas, tensor fasciae latae and rectus femoris </li></ul><ul><li>Iliopsoas are the iliacus and psoas major </li></ul><ul><li>Quadriceps femoris has 4 heads </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rectus femoris crosses hip </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All insert into quadricep tendon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>all act to extend the knee </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Adductor muscles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>bring legs together </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cross hip joint medially </li></ul></ul>
  43. 43. Thigh extension <ul><li>Hamstring muscles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>semimembranosus (medial) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>semitendinosus (medial) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>biceps femoris (lateral) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>extend hip & flex knee </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pulled hamstring </li></ul><ul><ul><li>tear of origin of muscles from pelvis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gluteus muscles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>maximus extends hip </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>medius & minimus abduct </li></ul></ul>
  44. 44. Knee bone (patella) <ul><li>Function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protect knee (patellofemoral) joint </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>maintains position of tendon when knee is flexed (bent) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>increases leverage of tendon of quadriceps femoris muscle </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Structure: Largest sesamoid bone in the body </li></ul><ul><li>Patellofemoral stress syndrome - “runner’s knee” </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>When knee flexes and extends, patella glides up & down in groove between 2 femoral condyles
  45. 45. Tibia and Fibula <ul><li>Tibia (shin bone) </li></ul><ul><li>Structure : larger, medial bone </li></ul><ul><li>Function : to bear weight of body </li></ul><ul><li>Articulations : femur and fibula (proximally) and fibula & talus (ankle) distally </li></ul><ul><li>Fibula </li></ul><ul><li>Structure: lateral, smaller bone </li></ul><ul><li>Function : does not bear weight but stabililzes ankle joint </li></ul><ul><li>Articulations : Tibia (proximally) and talus distally </li></ul>
  46. 46. Knee (tibiofemoral) Joint <ul><li>Most complex joint in the body!! </li></ul><ul><li>Between femur, tibia and patella </li></ul><ul><li>Flexion, extension, and slight rotation of tibia on femur when knee is flexed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Articular capsule – weak and incomplete at sides and posteriorly but strengthened by tendons and fibular and tibial collateral ligaments which stabilize and strengthen </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Many bursa - Vulnerable joint </li></ul><ul><li>Knee injuries damage ligaments & tendons since bones do not fit together well </li></ul>
  47. 47. Knee injuries <ul><li>Knee cannot withstand lateral force </li></ul><ul><li>What structures are torn? </li></ul>
  48. 48. Knee Lateral & medial menisci: Help compensate for irregular shape of bonesfibrocartilage articular discs. Medial meniscus - C-shaped fibrocartilage Lateral meniscus - nearly circular. Deepen joint to prevent side to side movement Posterior cruciate ligament- x shaped with ACL Anterior cruciate ligament - secures bones
  49. 49. Foot <ul><li>Tarsus (ankle): Talus - only bone that articulates with fibula and tibia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Calcaneuos (heel bone) - largest and strongest tarsal bone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>During walking, talus transmits 50% body’s weight to calcaneuos ( Other 50% divided amongst other tarsal bones) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Metatarsus (foot): first one is thicker because it bears more weight </li></ul><ul><li>Phalanges (toes) </li></ul><ul><li>Function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supports body weight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Acts as a lever to propel the body forward in walking and running </li></ul></ul>
  50. 50. Arches of the Foot <ul><li>Maintained by interlocking foot bones, tendons and strong ligaments </li></ul><ul><li>Functions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allow the foot to hold up weight, ie the arches flex when body weight applied </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distributes weight to heel and ball of foot, ie provide spring and leverage to the foot when walking </li></ul></ul>
  51. 51. <ul><li>Various leg muscles produce the following movements at the: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ankle – dorsiflexion and plantar flexion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intertarsal joints – inversion and eversion of the foot </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Toes – flexion and extension </li></ul></ul>
  52. 52. Special movement of the feet <ul><li>Inversion : movement of soles medially so they face each other </li></ul><ul><li>Eversion : movement of soles laterally so they face away from each other </li></ul><ul><li>Plantar flexion : bending foot an ankle in direction of downward/inferior (plantar) surface, eg standing on tiptoes. </li></ul><ul><li>Dorsiflexion : bending of foot at ankle in an upward direction (direction of dorsum (superior surface)), eg stand on your heels </li></ul>