What is Anatomy?
Anatomy is the study of the body
Its structure (what its made up of)
Its function (how it all works)
Knowledge of human anatomy allows us to
have a better understanding of how our body
works at rest and during exercise and allows
us to apply this knowledge to our sporting
There are many different systems in your
body e.g. Digestive system or reproductive
During this topic we will look at 5 of them
The Skeletal System
Is the foundation on which the body
The skeleton is made up from 206 individual
bones that when put together create our
shape and form the base for which other
tissues, organs and muscles attach to.
Functions of Bones
Bones provide a framework
that supports the body and
cradles the soft organs
Spine supports the head and
Provides protection for the
vital organs in the body
Cranium protects the brain,
ribs support lungs and heart
Skeletal muscles, which
are attached to bones
by tendons, use the
bones as levers to move
the body and its parts
Bones move because of
joints and muscles
e.g. Elbow joint is
moved by biceps and
Bone serves as a
reservoir for minerals
Calcium and potassium
The bulk of blood cell
formation occurs within
the bone marrow.
Red and white blood cells
are formed in the bones.
Bones come in many shapes and sizes. The
unique shape of each bone allows it to
perform its different function.
Bones are classified by their shape as follows;
Are longer than the are wide e.g. Humerus, femur.
They provide movement
Are small cube shaped bones e.g. Carpals and
Tarsals. Allows small and fine movements
Are thin, flat and sometimes curved bones e.g.
Bones in the cranium. They provide protection.
Are bones that fit into none of the other
categories are considered irregular e.g. Vertebrae
or pelvis. Allows for fine movement.
The word skeleton comes from a Greek word
meaning ‘dried up body’ or ‘mummy’
The skeleton is made up of 206 bones and can be
divided into two skeletons:
The Axial Skeleton
This is the bones that form the central column of the
body e.g cranium, vertebral column and rib cage
The Appendicular Skeleton
This is the bones of the upper and lower limbs and the
shoulder and hip girdles the attach limbs to the axial
The Anatomical Position
It is important that when discussing parts of
the body; movement that happens;
positioning of internal organs, bones and
muscles that you apply the standardized
This means that there is a standard way of
describing where one body part is in relation
another regardless of what position the body
4 Key Features of the
Palms are facing forward
Thumbs point away from the body
Standing up straight
Terms of Reference
When standing in the anatomical position
you can refer to body parts, bones or organs
in relation to each other by using the
different terms of reference.
Usually we would say that ‘the ears are
located of each side of the head to the right
and left of the nose’. Using anatomical terms
of reference it would translate to ‘the ears are
lateral to the nose’
Complete Terms of Reference worksheet
Joints and Movement
Where two bones meet they form a Joint
Movement can only happen where there is a
joint. The amount of movement that happens at
a joint is determined by what type of joint it is.
There are 3 types of joints;
Fibrous – immoveable, provide protection e.g. Skull
Cartilaginous – slightly moveable, shock absorption
e.g. Vertebrae, ribs
Synovial – freely moveable, provides support and
stability e.g. Shoulder, knee
Two key types of synovial joints are the
HINGE joint and the BALL AND SOCKET
Hinge joints allow for movement in one
Ball and Socket joints allow for movement in
Movements of Synovial Joints
Synovial joints are the freely moveable joints
we are only focusing on two of them – hinge
and ball and socket.
The movements that occur at these joints
depends on the type of joint it is.
Is a bending action that
decreases the angle of the
joint and brings the bones
involved closer together.
Arm - Bending at the elbow
Hip – raising the thigh
towards the trunk
Knee – bending at the knee
Shoulder – moving the arm
Is a straightening action
that increases the angle of
Arm – straightening the
Hip – moving the leg
backward (or lowering the
Knee – straightening the
Shoulder – moving the arm
Moving a limb or part of a
limb away from the
midline of the body
Moving arms and legs out
wards when you do a star
Moving a limb or part of a
limb towards the midline of
Bring arms and legs back
together when doing a star
Movement of the hand into
a palm up position
Remember supination as in
a soup bowl.
Movement of the hand into
a palm down position
The opposite of supination
Pulling the toes up towards
Toes come up like a dorsal
fin on a dolphin
Pointing toes downwards
Planting your foot on the
Summary of Notes so far
Skeleton consists of 206 bones
Skeleton has 5 functions:
When describing body parts we always refer to them how they
are when in the Anatomical Position
Movement can only happen where there is a JOINT
The type of joint determines what kind of movement happens
Two key synovial joints are the HINGE and the BALL AND
Flexion, Extension, Abduction, Adduction, Pronation, Supination,
Plantarflexion and Dorsiflexion are all ways of describing the
movement that is taking place at a joint.
Functions of the Muscular
Circulation of Blood
Posture and support
Are muscles we have control over and choose
when to use e.g. Biceps or Quadriceps
Are muscles that we do not have control over and
do not decide when to use them e.g. heart
Types of Muscles
There are 3 types of muscles in your body
Smooth Muscle – Involuntary
Found in arteries, intestines and organs. The
contractions of these muscle fibres are slow and
Cardiac Muscle – Involuntary
Only occurs in the Heart
Skeletal Muscle - Voluntary
Attached directly to the bone via tendons
Contraction and Extension
Works in pairs
Skeletal muscles make up over 1/3 of your body’s
mass – over 650 muscles
Muscles are attached to the skeleton by tendons
Muscles work in pairs to produce movement with
one muscle contracting and one muscle relaxing.
Muscles can only pull – they can’t push.
The contracting muscle is the agonist or prime
mover, the relaxing muscle is the antagonist.
Skeletal muscles lie over joints in the body. When
a muscle contracts (shortens) the bones that the
muscle are attached to are pulled in the direction
of the contraction.
In the picture the biceps muscle is
contracting (agonist). This muscle
lies over the elbow joint. When the
bicep contracts it shortens and pulls
the bones in the lower arm up in the
same direction, causing flexion of the
arm at the elbow
Shoulder abduction, flexion and extension
Shoulder adduction and flexion
Shoulder adduction and extension
Trunk flexion and rotation
Hip abduction and extension
Knee flexion and hip extension
Knee extension and hip flexion
What does the Nervous System
The nervous system is the master controlling
and communicating system in your body
It is responsible for all behaviour, every
thought, action and emotion.
Cells of the nervous system communicate by
means of electrical signals which are rapid
and specific and create a response.
Functions of the Nervous
Sensory Input – your body has millions of
sensory receptors that monitor change both
in and outside of the body and collect
Integration – it processes and interprets all of
the information and makes decisions about
what to do about it.
Motor Output – creates a response in either
muscles or organs in response to changes
Nervous System in Action
When you are driving in your car and see a
red light (sensory input), your nervous system
integrates this information (red light means
‘stop’) and sends a message to the muscles in
your leg and foot to contract and relax to
move the foot onto the brake (motor output).
There are (basically) three different body
types that we’ve found in human beings.
•Typically have smaller bone structure.
•They are usually very lean.
•Have difficulty putting on lots of muscle.
•Are usually very strong
•The fashion model body type.
•Famous Ectomorphs include:
Smooth, round body
Medium to large bones and joints
High fat content
Gains muscle quickly
Loses weight slowly
Medium sized joints
Gains muscle easily
Loses fat easily
Responds quickly to exercise
Famous Mesomorphs include:
Find your body type
Go to the following website:
Take the quiz and find out what your body
Research what exercises you should do for
your body type.
Gym day tomorrow.
Bring your PROPER gym clothes. No gym
clothes, no exercise.
Role Play Videos due on Wednesday. Make
sure they are finished!