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Activity 4 - Appendicular Skeleton

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Appendicular Skeleton

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Activity 4 - Appendicular Skeleton

  1. 1. Activity 4: Appendicular Skeleton Chapter 8 – Human Anatomy (4e) textbook Objectives: • Identify the bones and bone markings from the upper limb and pectoral girdle. • Identify the bones and bone markings from the lower limb and pelvic girdle. 1 Compilation: Kathryn Watson & Claudia Gonzales Last Revision: Mohammad Tomaraei
  2. 2. Appendicular Skeleton • 2 pairs of limbs, and 2 girdles • Pectoral (shoulder) girdle attaches upper limbs to axial skeleton, consisting of • Clavicle (2) • Scapula (2) • Pelvic (hip) girdle secures lower limbs to axial skeleton, and is made of • Os Coxa (hip bone) (2) 2
  3. 3. Appendicular Skeleton • 3-Segmented limbs • Upper limb = arm • Arm • Forearm • Wrist & Hand • Lower limb = leg • Thigh & Knee • Leg • Foot 3
  4. 4. Appendicular Skeleton – Helpful Terms 4
  5. 5. Pectoral Girdle - Clavicle • S-shaped, long bone; connects manubrium of sternum to acromion of scapula • Sternal end (medial): • Pyramid shaped • Articulates with clavicular notch of manubrium on sternum • Acromial end (lateral): • Broad and flattened • Articulates with acromion of scapula • Conoid tubercle: • Cone-shaped, round projection • Near the acromial end • Located inferiorly and posteriorly (down and back) 5
  6. 6. Pectoral Girdle - Clavicle 6 Orientation: Sternal end goes medially, conoid tubercle faces inferiorly, posteriorly
  7. 7. Pectoral Girdle - Scapula • Broad, flat, triangular bone; forms the “shoulder blade” 7 • Superior border • Suprascapular notch: adjacent to superior border • Medial (vertebral) border • Lateral (axillary) border • Superior angle • Inferior angle • Spine: posterior ridge of bone • Acromion: posterior process continuous to spine
  8. 8. Pectoral Girdle - Scapula 8 • Coracoid process: smaller anterior projection • Supraspinous fossa: depression superior to spine • Infraspinous fossa: depression inferior to spine • Subscapular fossa: anterior surface of scapula • Glenoid cavity (fossa): articulates with humerus • Supraglenoid tubercle: superior to glenoid cavity • Infraglenoid tubercle: inferior to glenoid cavity
  9. 9. Pectoral Girdle - Scapula 9 Orientation: Spine is located posteriorly, acromial process points laterally
  10. 10. Upper limb – Arm – Humerus • Long bone; runs from the shoulder to the elbow; connects scapula and the two bones of the lower arm, radius and ulna • Head (of humerus): medial, articulates with glenoid cavity • Greater tubercle: more prominent • Lesser tubercle: smaller of tubercles • Intertubercular sulcus/groove: runs between two tubercles • Anatomical neck: between tubercles and head • Surgical neck: a common fracture site • Deltoid tuberosity: attachment site for deltoid muscle (lateral) • Coronoid fossa: articulates with coronoid process of ulna 10
  11. 11. Upper limb – Arm – Humerus • Olecranon fossa: articulates with olecranon process of ulna • Radial fossa: articulates with head of radius • Medial epicondyle • Lateral epicondyle • Trochlea: articulates with trochlear notch of ulna; medial • Capitulum: articulates with head of radius; lateral • Radial groove: radial nerve and vessels travel through it (posterior) 11
  12. 12. Upper Limb – Arm – Humerus 12 Orientation: Head of humerus faces medially (into the body), olecranon fossa faces posteriorly
  13. 13. Upper Limb – Forearm – Ulna • Longer than radius, medially located • Olecranon (process): articulates with olecranon process of humerus • Styloid process (of ulna): medial • Coronoid process (of ulna): articulates with coronoid fossa of humerus – remember coroNoid because it’s on ulNa • Trochlear notch: articulates with trochlea of the humerus • Radial notch of ulna: articulates with head of radius • Head of ulna: located distally/inferiorly, next to styloid process 13
  14. 14. Upper Limb – Forearm – Radius • Shorter than ulna, laterally located • Head (of radius) • Neck (of radius) • Radial tuberosity: attachment site for biceps brachii muscle • Ulnar notch: articulates with head (distal) of ulna • Styloid process (of radius): lateral 14
  15. 15. Upper Limb – Forearm – Radius and Ulna 15 Radius orientation: Radial tuberosity faces anteriorly; styloid process of radius is positioned laterally Ulna orientation: Trochlear notch faces anteriorly; the styloid process of ulna is positioned medially
  16. 16. Upper Limb – Wrist & Hand – Carpal Bones (8) • Bones between radius and ulna, and the metacarpals; form the wrist; connect hand to forearm • Proximal row (lateral to medial): • Scaphoid bone • Lunate bone • Triquetrum bone • Pisiform bone • Distal row (lateral to medial): • Trapezium bone • Trapezoid bone • Capitate bone • Hamate bone 16
  17. 17. Upper Limb – Wrist & Hand – Carpal Bones (8) Mnemonics to remember the carpal bones: • Some Lovers Try Positions They Can’t Handle (lateral  medial both rows) Scaphoid Lunate Triquetrum Pisiform Trapzeium Trapezoid Capitate Hamate • So Long To Pinky, Here Comes The Thumb (lateral to medial proximal row, medial to lateral distal row) Scaphoid Lunate Triquetrum Pisiform Hamate Capitate Trapezoid Trapezium 17
  18. 18. Upper Limb – Wrist & Hand • Metacarpals (1 through 5) • Phalanges (1 through 5) • Proximal phalanx (1 through 5) • Middle phalanx (2 through 5) • Distal phalanx ( 1 through 5) • Note: all the phalanges consist of proximal, middle, and distal phalanges, except the pollex which lacks a middle phalanx 18
  19. 19. Upper Limb – Wrist & Hand 19
  20. 20. Upper Limb – Wrist & Hand 20
  21. 21. Pelvic Girdle – Os Coxa (2) • Composed of fused ilium, ischium, and pubis bones • Acetabulum: articulates with head of femur • Obturator foramen: obturator nerve and blood vessels pass through this foramen 21
  22. 22. Pelvic Girdle – Os Coxa (2) – Ilium • Iliac crest • Anterior superior iliac spine • Anterior inferior iliac spine • Posterior superior iliac spine • Posterior inferior iliac spine • Greater sciatic notch: passageway to sciatic nerve • Iliac fossa • Auricular surface (of ilium): articulates with sacrum 22
  23. 23. Pelvic Girdle – Os Coxa (2) – Ischium • Body (of ischium) • Ischial spine • Lesser sciatic notch • Ramus (of ischium) or ischial ramus • Ischial tuberosity 23
  24. 24. Pelvic Girdle – Os Coxa (2) – Pubis • Body (of pubis) • Pubic tubercle • Pubic crest • Superior pubic ramus • Inferior pubic ramus 24
  25. 25. Pelvic Girdle – Os Coxa (2) 25 Orientation: Pubis faces anteriorly and medially, ischium faces posteriorly and medially (or you can try to hold it next to your head like a telephone; if it fits it’s from that side!)
  26. 26. Pelvic Girdle – Os Coxa (2) 26 Orientation: Pubis faces anteriorly and medially, ischium faces posteriorly and medially (or you can use the telephone method!)
  27. 27. Lower Limb – Thigh & Knee – Femur • Longest bone of the body; connects to the hip joint and knee joint • Head (of femur): articulates with acetabulum of os coxa • Fovea • Neck (of femur) • Greater trochanter • Lesser trochanter • Intertrochanteric crest: connects trochanters • Shaft (of femur) • Gluteal tuberosity: attachment site of gluteus maximus muscle 27
  28. 28. Lower Limb – Thigh & Knee – Femur • Linea aspera: posterior; attachment site for muscles • Medial condyle (of femur) • Medial epicondyle (of femur) • Adductor tubercle: attachment site for adductor magnus muscle • Lateral condyle (of femur) • Lateral epicondyle (of femur) • Intercondylar fossa: separates condyles 28
  29. 29. Lower Limb – Thigh & Knee – Patella • Also known as the kneecap • Circular-triangular bone which articulates with femur • Covers and protects the anterior articular surface of knee joint • Largest sesamoid bone in the body 29
  30. 30. Lower Limb – Thigh & Knee – Femur & Patella 30 Orientation: Head of femur faces medially; intercondylar fossa is situated posteriorly
  31. 31. Lower Limb – Leg & Foot – Tibia • Also known as the shinbone; the larger and stronger of the two long bones of leg (tibia and fibula) • Medial condyle (of tibia) • Lateral condyle (of tibia) • Intercondylar eminence • Tibial tuberosity • Medial malleolus • Anterior border (crest) 31
  32. 32. Lower Limb – Leg & Foot – Fibula • Also known as the calf bone; the smaller and more slender of the two long bones of leg (tibia and fibula) • Head (of fibula) • Neck (of fibula) • Lateral malleolus 32
  33. 33. Lower Limb – Leg & Foot – Tibia & Fibula 33 Tibia orientation: Tibial tuberosity faces anteriorly, medial malleolus medially
  34. 34. How to tell if it’s a left or right fibula? 34 • Make sure you’re looking at a fibula! • On its lateral aspect, and near the distal end, find a diagonal rough line, just above the lateral malleolus. • Following the direction of this line upwards tells you if it’s a left or right fibula. • Here, our diagonal line goes to left so it’s a left fibula. Source: http://slipstreamborne.tumblr.com/
  35. 35. Lower Limb – Leg & Foot – Tarsal Bones (7) • A cluster of seven articulating bones situated between the lower end of tibia and fibula, and the metatarsal bones • Talus bone • Calcaneus bone • Navicular bone • Medial cuneiform bone • Intermediate cuneiform bone • Lateral cuneiform bone • Cuboid bone 35
  36. 36. Lower Limb – Leg & Foot – Tarsal Bones (7) Mnemonics to remember the tarsal bones: • The Circus Needs More Interesting Little Clowns Talus – Calcaneus – Navicular – Medial cuneiform – Intermediate Cuneiform – Lateral Cuneiform – Cuboid 36
  37. 37. Lower Limb – Leg & Foot – Metatarsal Bones & Phalanges • Metatarsal bones (1 through 5) • Phalanges (1 through 5) • Proximal phalanx (1 through 5) • Middle phalanx (2 through 5) • Distal phalanx ( 1 through 5) • Note: all the phalanges consist of proximal, middle, and distal phalanges, except the hallux which lacks a middle phalanx 37
  38. 38. Lower Limb - Foot 38

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